The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters Novel Fingersmith

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Dr. Siti Norma Nasution, M.S Mahmud A. Albar, S.S, M.A. Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara Medan in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from Department of English.



MEDAN 2015

Approved by the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara (USU) Medan as thesis for The Sarjana Sastra Examination.

Head, Secretary,


Accepted by the Board of Examiners in parial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from the Department of English, Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara, Medan.

The examination is held in Department of English Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara on October 9th, 2015.

Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara

Dr. H. Syahron Lubis, MA NIP : 19511013 197603 1 001 Board of Examiners :

Dr. MuhizarMuchtar, M.S ...

RahmadsyahRangkuti, M.A. Ph.D. ...

Dr. Martha Pardede, M.S ...




Signed :




TITLE OF THESIS : The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters Novel Fingersmith




Signed :



First of all, I would like to give my biggest gratitude praise and honor to

Almighty God, Jesus Christ for blessings and endowments in my life especially during

the process of finishing this thesis. Nothing is impossible happen without His power, I

believe He always in my side and enlighten my way.

I am also grateful to The Dean of faculty of culture studies, University of

Sumatera Utara, Dr. H. Syahron Lubis M. A. The Chief of English Department Dr. H

Muhizar Huchtar, M, S and the secretary of English Department Radmadsyah Rangkuti,

M. A. for their advice and encouragement during my study in this faculty and also

thanks to Dra. Siti Norma as my academic supervisor who always give me support,

share times and suggestions in doing this thesis. Then, I would like to thank my

co-supervisor Mahmud SS, M. A who helps me to read and check& re-check this thesis. I

also express my sincere gratitude to all of my lecturers for their valuable knowledge,

guidance, and advance during my study.

In this opportunity, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my lovely

father Jason Lumban Raja who always gives me motivation, material, prayer and spirit

to life. Get well soon dad, I already miss you. God leads your life dad and hopefully you

can attend my graduation ceremony in the next month. I would like thank to my

adorable oldest sister Rinawaty Lusiana, my brother in-law Fricles Alexander and of

course not forget my lovely nieces Stevany& Ivana and my nephew Chistjansen. I would

like to thank my second adorable sister Estaviana Merlinda also my one and only

adorable brother Seven Adinata M. Kom. Thank you for your kindness cares and

supports. I love you all. I would like to thank Hana nababan, Fitri pandiangan, my vice

parent Mr. & Mrs. Napitupulu, my beloved little brother Michael Wiggles (mekel),

Junifer and all of my friends in the Bethel Church for you prayers. God Bless you all.

Great thanks also go to my incredible friends Nia Tumorang (Niplo), Ruth Marta


making my day more colorful and my friends in the campus, Anna Simbolon, Rinova,

Nova, Aida, Donna, Cristine, Febby, Rinnah and for the whole my friend whose not

mention in this thesis I do give thanks for you all. Thanks for being such nice friends

and supporting me. Let’s keep our friendship forever. Saranghaeo ~

Finally, I dedicate this thesis to my beloved mother, Alm. Ruslan Sihotang. I’m

so sad that you can’t see my graduation next month. This is for you, mother. You know

how much I love you and I really miss you. I believe that God has good plans for all of

your children.

I realize that this thesis is still far from being perfect. I was trying my best to

complete this thesis by having knowledge from my academic study. Therefore, advice,

constructive criticism and suggestions aimed for this thesis will be warmly welcome and

highly appreciated.

Medan, October 9th, 2015

The Writer,

Evcis Soniamiar L.R



Skripsi ini berjudul “The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters Novel: Fingersmith”. Skripsi ini membahas tentang gambaran kehidupan lesbian dan penyebab-penyebab terjadinya lesbianisme yang terdapat dalam novel Fingersmith yang di tulis oleh Sarah Waters. Skripsi ini menganalisis masalah lesbian dan kelainan seksual dari pasangan lesbian dilihat hanya dari penggambaran pengarang tentang perilaku tokoh di dalam novel ini.Teori yang digunakan dalam pengerjaan skripsi ini adalah teori sosiologi sastraoleh Warren dan Wellek dan teori feminisne dari Rosmarie Tong. Dengan menggunakan metodologi kualitatif deskriptif dan teori dari Warren dan Wellek, Davis dan Soekanto, dapat diketahui bagaimana gambaran kehidupan lesbian yang merupakan tokoh utama dalam novel ini. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menyampaikan himbauan bagi masyarakat untuk hidup saling mengasihi serta untuk tidak mencintai sesamajenis di dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat.



This thesis entitled “The Life of lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters’ Novel Fingersmith”. This thesis explains about the life of lesbian and the causes of lesbianism which found in the novel Fingersmith by Sarah Waters. Analyzing the problems of lesbian and their sexual disorder are only seen from the author’s portray in the character in this novel. The theories applied in this thesis are theory of literature by Warren and Wellek and feminism theory from Rosemarie Tong. By using descriptive qualitative by Davis and Soekanto can be seen how are the depiction of lesbian lives as the main character in this novel. This study is expected to the awareness society to love others and do not love the same sex in public live.












1.1 Background of the Study 4

1.2 Problem of the Study 4

1.3 Objective of the Study 4

1.4 Scope of the Study 4

1.5 Significance of the Study 5


2.1 Sociology of Literature 6

2.2 Postmodernism 8

(12) Radical Feminism 12

2.2.2 Lesbianism 14 The factors causing Lesbian 18 Abnormal Sexuality 20


3.1 Research Design 22

3.2 Data Collection 23

3.3 Data Analysis 24


4.1 The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters’ Novel

Fingersmith 25

4.2 The Factors Caused the Character Become a Lesbian Portrayed

in Sarah Waters’ Novel Fingersmith 33


5.1 Conclusion 42

5.2 Suggestion 43



i.Author’s Biography



Skripsi ini berjudul “The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters Novel: Fingersmith”. Skripsi ini membahas tentang gambaran kehidupan lesbian dan penyebab-penyebab terjadinya lesbianisme yang terdapat dalam novel Fingersmith yang di tulis oleh Sarah Waters. Skripsi ini menganalisis masalah lesbian dan kelainan seksual dari pasangan lesbian dilihat hanya dari penggambaran pengarang tentang perilaku tokoh di dalam novel ini.Teori yang digunakan dalam pengerjaan skripsi ini adalah teori sosiologi sastraoleh Warren dan Wellek dan teori feminisne dari Rosmarie Tong. Dengan menggunakan metodologi kualitatif deskriptif dan teori dari Warren dan Wellek, Davis dan Soekanto, dapat diketahui bagaimana gambaran kehidupan lesbian yang merupakan tokoh utama dalam novel ini. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menyampaikan himbauan bagi masyarakat untuk hidup saling mengasihi serta untuk tidak mencintai sesamajenis di dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat.



This thesis entitled “The Life of lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters’ Novel Fingersmith”. This thesis explains about the life of lesbian and the causes of lesbianism which found in the novel Fingersmith by Sarah Waters. Analyzing the problems of lesbian and their sexual disorder are only seen from the author’s portray in the character in this novel. The theories applied in this thesis are theory of literature by Warren and Wellek and feminism theory from Rosemarie Tong. By using descriptive qualitative by Davis and Soekanto can be seen how are the depiction of lesbian lives as the main character in this novel. This study is expected to the awareness society to love others and do not love the same sex in public live.



1.1 Background of The Study

There are many ways to express ideas and choices as well as the human’s lives in

society. Every person will has her story to be told. Each story she has will show her

identity. There are many things can make us depressed, confused or tired. That is why we

need something to entertain our life. We need someone to share our story with or some

stories to read where both of which can be found in literature. Literature can be a colour

of one imagination in an attempt to make sense of someone’s life. It is one of the

universal and great creations in term of communicating emotion, spirit or intellect which

concern of mankind. The basic material of literature is experience. Through literature,

many authors try to express their ideas about what they have ever experienced in their

lives or what is happening around them and the lives of people in their society. Literature

helps people to grow, both personally and intellectually as it provides an objective base

of knowledge and understanding.

Literature has been widely known and used by many people all around the world.

The term literature refers more closely to imaginative works. It also has a direct relation


factual event. Literature itself has been traditionally classified into three genres; prose,

poetry, and drama. Each genre still has subgenres and one of the subgenres of prose is

novel. In Mastering English Literature, Richard Gill states that a novel is a world

specially made in words by the author (1985:77). Peck and Coyle state that novels

present a documentary picture of life.

Alongside the fact that novels reflect the people in society, the other major

characteristic of the genre is that novels tell a story. Most novelist focus on the tension

between individuals and the society they live in. They also tell and describe the social

life and society. Novel is process story telling with a great amount of detail on every

page, and usually reveals human values (Peek and Coyle, 1986:102).

Basically, novels can portray the reality of daily life, hence they can be used as a

document to study issues in society. The novelists themselves might have inherited a

recording of reality that haveimpressed them which later expanded it to a literary work

of art.

In relation to the focus, the phenomenon of lesbianism has become a major

subject in today’s society ever since it rose up in the nineteenth century becausebefore

that period, lesbianism is a taboo thing. There are some definitions about lesbians

females. In another definition, some authors give explanation about lesbian. Simon

Salomon (1971:29) states “Lesbian is a female of homosexual or a female who


Zimmerman (1853:453) explains “The term lesbian is also used to express sexual

identity or sexual behavior regardless of sexual orientation, or as an adjective to

characterized or associate nouns with female or same sex attraction.”

Fingersmithis one of novels that discuss about lesbianism. Fingersmithis a

fiction novel written by Sarah Waters. This novel was published in 2002. It is a kind of

Victorian-inspired crime fiction novel, which mostly takes place in London in 19th

Century. Actually, the meaning offingersmith is a petty thief. The word “fingersmith”

may also refer to someone who has mastered a skill involving the use of fingers. This

novel tells about two women from different world who are brought together by hard

life and forbidden desires in this period-drama.

In the novel Fingersmith, Waters wants to show how the lesbian exists in that

era. Literature identifies lesbians in such different ways, many authoresses have taken

great license with their description of women who are suspected of having sexual

interest in other women. The power of literature is to define and describe the common

terms and ideas in society. It can keep groups of people invisible.

Lesbians may face a distinct physical or mental health arising from

discrimination, prejudice, and minority stress. Political conditions and social attitudes

also affect the formation of lesbian relationships and the families.It is a new topic in

literature and reality. Through this topic we can find out the reason why lesbianism

happens and how it grows in society. This topic isanalyzed under postmodernism and


1.2 Problems of the Study

There are several problems to discuss in this novel which are summarized into

two main problems. They are:

1. How is the life of lesbian portrayed in Sarah Waters’ novel Fingersmith?

2. What are factorsthat cause the character to become lesbian in Sarah

Waters’ novel Fingersmith?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this thesis are tofind out the answers of the questions dealing

with the problems of the study by giving interpretation and analysis of lesbianism

towards Sarah Waters’ novel Fingersmith, they are:

1. To describe and analyze the lesbian life in Sarah Waters’ novel Fingersmith.

2. To explain the factors that causethe character to become lesbian in Sarah

Waters’ novel Fingersmith.

1.4 Scope of the Study

In doing this analysis, this thesis needs a scope of study to limit the field which is

going to be analyzed in order to avoid excessive discussion. Thus, this thesis focuses on

exposing the lesbianism found in Sarah Waters’ novel Fingersmithand how is implied in


1.5 Significances of the Study

Every literary work has significance in it for it contains the messages that the

authors try to express. This thesis provides the significance of the analysis, they are:

1. For writer

Expected to general information that can be used as references for

developing literature and additional knowledge for English Department

University of Sumatera Utara

2. For readers

To get information about the life of lesbian and the factors that cause the

characters in becoming a lesbian. Through this thesis, the writer hopes

that young generation or the readers be more aware about environment,

family with whom they are associated.

3. For further research

This research is expected to increase knowledge about lesbianism for




In doing an analysis, it is important to review theories that are related with

the subject of discussion to support the study.

2.1 Sociology of Literature

Sociology of literature is derived from two kinds of knowledge that are related to

each other: sociology and literature. Rene Wellek and Austin Warren in their book

entitled Theory of Literature (1977) gives explanations about the definition of literature,

and its relation to sociology. Wellek (1977:89) said that literature is a social institution,

using as its medium language, a social creation. It “imitates” “life”; and “life” is, in large

measure, a social reality, even though the natural world andthe inner or subjective world

of the individual have also beenobjects of literary "imitation."In practice, literature can

obviously take the place of many things—of travel or sojourn in foreign lands, of direct

experience, vicarious life; and it can be used by the historian as a social document. Much

the most common approach to the relations of literature and society is the study of works

of literature as social documents, as assumed pictures of social reality. Used as a social

document, literature can be made to yield the outlines of social history (Wellek


Elizabeth Burns and Tom Burns in their book entitled Sociology of literature and


relations to literary works such as novel. This is a compilation of several experts’

journals who explain the relationshipof literaturetosociologywhichmeansdealingwiththe

society. Burns (1973:9) says, “Literature is an attempt to make sense of our lives.

Sociology is an attempt to make sense of the ways in which we live our lives.” Lenvin in

Burns (1973:31) says, “Literature is not only the effect of social causes but also the

cause of social effects. Burns also said that sociology is a critical activity which its

purpose is to achieve an understanding of social behavior and social institutions which is

different from that current among the people through whose conduct the institutions


Novel is one of many ways to share the ideas, opinion, or feeling through literary

work. Taine in Burns (1973:66) said that the novel as ‘a kind of portable mirror which

can be conveyed everywhere, and which is most convenient for reflecting all aspects of

nature and life.’ This statement can be accepted because it is true that novel can be taken

anywhere and shared to everyone. It contains and also portrays all aspects of nature and

life, such as society in a certain time as Reeve in Wellek (1977:223) says, “The Novel is

a picture of real life and manners, and of the time which is written.”

Novel has a close relationship to society and also history. Novels often represent

the era or period when they are written. Zeraffa in Burns (1973:35) said that novel

derive more closely from social phenomena than do those of other arts…; novels often

seem bound up with particular moments in the history of society. He also added that that

the novel is directly concerned with the nature of our situation in history, and with the


affirms, essentially, that there was no society without history, nor history without

society. The novel is the first art to represent man explicitly as defined historically and

socially (Zeraffa in Burns 1977:38-39).

James in Burns (1977:36) said that the novelist analyses the data of social life,

interpret them, and tries to determine their essential features in order to transmit them in

writing. Zeraffa in Burns (1977:45) said that the novel has for long had rules and laws

which emerged from the history of society itself, since novelists wished to show that

society was both cause and consequence of human nature.

2.2 Postmodernism

Postmodernism is a rejection of totality, of the notion that planning could be

comprehensive widely applied regardless of context, and rational. In this sense,

postmodernism is a rejection of its predecessor: modernism. Postmodernist ideas in

the entire Western value system such as

with the term


Postmodernism has also been used interchangeably with the term

post-structuralism out of which postmodernism grew, a proper understanding of

postmodernism or doing justice to the postmodernist thought demands an understanding

of the poststructuralist movement and the ideas of its advocates. Postmodernist describes

part of a movement; Postmodern places it in the period of time since the 1950s, making

it a part of

In this study, another theory was used to support this assumption. Feminism

movement be born under the auspices of postmodernism. Feminism theory was one of

movement that rejected about woman oppression from wickedness of men which

rejection by others but this movement believes that it works.

2.2.1 Feminism

Feminism consists of ideas and beliefs about what culture is like for women just

because they are women, compared to what the world is like for men just because they

are men. However, feminism is actually a transformation movement and not a

movement to seek revenge towards the male. It can be said that feminism is a process

that aims to create a better relationship between both genders to improve and better the

society (Nugroho, 2008:61). It is the women’s movement for political and social

freedom that began in the nineteenth century; firstly gaining strength in the protest for

the right to vote also known as the first wave of feminism. It was reborn in 1960’s

and1970’s in the women’s movement for sexual equality which is the second wave.


A study analysis about lesbian state that throughout history men have oppressed

women, as they have not had the same employment opportunities, educational

opportunities, or even the right to vote. Indeed women have been treated like

second-class citizens, and still are in many countries where the ideologies of feminism are not

generally accepted. Dorothy Smith a linguistic feminist quotes that, “women have been

largely excluded from the work of producing forms of thought and the images and

symbols thought which are expressed and realized, and feminist would state

unequivocally that has been no accident” (Smith, 1961:167). Feminism assumes that

such treatment of gender inequality is actually a cultural factor and they are possible to

be changed. Feminism looks and works towards activism in groups, to make personal

and social change towards that more desirable culture. The changes achieved in activism

can be different depends on the groups. The most changes achieved are about having

equal treatment of men and women, equal respects in any roles desired by men and

women, fighting against unfairness, discrimination or oppression of women, respects to

women of different races, classes, age group, and experiences and so on.

Besides being a cultural movement, feminism is also one of the leading literary

theories to the study of literary analysis that focuses on women's issues. Feminist literary

criticism is expected to bring new perceptions and expectations in literary analysis.

Feminist criticism focuses on reading as a woman. The term does not refer to a

biological female but more to the approach and ideology. It is reading from women’s

perspective at the same time putting their selves in the minds of the women, feeling their

struggles and approaching a move from that point. Awareness of the role of gender and


But a person’s view in literary works is still being differentiated, especially in

describing women and men’s character in the literary work. Sometimes the description

is not equal and it is still influenced by patriarchal view and gender discrimination.

Feminist criticism might seem only to be concerned with

demonstrating that literature is sexist in the portrayal of women, or with showing how

texts reveal the injustices of a male society where women are regarded as inferior. (Peck

& Coyle, 1984: 152).

Feminist theory was blown up to deconstruct the opposition of men or women

and the oppositions connected with it in the history of western culture. To understand

literature properly, requires a broad knowledge of the social culture and history. Similar

to those expressed by other literary critics that the analysis of literary works cannot be

separated from the social and cultural context in which it was originally created.

In a general sense, feminism is an ideology that drives women to reject

patriarchal culture that have marginalized, subordinated, and degraded the position of

women in the political, economic, and social life. Feminism grew as a movement and an

approach that tries to change the existing structure because it has been regarded to cause

inequality towards the female gender (Nugroho, 2008:62). There are many flow of

feminism that have evolved with the modern culture, such as liberal feminism, radical

feminism, Marxist and socialist feminism, multicultural feminism, existentialist

feminism, postmodern feminism and so on. In this novel, Sarah Waters have included

(26) Radical Feminism

Radical feminist theory centered on the biological aspect. They argue that gender

inequality resulting from biological differences between men and women themselves.

The point is that women feel exploitation by men in matters of biological

women-owned, for example, is the role of pregnancy and motherhood is always played by

women. Therefore, radical feminists often attack the institutions of family and patriarchy

system which they consider is the source of oppression. They regard these institutions

are one of the institutions that gave birth to male-dominated system that oppressed

women. "Patriarchy is not only historically become structures of domination and

submission, but he continues to be the most powerful system of inequality and durable,

which is the basic model of domination in society" (Ritzer and Goodman, 2013: 506).

The members of radical feminism avoid the institution of marriage. They have a

goal to be achieved that is to end the tyranny of the biological family. If the institution of

marriage cannot be avoiding that they made the technology to reduce the oppression of

women is to make contraception and in vitro fertilization. By using IVF women do not

have to experience pregnancy as usual and can perform usual activities. Radical

feminism tends to hate men. In fact, they assume women can live independently without

the presence of men. Radical feminism seeks ways to defeat this patriarchal system.

They believe that by knowing the weaknesses of women and overcome it, and then the

patriarchal system can be defeated. The main way to reveal the radical feminism is a


practice and believes that women emotional indicating the part of resistant to patriarchal

domination” (Ritzer and Goodman, 2013: 508).

Sexual relation between man and woman is considered as a kind of enslavement

toward woman. That relation must cause difference of roles and classes in society.

Radical feminism followers can be such a model in fair and equal life. Besides

proposing lesbianism, feminists also propose being single parent and divorce. This

feminism movement spreads out until Indonesia. This movement is applied through

electronic media, printed media, and spreading propaganda about feminism. Nowadays,

there are many magazines which are purposed only to women.(Agustina,2005:56)

Achieving equal rights for women was the paramount goal of these reformers,

and the fundamental tenets of liberal political philosophy were a comfortable fit for

these reformers. Unlike reformist feminists, who joined fundamentally main- stream

women’s rights groups, these revolutionary feminists did not become interested in

women’s issues as a result of working for government agencies, being appointed to

commissions on the status of women, or joining women’s educational or professional


Dubbed “radical feminists,” these revolutionary feminists introduced into

feminist thought the practice of consciousness-raising. Women came together in small

groups and shared their personal experiences as women with each other. They

discovered that their individual experiences were not unique to them but widely shared


According to Valerie Bryson, consciousness-raising showed how the trauma of a

woman who had been raped or who had had to resort to an illegal abortion seemed to be

linked to the experiences of the wife whose husband refused to do his share of

housework, appeared never to have heard of the female orgasm or sulked if she went out

for the evening; the secretary whose boss insisted that she wear short skirts, expected her

to “be nice” to important clients or failed to acknowledge that she was effectively

running his office; and the female student whose teachers expected less of the “girls,”

refused requests to study female writers or even traded grades for sexual favours (V

Bryson, 1999:20).

Empowered by the realization that women’s fates were profoundly linked,

radical feminists proclaimed that the personal is political and that all women are sisters.

They insisted that men’s control of women’s sexual and reproductive lives and women’s

self-identity, self-respect, and self-esteem is the most fundamental of all the oppressions

human beings visit on each other.

But just because radical feminists agreed in principle that sexism is the first,

most widespread, or deepest form of human oppression did not mean they also agreed

about the nature and function of this pernicious or the best way to eliminate it. Lesbianism

Lesbianism is known by Sappho who lived on the island of Lesbos in the 6th

century BC. She is a figure who fought for the rights of women, she has so many


which talking about love. According to Sappho, the beauty of women is impossible to

separate from sexual aspect. Therefore, sexual satisfaction may also be obtained from

other women (Lewiston in Soekanto, 2004: 103). “Saat

inisiapasajayanglahirdipulauitunamabelakangnyaakan diikutikatalesbian, namuntidak

semua orangyangmemakainama tersebutadalahlesbian.Merekameneruskan kebiasaan

tersebutuntukmenghormati leluhursebelumnyadan agarkebiasaanitu tidakhilang oleh

waktukarenasemakinzaman terusberkembang orang-orangpun

lebihmengenalistilahlesbiansebagailesbian”. (In this time, anyone born on the island

would last name followed by the word lesbian, but not everyone who wears the name is

lesbian. They continue these habits prior to honor ancestors and that the habit was not

lost by the time the days continue to grow as more people were more familiar with the

term lesbian as lesbian).

In Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a lesbian is a woman who loves to feel

sexual stimulation or lesbian; female homosexual ". (KBBI second edition,

1995)“lesbian adalah wanita yang mencintai atau merasakan rangsangan seksual

sesama jenisnya; wanita homoseks”.Lesbian is a term for women who directs the

women's choice of sexual orientation or also called the women who love women

physically, sexually, emotionally, or spiritually. Lesbians are women who lovingly.

(Agustina, 2005: 18). In general, progress to homosexuality, occurs in girls adolescence.

Its development is usually a mere one stage of sexual development actually. Furthermore


Lesbianism can be caused by both mental and physical reasons. Many a times a

person develops lesbian traits at the early childhood itself. Certain physical conditions

back lesbian mentality. Lesbianism is no more concerned a mental disorder but it is

proved that lesbianism is more a mental orientation than a physical disorientation.

Psychology says that a great number of lesbians have developed homosexual desires as a

regression to the earlier stages of development.If a girl experiences the company of other

girl or girl more than that with a boy, she may possibly become a lesbian. On the other

hand, if a girl, by whatever reasons, happened to hate a boy or boys, she may become a

lesbian. In fact, lesbianism can be derived from uncommon attachment to a girl or from

hatred to boys. The physical reasons include sexual disabilities of different kinds.In

general, the development of homosexuality did not last too long and become sedentary

pattern, then this event has led to abnormalities. At such events, also on a more serious

incident, should one ask for medical advice and spiritual guidance in a psychiatrist or

psychologist. So lesbian is healthy mentally / psychologically, they just have a different

sexual orientation. But of course the psychological health of lesbians is strongly

influenced by social life. The term lesbian was influenced by the pressure in the

recognition or acceptance of her identity. Pressure can come from themselves, their

families, communities, workplaces and society. That's why many lesbians who feel

pressured psychologically because of their sexual orientation. There are feeling of

shyness, insecure, feeling guilty, feeling insignificant, feel different, and others.

One of the factors that cause lesbian loveis a painful and inhumane treatment

from the man which is resulting psychological trauma continuously to the women. As


sexual violence from men and not at all appreciated its existence, resulting in them no

longer believe in the men and when confronted with the environment in which there are

individuals who are also instilling hatred against men, then the feeling of kinship that

causes feelings of two women more closely.

A symptom of lesbianism is partly because women are concerned too easily

saturated with hetero sexual relation, for example, a husband or male lover, a lesbian

who has never had an orgasm. Another cause is a traumatic experience for a man or

husband is cruel, causing deep resentment and antipathy against every man. Then he

prefers to perform sex relations and life have sex with someone other women. Lesbian

women assume a heterosexual relationship can not make him happy, his sexual

relationships with other women regarded as compensation for the sense of unhappiness.

Generally, a lesbian regard that her love is very deep and more powerful than

heterosexual love. Even though, the relation of lesbian and sexual satisfaction is

foundunreasonable. Usually, lesbian love is also more severe than homosexual love

escorted men. Today lesbian more or less want to be recognized. Socially, they are also

not limited in enclosed spaces that are not widely known by the community alone, but

this time they hang out in public places to simply unaccounted for by the public. They

(lesbians) have dared to do things that can seize the attention of the general public, in

places they normally eat casually holding hands, hugging, and be spoiled each other like

a pair of men and women that in fact they go round a pair of women. According to

Maccoby, the differences in behavior for women and men actually arise not because of


People who become lesbians do not always have strong characteristics that

distinguish them from people who are not lesbian. Characteristics that often arise as to

position themselves as a man, her appearance is very masculine, masculine hobby,

possessive, showing interest in women, having specific characteristics which become a

deal for others. Instead characteristics that act as lesbian feminism, usually looks stiff,

high dependence on partner, not independent, often anxious, keep a distance with a

woman other than their partner, sentimental, and act normal in men. But this is not an

absolute characteristic, or does not always appear.

2.3.1 The Factors Causing Lesbian

Many theories have been put forward continues to be extracted and re-examined

because of a lot of criticism that followed, but the cause is uncertainly well known. This

is due to the uniqueness of life for human and reciprocal relationship with the

background, and environment and social development. But in general people reviewing

the causes of some facets of life, among others, is (Tan, 2005: 56-60).

A. The Relations of Family and Economy Condition

A family should be the community where the children get the accepted about

their selves. All the situations in family influence their life, like their psychology and

personal. In the other hand how they grow up influenced based on how their family is.

Based on this assumption, we find some the psychology disorder in our society which

caused by the rejection and accepted situation and relation in family. They are like the


andtheir children whichis not harmonious or problematic and also, mothers who are too

dominant in family relationships thereby minimize, the rejection of the mother toward

her presence e.g. denial of a mother for a child born out of wedlock and also the

in-harmonious between father and son also often considered to be the cause of children

becomes homosexual and lesbian. (Tan, 2005: 58)

Social status and economy condition cannot separate from the family relations.

The economic problem makes some people looking for many ways to get money. They

do thieve, plunder and sometimes prostitute their body to get everything they want.

B. Violence

Some people say that sexual harassment and violence experienced by women in

childhood will cause the child to become a lesbian at the time adult. (Tan, 2005:63). But

the results of research which conducted by Lauman in Chicago shows that people have

experienced sexual violence and then being gay is only 7.4% and3.1% of women

become lesbians ( Lauman, 1999:122).

C. Environmental Influences

The old notion that is often say "a person's character can be recognized from

whom his friends" or environmental influences that may adversely affect a person to

behave like those in which it is located. Human lives in many environments such as

neighborhood, campus and office if they were work that can affect their personality


romantic friendship between women. It means that some woman too easy to become

bored in a heterosexual relationship with a man or their husband or boyfriend, and she

never felt happiness (Kartono, 2009: 250). A romantic friendship makes them feel

comfort only with woman. The second factor caused lesbianism is the women only

interact with people who have same sex with her. This situation caused them afraid try

to speak and make relationship with man. Woman who become lesbianism have

different lifestyle. Some lesbian not act over in their society indeed their appearance

seemed simple and mediocre but others who come from upper class seemed glamour.

Another factor of environmental influences which caused lesbianism is a bad love story

from friends or called trauma. (Tan, 2005: 71)

The theory of human needs for affiliation come from Maslow who state that

every people in this world still need others to express their feeling and feel comfort as

long as their lives. People who have a need for affiliation prefer to spent time creating

and maintaining social relationships, enjoy being a part of groups, and have a desire to

feel love and accepted. People in this group tend to adhere to the norms of the culture in

that work place and typically do not change the norms of the work place for fear of

rejection. This person favors collaboration over competition and does not like situation

with high risk or high uncertainty. People who had a need for affiliation work well in

areas base on social interaction like customer service or client interaction positions.


2.3.2 Abnormal Sexuality

Sexuality is a complex interplay of multiple facets, including anatomical,

physiological, psychological, developmental, cultural, and relational factors. All of these

contribute to an individual’s sexuality in varying degrees at any point in time as well as

developing and changing throughout the life cycle.

Sexual problems are common in both women and men and can occur at any age.

Sexual dysfunction is a term used to describe difficulties in libido (sex drive), arousal,

orgasm, or pain with sex that are bothersome to an individual. Sexual dysfunction may

be a lifelong problem or acquired later in life after a period of having no difficulties with

sex. Women are most likely to be satisfied with their sex lives if they are physically and

psychologically healthy and have a good relationship with their partner. Although a host

of changes in hormones, blood vessels, the brain, and vaginal area can affect a woman's

sexuality, relationship difficulties and poor physical or psychological well-being are the

most common causes of sexual problems. (Richard Halgin, 2011:213)

Gender identity, orientation, and intention form sexual identity, whereas desire,

arousal, and orgasm are components of sexual function. The interplay of the first six

components contributes to the emotional satisfaction of the experience. In addition to the

multiple factors involved in sexuality, there is the added complexity of the

corresponding sexuality of the partner. The expression of a person’s sexuality is


Sexual desire disorders are under-recognized, under-treated disorders leading to

a great deal of morbidity in relationships. A thorough history and physical examination

are critical to properly diagnosis and determine the causative agent(s). With appropriate

treatment, improvement can be made but continued research in sexual dysfunction is

critical in the sensitive yet ubiquitous area. By becoming more familiar with prevalence,

etiology, and treatment of sexual desire disorders, physicians hopefully will become

more comfortable with the topic so that they can adequately address patients’ sexual




3.1 Research Design

In doing this thesis, the writer applies the descriptive qualitative method. Bodgan

and Blinken (2007:4) state qualitative research is descriptive and data collected in the

form word or picture rather than number. This method attempts to understand and

interpret the meaning of an event interaction of human behavior in certain situation

according to the writers’ perspectives. Qualitative research is subjective, open,

contextual and rational. Besides the descriptive qualitative method, the library research

method is also applied to support the validity of the data. Nawawi (1993:30) says

“Penelitian kepustakaan dilakukan dengan cara menghimpun data dari berbagai

literatur baik dari perpustakaan maupun tempat tempat lain.” (Library research is done

by collecting data from books in the library or any other places). All the information

about this thesis is also collected from internet, dictionary, and any other sources.The

resource data of this research is the novel Fingersmith, written by Sarah Waters. This

novel was published in 2002 by Riverhead Books consist of 582 pages. The data of this

research is words, phrase, sentence which indicate the social condition of lesbians

through the main characters.

After collecting the necessary data, the data is interpreted and analyzed by

applying qualitative methods psychological approach. By doing so, the final step is to


Design' is a depiction of the structure of the planning and execution of this study in order

to facilitate researchers to undertake a study in accordance with the correct sequence.

These steps are described as the chart below:

Internet Book



Socio. Lit Postmodernism






Sociological Approach




3.2 Data Collection

The primary source of the data is the novel itself, and the data is the sentences in

novel, but not all the sentences are considered as data. Before analyzing the data, the

first step which should be done is determining which sentences that would become the

data. After collecting all the data which have been found in the novel, the next step is

selecting the most significance data which are related to the analysis to make the

analysis clear.

In other hand, the analysis of this thesis focuses on the main character Susan

Trinder who has a sexual deviation. The writer also collects data from other books such

as the extrinsic approach as the one of approaches in analyzing literary works, and the

descriptive method. Besides taking data from books, this thesis also gets several other

resources as references related to the topic being analyzed.

3.3 Data Analysis

After collecting and selecting all the data, then the next step is starting to analyze

all those selected data to prove what are being written in the objective of this thesis and

finally the writer can draw the conclusion for this thesis. In analyzing all the data which

support this research, the descriptive method is applied. Descriptive research is used to

describe the main data from the novel. Those main data are given in a quotation form to




In social life, there are so many problems which cause something that

occurs in our daily life or daily activity. One of them is interaction. God makes

people in couples, man and woman, to make a good communication, and then they

build a happy family after they get married, but in fact, some people do something

which is considered unnatural. A number of people from the same sex have a love

relationship called female homosexual or lesbian. Lesbian’s love story which is

portrayed in Sarah Waters’ novel Fingersmithdoes not only focus on the romantic

love but also focuses on the complicated life and complex problems of life in that

era. Two women from different worlds are brought together by strange circumstances

and forbidden desires in this period-drama. It's a thriller and also a love story that

contains a sexy, passionate and startling one. The writer hesitates to call it lesbian,

because that seems to marginalize it far more than it deserves. Suffice it to say that, it is

erotic and unnerving in all the right ways. The problems that happen in this novel are

commonly caused by social indication such as social status, violence and romantic

friendship so what are told in this novel is related to lesbianism.

The various meanings of lesbian since the early 20th century have prompted

some historians to revisit historic relationships between women before the wide usage of


question of what is qualified as a lesbian relationship. As lesbian-feminists assert, a

sexual component was unnecessary in declaring oneself as a lesbian if the primary and

closest relationships are with women. If we consider past relationships within

appropriate historic context, there are opportunities in which love and sex are separated

and unrelated notions. In 1989, an academic group named the Lesbian History Group


Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high degree of certainty is expected before historians or biographers are allowed to use the label. Evidence that would suffice in any other situation is inadequate here... A woman who never married, who lived with another woman, whose friends were mostly women, or who moved in known lesbian or mixed gay circles, may well have been a lesbian. ... But this sort of evidence is not 'proof'. What our critics want is incontrovertible evidence of sexual activity between women. This is almost impossible to find. (Koedth on BBC News,1999:34)

Lesbianism’s symptom can happen because the involved women are fed up with their

hetero sex relationship, such as their husbands or boyfriends. A lesbian cannot

experience orgasm. Other causal factor is traumatic of mean husbands or boyfriends

that cause hatred and antipathy toward every man. She then prefers being with other

woman. A lesbian assumes that relationship with man gives no happiness to her; she

takes her relation with other women as compensation of her unhappiness.

Lesbianism in literature which has been existed since the 14th century can be

found in any poetries. In London, lesbianism-thematic poetries are written by Sappho

who were banned and vanished by the government. After a few centuries, the writers


poetries with the same theme. This thesis discusses about Lesbianism which is derived

from a novel by Sarah Waters.

4.1 The Life of Lesbian Portrayed in Sarah Waters’ Novel Fingersmith

The main character in Fingersmith, Susan Trinder is an example of lesbian.

Female homosexual experienced by this character is not genetic but come from other

factor. Susan Trinder who is called as Sue, experiences hard life among thieves that

makes her a skilled thief. Due to her quick and skilled hand, she is called Fingersmith.

Sue lives with her two brothers who are taken under her adopted mother. The bitter

experience felt by Sue makes her strong in facing the reality. Since she is a kid, her

mother has created her as money machine. She does everything to get money that makes

Mrs. Sucksby likes her better than her brothers. In Fingersmithit can be found three

point of views. The first part is Susan Trinder’s point of view.

My name, in those days, was Susan Trinder. People called me Sue. I know the year I was born in, but for many years I did not know the date, and took my birthday at Christmas. I believe I am an orphan. My mother I know is dead. But I never saw her, she was nothing to me.

(Waters, 2002:3)

The condition of the main character has been described by the author. It is

described that she doesn’t know her born date. She chooses Christmas eve as her

birthday as many people are happy at the moment. It is also known that her mother has

died. She doesn’t wonder about her real parent. She doesn’t event care, as she considers

Mrs. Sucksby as hers. In the early part, it is informed that Sue’s mother is dead by


At that time, there are no cops or judges, so death penalties will be given to those who

make such a fatal fault. She leaves Sue with Mrs. Sucksby. This tragedy is told to Sue by

Mrs. Sucksby when she is a teenager.

For I knew she was a thief.—'What a thief!' Mrs Sucksby would say. 'So bold! And handsome?'

'Was she, Mrs Sucksby? Was she fair?'

'Fairer than you; but sharp, like you, about the face; and thin as paper. We put her upstairs. No-one knew she was here, save me and Mr Ibbs—for she was wanted, she said, by the police of four divisions, and if they had got her, she'd swing. What was her lay? She said it was only prigging. I think it must have been worse. I know she was hard as a nut, for she had you and, I swear, she never murmured—never called out once. She only looked at you, and put a kiss on your little head; then she gave me six pounds for the keeping of you—all of it in sovereigns, and all of 'em good. She said she had one last job to do, that would make her fortune. She meant to come back for you, when her way was clear…'

(Waters, 2002:8)

Waters explains in her novel that Sue’s mother is a skilled thief and it is found in

Sue. Sue’s mother kiss her before giving her to the baby caretaker signifies her love

towards her daughter, but due to their economic background, she must leave Sue. Waters

does not explain about Sue’s origin family. She doesn’t talk about Sue’s father at all.

Ironically, it can be concluded that she is a kid from illegal relation. Sue may miss her

real mother, but the hatred she keeps is even bigger since she assumes that her mother

abandon her. So what makes her involved in homosexual love? It will be discussed in


Some source state that the life of lesbian which portrayed in the novel

Fingersmith might be generally different with people’s expectation (Smhoop analysis

:Fingersmith, 2005:14). In this novel, lesbian love story is started from the relationship

of a maid with her master. From the statement above it can be concluded that lesbian

love doesn’t consider social status and class. It is the opposite of the reality in the

Victorian Age. In that era, a woman will only get married with a man with same class as

her. A lady will only marry a gentleman. Generally, lesbian love is purer than a love

between man and woman. As discussed in Chapter II, lesbianism can happen because of

togetherness factor even though it is not the only factors. In this sub chapter, the writer

tries to explain the first time the two women meet until they are in love. Sue works as

Maud’s personal maid. Maud is a high class young lady who will inherit her family’s

wealth after getting married. The first reason why Sue work in that house is the big

salary and she wish to own much money. Those are changed after Sue meets Maud.

Everything she needs are provided and prepared by Sue, such as removing her dress or

pants and accompanying her wherever she goes. Since she is child, Maud is taken care

and accompanied by nurses in Mental Asylum. It makes her become dependence with

someone. She feels comfortable when there is someone beside her.

Day by day, their togetherness makes them close and even closer as if they are

siblings. Moreover, the feeling is changed from sisterhood to passionate love just like

man to woman. They are afraid of losing each other. Secretly, Sue takes care of Maud,

and so does Maud. Maud admires Sue’s caring towards her. Sue always treats her

differently. Sue who combs her hair, changes her dresses off, accompanies her and


admires Maud’s beauty and body shape. Until one midnight, Maud gets nightmare. Sue

whose room is beside Maud’s room hears Maud’s scream and directly comes to Maud.

Being frightened, Maud begs sue to accompany her sleeping in that room. Sue follows

what Maud says though she is afraid of Maud’s uncle that will be surely furious

knowing that. As he assumes that a Maid is does not deserve to sleep in a room with her

mistress. The changes of Maud’s behavior towards Sue make Sue keeps distant with her.

Maud persuades her to talk and talk more often, ask her to dance together, lend Sue her

beautiful dress. Until in one night, Sue asks her to touch her. Maud asks Sue to explain

how a man touches a woman in their first wedding night.

She wet her mouth. 'Do you think me good?' she said.

'I wish you would tell me,' she said, 'what it is a wife must do, on her wedding-night!'

Then I felt her make herself steady. 'I think,' she said, in a flat, unnatural voice, 'I think he will kiss me. Will he do that?'

Again, I felt her breath on my face. I felt the word, kiss. Again, I blushed.

'Will he?' she said.

'Yes, miss.'

I felt her nod. 'On my cheek?' she said. 'My mouth?'

'On your mouth, I should say.'


silence, with her breath in it. Only the darkness, and her pale hands. The world might have shrunk, or fallen away.

(Waters, 2002: 147)

The weird thing is that Sue doesn’t refuse. She does it well. Biologically, it can

be concluded that Maud and Sue take act as man and woman. Maud asks Sue to act as a

man who loves her woman. Their passions are always seen from the way they look at

each other and the way they laugh. The safest place to enjoy their closeness is the

garden. It is a place where Maud is used to paint and look for any inspiration. That place

is also out of sight of Maud’s uncle and chief of maids. Not only in the garden, they also

express their passionate love in Maud’s room.

'My lips?' she answered, in a tone of surprise. 'They are here.'

I found them, and kissed her.

'Don't be frightened,' I said at once.

That's what I thought. So, I kissed her again. Then I touched her. I touched her face. I began at the meeting of our mouths—at the soft wet corners of our lips—then found her jaw, her cheek, her brow—I had touched her before, to wash and dress her; but never like this. So smooth she was! So warm! It was like I was calling the heat and shape of her out of the darkness—as if the darkness was turning solid and growing quick, under my hand.

She began to shake. I supposed she was still afraid. Then I began to shake, too.

(Waters, 2002: 149)

The happiness they feel makes Sue forget about herself and her first purpose of


Rivers proposes Maud to be his wife. Maud who doesn’t like him at all rejects the

proposal. Richard Rivers doesn’t give up, he suggests Maud’s uncle, Christopher lily so

his beautiful niece accepts him as husband. Considering River’s family background,

Christopher Lily pushes Maud to accept Rivers’ proposal. Maud can do nothing but

follows what her uncle asks her to. She accepts Rivers’ proposal that makes Sue broken

heart. She feels hurt.

If I had said, I love you, she would have said it back; and everything would have changed. But if I did that, she'd find me out for the villain I was. I thought of telling her the truth; and trembled harder. I couldn't do it. She was too simple. She was too good. If there had only been some stain upon her, some speck of badness in her heart—! But there was nothing. Only that crimson bruise. A single kiss had made it. How would she do, in the Borough?

(Waters,2002: 245)

Maud has not told this thing to Sue yet. She is afraid of disappointing Sue. The

passion of their flaming love has faded. Maud stays in morrow and doesn’t focus on

reading novel to her uncle’s guests. Then, she plans to explain all the matters to Sue. She

wants to tell Sue that it is not her will. A few days before her wedding, Maud comes to

Sue and tells her that she will get married. Maud tells her that it is not her will and asks

her to understand her position. Hearing that story, Sue feels that she is betrayed by her

beloved one. She pretends to be happy in front of Maud. They smile but their minds are

still working on what will happen next. Sue thinks her life should be back to her home

which has almost been forgotten by her. She imagines that her mother will be

disappointed knowing her returns without any pennies on her hand. As her early will is


Maud is more aggressive in making love as Sue consider herself as a servant and Maud

as her Mistress.

“But then she did this. She kept her fingers upon my head and pushed my mouth too hard against hers; and she seized my hand and took it, first to her bosom, then to where the blankets dipped, between her legs. There she rubbed with my fingers until they burned.

The quick, sweet feeling her kiss had called up in me turned to something like horror, or fear. I pulled from her, and drew my hand away. 'Won't you do it?' she said softly, reaching after me. 'Didn't you do it before, for the sake of this night? Can't you leave me to him now, with your kisses on my mouth, your touch upon me, there, to help me bear his the better?—Don't go!' She seized me again. 'You went, before. You said I dreamed you. I'm not dreaming now. I wish I were! God knows, God knows, I wish I were dreaming, and might wake up and be at Briar again!'

(Waters, 2002: 169)

Both of them are tortured by the feeling of afraid of being separated. Along the night,

they embrace each other as if the death angel would pick them up.

After Maud getting married with Richard Rivers and leaving her uncle, Sue

returns to London, to her adopted mother, Mrs. Suksby. A year later, an issue spreads

out that the marriage of Maud doesn’t work. She is cheated by her husband. Rivers

proposes Maud since he knows that Maud will inherit all the wealth of her family. He

leaves Maud after taking all of Maud’s properties. A terrible thing happens on Rivers, he

is dead caused killed by a baby day care in London. This accident makes Maud come

back to Briar.

Maud later finds out that her uncle has died, since she is still the heir of Lily’s


Sue comes to meet her. Maud is very surprised seeing Sue, the one she loves and misses

standing exactly in front of her.

I looked at her, not understanding. I looked at the paper in her hand. Then my heart missed its beat.

'You are writing books, like his!' I said. She nodded, not speaking. Her face was grave. I don't know how my face seemed. I think it was burning. 'Books, like that!' I said. 'I can't believe it. Of all the ways I thought I'd find you— And then, to find you here, all on your own in this great house—'

(Waters, 2002: 527)

Actually, the meaning of Sue’s question is why that she is not remarried and

build a new family. Maud who understands it honestly admit that she is in waiting for

someone. Maud is waiting for Sue.

'I am not alone,' she said. 'I have told you: I have William Inker and his wife to care for me.'

'To find you here, all on your own, writing books like that—!'

Again, she looked almost proud. 'Why shouldn't I?' she said.

I did not know. 'It just don't seem right,' I said. 'A girl, like you—'

(Waters, 2002:520)

Sue behaves flatly. Her expression tells Maud that she is really disappointed with Maud.

She hates Maud.

'Hate you!' I said. 'When I have fifty proper reasons for hating you, already; and only—'


to say it, anyway: she could read the words in my face. Her colour changed, her gaze grew clearer.

(Waters, 2002:582)

The citation above shows that Sue still loves Maud. Though disappointed and hatred

covers her heart. She loves Maud. Her affection is pure to her. For a while they just keep

silent, looking at one another. A few minutes later they hugged and kissed, releasing all

the longing feeling. Maud Lily and Susan Trinder tell the maids that they are lovers.

They believe that their love will be last forever. And they decide to live in Briar, live

escorting one each other till the death come picked them up.

4.2 The Factors Caused The CharacterBecome a Lesbians Portrayed in Fingersmith Novel

4.2.1 Social Status and the Relation of Family

Victorian Age demonstrates the social class system and the social divisions of

English people in certain terms and conditions in a pre-defined specific ladder of pattern,

but there are some changes in social class system during this era as compared to the

traditional social class system of England. For an example the aristocrat class gets

changed to upper class. Some of the increasing powerful upper middle class categories

secure their places in this upper class. Education in nineteenth-century in England is not

equal - not between the sexes, and not between the classes. Gentlemen would be

educated at home by a governess or tutor until they are old enough to attend the school

or university; also it depends on their social class and family background. As for

woman, they have education at home. There are boarding schools, but no university, and


real lady. They expect ethic from a woman for the Victorian Age holds their social

classes highly. They, who belong to upper social class, get education since their birth to

know how a woman should behave. Maud learns much as she lives with her uncle at

Briar. She learns how to read, paint and play music instruments.

Middle class women have more freedom, but their parents used to motivate them

to learn about the proper ethics. The woman who comes from lower class is not aware of

education. Sue for instance, she only learns what she needs. She can’t read and can only

write her name.

“I believe I learned my alphabet, like that: not by putting letters down, but by taking them out. I know I learned the look of my own name, from handkerchiefs that came, marked Susan. As for regular reading, we never troubled with it.”

(Waters, 2002:29)

Sue who comes from lower class assumes that education is not really important

for them. In this novel, Waters explains that economic reason becomes the main factor.

Water also portrays that the life condition of lower class is being a servant or slave.

Maud who comes from upper class after being taken by her uncle does the same

activity in her daily life such as painting, reading and being a secretary of her uncle. She

lives under her uncle’s maid. Everything she needs always served by her personal maid.

Most of her agenda is doing the task burdened by her uncle in his library. Maud lives

under the authority of her uncle. She has no time to be relax. She is saturated and sick of


“Still, the library is kept warmer than my own room, to ward off mould from the books; and I find I prefer to write, than to sew. He gives me a pencil with a soft lead that moves silently upon paper, and a green-shaded reading-lamp, to save my eyes.

My work itself is of the most tedious kind, and consists chiefly of copying pages of text, from antique volumes, into a leather-bound book. The book is a slim one, and when it is filled my job is to render it blank again with a piece of india-rubber.”

(Waters, 2002:209)

4.2.2 Violence

Mistreatment makes woman no longerbelieve in men. When two women share

the same hatred towards men, the feeling and relationship between them will be must

likely to grow.

Woman tends to use feeling than logic and she seldom do such a rebellion. In

this novel, Water tries to tell the readers that in Victorian Age, it can be some violence

found done by man towards woman also the otherwise. Sue, as the main character in the

novel gets a physical violence from adoctor named Doctor Cristy. She is tortured when

she is in mental asylum. A tragedy makes her sent in to that rehabilitation.

I tried to speak. 'Help!Help!' I tried to say. But the spoon made me gobble like a bird. It also made me dribble; and a bit of dribble flew out of my mouth and struck Dr Christie's cheek. Perhaps he thought I had spat it. Anyway, he moved quickly back, and his face grew grim. He took out his handkerchief.

'Very good,' he said to the men and the nurse, as he wiped his cheek. 'That will do. Now you may take her.'