The influence of using two stay two stray in learning reading comprehension of recount text: a quasi experimental research at second grade students of SMP Dharma Karya UT Pondok Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten.

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Pondok Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten)

By

NUR FATONI

NIM. 109014000094

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING

SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

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Research at Second Grade Students of SMP Dharma Karya UT Pondok Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten), Skripsi, Department of English Education, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. 2014.

Advisors : Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd., and Hapsari Dwi Kartika, M.A, TESOL

Keywords : Cooperative Learning, Two Stay Two Stray Technique, Reading Comprehension

The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) technique on the students’ reading comprehension achievement of second grade. For this purpose the researcher selected the sample comprised 50 students studying at class VIII 1 and class VIII 2 of SMP Dharma Karya UT. Each class contained 25 students. Pre-test and post-test are given to both classes. Pre-test was given to see student’s basic capability in reading before the treatment was conducted. Post-test will measure the effectiveness of the treatment towards students’ reading achievement in a certain period. Experimental class was taught by using Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) technique and the control class was taught by using Conventional Method that currently is used by the teacher (Grammar Translation Method). The data were collected from 20 test items which are tested to the students before and after treatment. T-test was applied to calculate the data and to test the hypothesis.

The research findings indicated that tobservation > ttable (23.80 > 2.407) which

means that the Null Hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) is

accepted. Therefore, it can be inferred that Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Technique has effectiveness in learning reading of recount text as shown by 23.80 value of t0

which was higher than 0 (zero). The t-observation (t0 = 23.80) which is higher than

t-table (ttable =2.407) shows that the effectiveness of Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS)

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Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten), Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. 2014.

Pembimbing : Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd., dan Hapsari Dwi Kartika, MA, TESOL

Kata kunci : Pembelajaran Kooperatif, Two Stay Two Stray Teknik, Pemahaman Membaca

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas menggunakan teknik Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) terhadap pemahaman membaca siswa kelas kedua. Dalam Penelitian ini, peneliti memilih sampel terdiri 50 siswa kelas VIII 1 dan kelas VIII 2 SMP Dharma Karya UT. Setiap kelas terdapat 25 siswa. Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti memberikan Pre-test dan post-test kepada kedua kelas. Pre-test diberikan untuk melihat kemampuan dasar siswa dalam membaca sebelum penerapan metode TSTS dilakukan. Post-test akan mengukur efektivitas penerapan metode TSTS terhadap prestasi membaca siswa. Kelas eksperimen diajar dengan menggunakan teknik Two Stay Two Stray dan kelas kontrol diajar dengan menggunakan Metode Konvensional yang saat ini digunakan oleh guru (Grammar Translation Method). Data dikumpulkan dari 20 item tes yang diuji kepada siswa sebelum dan sesudah penerapan metode TSTS. T-test digunakan untuk menghitung data dan untuk menguji hipotesis.

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blessing given to the researcher, so he could accomplish this skripsi entitled The

Influence of Using Two Stay Two Stray Technique in Learning Reading

Comprehension (A Quasi Experimental Research at Second Grade Students of SMP

Dharma Karya UT Pondok Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten),. Peace

and Blessing be upon to the prophet Muhammad, who had guided mankind to the

right path blessed by the lord.

In this opportunity, the researcher would like to remark the utmost thanks

from his deep heart to the following people, who always helped, contributed, and

empowered him to achieve a success in completing this skripsi.

1. The honorable Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd., and Hapsari Dwi Kartika, M.A,

TESOL, as the advisors of the researcher, for the guidance and patience in helping

and correcting the researcher in writing this skripsi.

2. The Head of English Education Department, Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., and the

Secretary, Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum.

3. All lecturers of English Education Department who have given lots of things like

motivation, guidance, knowledge and happiness during his study in English

Education Department, Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta State Islamic University

Jakarta.

4. The Principal, Vice-Principal, the English teacher and the students at SMP

Dharma Karya UT Pondok Cabe Ilir, Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Banten, for

giving chance, permission and helping the researcher to conduct the research.

5. The researcher’s parents and families, who are always giving motivation, never

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7. The people who have helped the researcher to finish his study that he cannot

mention one by one.

May Allah bless them all, Aamiin.

Jakarta, Desember 2014

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APPROVAL………. ii

ENDORSEMENT SHEET……….. iii

CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY………... iv

ABSTRACT……….. v

ABTRAK……….. vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………... vii

TABLE OF CONTENT………... ix

LIST OF TABLES………... xi

LIST OF APPENDICES………. xii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study………. 1

B. Identification of the Problem .………. 4

C. Limitation of the Problem……….………... 4

D. Formulation of the Problem………. 4

E. Objective of the Study………. 4

F. Significance of the Study………. 5

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Reading ……….……….. 6

1. Definition of Reading Comprehension………... 6

2. Purpose of Reading……… 8

3. Kinds of Reading………... 11

a. Intensive Reading……….11

b. Extensive Reading………... 12

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B. Recount Text ………... 14

1. Definition of Recount Text ……….……….. 14

2. The Purpose of Recount Text ...……… 15

3. The Generic Structure of Recount Text …………... 15

4. The Example of Recount Text ……….. 16

C. Two Stay Two Stray……… 17

1. Definition of Two Stay Two Stray……… 17

2. The Advantage and Disadvantage of Two Stay Two Stray Technique………. 19

3. Teaching Recount Text Using Two Stay Two Stray 20 D. Grammar Translation Method………. 22

1. Definition of Grammar Translation Method ……… 22

2. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Grammar Translation Method ………... 23

3. Teaching Recount Text Using Grammar Translation Method ……….. 24

E. Previous Studies……... 26

F. Framework of Thinking………... 28

G. Hypothesis………... 30

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Place and Time of the Research………... 31

B. Method of the Study…..………...31

C. The Population and Sample……….……… 32

D. Technique of Data Collection………... 33

E. Technique of Data Analysis………. 33

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion………...……… 49

B. Implication………... 49

C. Suggestion………...……. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY……… 52

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Study

Reading is one of essential ways in building our knowledge. Reading provides

us with some activities to help us to comprehend the written expressions. Through

reading we can get a lot of knowledge, information, or even problem solution.

According to Jean Wallace Gillet, et al. “Building knowledge is the phase of reading

and finding out.”1 So, reading can help us to get a lot of information to expand our knowledge. In addition, reading is one of tools in learning which is always involved

in classroom activities.

Indonesia also considers reading as one of the main focus in English subject.

According to School Based Curriculum (KTSP 2006) the objectives of teaching

reading are clearly stated ”mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris bertujuan mengembangkan

kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa tersebut, dalam bentuk lisan dan tulis.

Kemampuan berkomunikasi meliputi mendengarkan (listening), berbicara (speaking,

membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing).2 (The purpose of English subject is to develop communicative competence in English in the form of spoken and written.

Communicative competence covers listening, speaking, reading, and writing).

Moreover, as stated in competency standard of reading (SK) and the basic

Competence (KD) in the School Based Curriculum, the first semester of the eight

grade students in Junior High School are expected to be able to comprehend both

functional text and a simple essay such us recount and descriptive text in their nearest

1

Jean Wallace Gillet, et al., Understanding Reading Problem (Boston: Pearson Education, Inc, 2012), p. 171

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environment in mastering reading skill.3 Therefore, every student in junior high school is expected to be able to read and comprehend what kind of text above. But,

based on the result of primarily study conducted by the writer in SMP Dharma Karya

UT, there are several problems faced by the students. They were not able to respond

the teacher’s question and they were not able to comprehend the texts after teaching

learning process. Finally, they got low score achievement in reading English.

Despite the problems could be caused by several factors such as motivation,

interest, intelligence, or learning materials, but the teaching strategy is still major

reason why the problems in reading are still happened. The writer found some causal

factors that affect students’ reading comprehension related to strategies used in the

classroom. First, the monotony of teaching strategies caused the students were bored

when teaching learning process. Second, teacher’s rule is teacher-dominated

classroom structures, which means the students were passive while teaching learning

process. Third, the students had low motivation to read; therefore the students

decided to cheat with their friends when they had to answer question from reading

passage. Fourth, students still have difficulties in some important aspects in reading

such as, finding main idea, deciding general structures of the text, knowing the

purpose of the text or specific language features of the text.

Realizing the facts above, it is necessary for language teacher to foster reading

on their students. The teacher should use appropriate methods and appropriate

strategies which should be interesting to attract students’ attention in reading.

However teaching reading to students is not easy as it seems because it needs many

supporting aspects such as the background of the language, vocabulary, grammatical

knowledge, experience with a text and other strategies to help them understanding a

written text and also the students’ habit of reading. In carrying out all those, a teacher must be able to discover the most appropriate methods that can be used to improve

students’ reading comprehension.

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One of the various methods which can be applied in teaching reading is

cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is not a new method in education; in fact

there are a few teachers who used this method. This method is structured in learning

that involves students working together to reach a common goal. Students are

required to interact with all learners in a class. The point of this method is

emphasizing to the students to have social interaction with all learners in a class by

dividing into small groups. It creates the opportunity for students to help their group

members to solve the problems.

There are many techniques in cooperative learning classes which can be

applied in classroom activities. One of them is two stay two stray which is adapted

from Kagan. This technique will bring students to active learning process, because

students will learn more though process constructing and creating working in group

and sharing knowledge. Nevertheless, individual responsibility is still the key of

success in learning English. This learning process is believed as being able to give

chance to students to be involved in discussion. It also encourages critical thinking

and is willing to take responsibility of their own learning by enhancing of their

reading comprehension.

From the explanation above, the writer conclude that two stay two stray

technique is very compatible to help students are involved in active learning because

this strategy allows students to enhance their interdependence, individual

accountability, interpersonal skills, face to face interaction and their group processing

when they work in group. In learning process, this technique also can give the

students experience in gathering information when they become the strayer to other

groups. In this activity the students are encouraged to contribute their ideas to other

students and after they come back to their group they must share the information they

got from the other groups to their own groups.

Based on the background of the study above, the writer would like to conduct

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Learning Reading Comprehension of Recount Text”. (A Quasi-Experimental Study at

the Eight Grade of the First Semester in SMP Dharma Karya UT).

B. Identification of The Problem

Based on the background study above, the problems which are identified as

follows:

1. The teacher not yet applied an appropriate technique of teaching in teaching

reading such as the monotony of teaching strategies which caused the students

were bored when teaching learning process.

2. Teacher’s rule is teacher-dominated classroom structures

3. The students had low motivation to read

4. Students are still have difficulties in interpreting some important aspects in

reading such as, finding main idea, deciding general structures of the text,

knowing the purpose of the text or specific language features of the text.

C. Limitation of The Problem

Based on the identification of the problems above, the problems will be

limited on the technique that the teacher uses in teaching reading. In this case, the

writer uses technique from Cooperative Learning method that’s Two Stay Two Stray.

D. Formulation of the Problem

Based on background of the study, the writer limits the study on the teaching

of English that concerns with reading of recount text. To make the study easy to

understand, the writer formulates the problem as follow: “Is the use of two stay two

stray techniques effective in teaching reading on first semester of the eight grades

SMP Dharma Karya UT?”

E. The Objective of the Study

In line of the problem above, this study is expected to find empirical evidence

whether or not the use of two stay two stray technique is effective in reading. It is

also expected to find whether there is a significant difference of the achievement in

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techniques and the traditional method that currently is used by the teacher (Grammar

Translation Method).

F. The Signification of the study

The result of the study is intended to have several significances. First, for the

English teachers in SMP Dharma Karya UT in order to offer them a good way to

teach their students and help them in increasing their reading comprehension through

cooperative learning, Two Stay Two Stray. Second, this study is also expected to

bring good effect for students’ reading comprehension and also to achieve students’

reading achievement. Third, for the further research, it will provide them basic

information about teaching reading by using two stay two stray techniques. Fourth,

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of reading, kinds of reading, recount text, Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Technique,

Grammar Translation Method, framework of thinking, previous studies, and

hypothesis.

A.

Reading

1. Definition of Reading Comprehension

Reading is the basic foundation on which the academic skills of individual are

built. Before the writer discusses further about the definition of reading, it is also

essential to know that reading is a complex skill. To master reading, the reader must

have ability to recognize, analyze, and correlate the black marks in the paper into

meaningful context. According to Broughton, et al, reading must be recognized that

reading is a complex skill. First of these is the ability to recognize stylized shapes

which are figures on a ground, curve, and line and dots in patterned relationships.

Second of the skills involved in the complex is the ability to correlate the black marks

on the paper – the pattern shapes – with language. A third skill which is involved in

the total skill of reading is essentially an intellectual skill; this is the ability to

correlate the black marks on the paper by way of the formal elements of language.1 The definition of reading is varieties. According to Jeremy Harmer, “Reading

is an exercise dominated by the eyes and the brain. The eyes receive massages and

the brain then has to work out the significances of these massages.”2

Meanwhile, Nunan states “Reading is an interactive process between what a

reader already knows about a given topic or subject and what the writer writes.”3

1

G. Broughton, Chirstopher Brumfit, Roger Flavell, Peter Hill, Anita Pincass, Teaching English as a Foreign Language Second Edition (New York: Routledge, 2003), p. 89-90

2

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (New Edition), (New York: Longman Publishing, 1994), p. 190

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Similarly, Deborah and Nancy states that “reading is an active process that depends

on both an author’s ability to convey meaning using word and the reader ability to

create meaning from them.”4

Another statement comes from I.S.P. Nation who claims that “An essential

part of reading skills is the skill of being able to recognize the written forms and to

connect them to their spoken forms and their meanings.”5

A good reader will

understand what they read and they can explain what they read in their spoken form

because they absolutely know what the meaning inside the text.

Based on some opinions given above, the writer underlines that reading is the

process of transfer idea or information from the writer to the reader using the written

language or the text. It means that the purpose of reading must be comprehension for

the information in the text. Therefore, comprehension can not be separated by

reading.

In fact, there will be differentiations between one reader with other readers in

catching the meaning of the text that they have writer. They will give interpretation

based on their mind because comprehension has strong connection with readers’

background knowledge.

Comprehension is a part of reading. It may also be said that comprehension is

the core point in reading. It means that the successful reading is the reader who can

comprehend for what they have read. According to Francoise Grellet that “Reading

comprehension is an understanding a written text means extracting the required

information from it as effectively as possible.”6

Another definition given by Flynn

and Stainthorp which is quoted from Hoover and Gough explains that reading is

product of decoding and comprehension. That means that reading result from an

ability to decode the print and to comprehend the language that is thus unlocked. For

4

Deborah Daiek and Nancy Anter, Critical Reading for College and Beyond, (New York: The McGraw Hill Company, 2004), p. 5

5

I.S.P. Nation, Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing, (New York: Routledge 2009) p.9 6

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them, when the reader read the text that is not mean activity for their own sake. They

read because they want access to the information that’s encoded in the paper.7

Comprehension is very important in the students’ reading progress. Their

comprehension will show how their academic progress. As stated by Arthy. V quoted

from Alverman and Earle explains that “comprehension is one general component of

reading which has a set of interrelated processes. Without the skills of reading

comprehension and the motivation for reading to learn, students’ academic progress

is limited.”8

In sum up, reading comprehension is ability to decode and to construct the

meanings or the massages which the writer gave in the text. The ability involves an

active process from the reader such as interpretation and reproduction for the

meaning or the massage of the text.

2. Purpose of Reading

In the real life, every time people read something, they read for a purpose.

They read because they have a desire to do or a purpose to achieve. Many people

used his time to read everyday in any kind of books, novels, articles, magazines, or

newspapers. It’s impossible to do if they don’t have certain purpose why they read

the books.

That phenomenon is similar with Aebersold and Field’s statement that when

people read, they read for a purpose. Purpose determines how they read a text. They

may read a text quickly or slowly and skimming or scanning.9 Everyone has their own purposes why they are reading. The reader usually read partly for the

7

Naomi Flynn and Rhona Stainthorp, The Learning and Teaching of Reading and Writing, (Cornwall: Whur Publisher Limited, 2006), p.42

8

Arthy.V, IJSR-International Journal of Scientific Research, Enhancing Reading Comprehension Skills through Small Group Interaction Techniques: A Comparative Study, Volume 1, Issue 5, 2012, p.75

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information in a text. But the reader also has attention to finish their reading rapidly

by getting the information inside.

Based on the explanation above, it can be inferred that every people have

different purposes when they read a text and their purposes define how they read a

text. As similar with the opinion of Aebersold and Field which remark that “People vary reading behavior according to their purposes for reading.”10

According to Grabe and Stoller the purpose of reading has seven main point,

namely: reading to search for simple information, reading to skim quickly, reading to

learn from texts, reading to integrate information, reading to write, reading to critique

texts, and reading for general comprehension.11 The explanation of those purposes as follows:

a. Reading to search for simple information and reading to skim

Most people argue that reading for simple information is a common

reading purpose. For example, when people read newspaper, magazine,

advertisement, or brochure, they only need simple information for what

they will read.

When the readers want to search for simple information, they will engage

in two skills; scanning or skimming. Scanning means when the readers

try to locate specific information, they often do not even follow the

linearity of the passage, and let their eyes wander over the text until they

find what they are looking for.12 While skimming is reading which is directly go through the reading material quickly in order to get the gist of

it, to know how it’s organized, or to get an purpose of the writer.

10

Ibid. 11

William Grabe and Fredricka L. Stoller, Teaching and Researching Reading, (London: Longman, 2002), p.13

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b. Reading to learn from texts

This purpose usually exists in academic or professional context in which

a person needs to learn a considerable amount of information from a text.

Nuttall infers that “People read because they want to get something from

the writing.”13

When people read in academic context, they will requires

to remember main ideas, recognize and built rhetorical frames and link

the text with reader’s knowledge base.

c. Reading to integrate information, write and critique texts

This step of reading requires critical evaluation of the information being

read, so that the reader can decide what information to integrate and how

to integrate it for the readers’ goal. In addition, the reader requires the

ability to compose, to select, and to critique information from a text.

d. Reading for General Comprehension

Reading for general comprehension is the most basic purpose for reading.

It requires vary rapid and automatic processing of words, strong skill in

forming a general meaning representation of main ideas, and efficient

coordination of many processes under very limited time constraints.

Additionally, Williams in McDonough and Shaw as quoted from Williams

classify the reason of reading as follows:

a. getting general information from the text b. getting specific information from a text

c. for pleasure or for interest.14

In real situation, the purposes of reading are varying. People have different

attentions or purposes when they read. According to McDonough and Shaw as quoted

13

Christine Nuttall, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, (Oxford: The Bath Press, 1996), p. 3

14

Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw, Materials and Methods in ELT: Second Edition A

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from Rivers and Temperley explain some reasons why people want to read as

follows:

a. To obtain information for some purpose or because we are curious about some topic.

b. To obtain instructions on how to perform some task for our work or daily life.

c. To keep in touch with friends by correspondence or to understand business letters.

d. To know when or where something will take place or what is available. e. To know what is happening or has happened (as reported in newspapers,

magazines, reports)

f. For enjoyment or excitement.15

Based on the purposes which have been mentioned above, the writer

concludes that every time people read, they read for a purpose. The purposes of

reading vary from one reader to another because every people have different needs.

But the main point is when the reader wants to read, they want to get new

information.

3. Kinds of Reading a. Intensive Reading

Harmer describes intensive reading as reading that focus on the

construction of reading text which takes place usually in classroom. It’s is

usually accompanied by study activities such as asking students reading,

teasing out of details meaning, or looking at particular uses of grammar.16 In addition, I.S.P. Nation states that “intensive reading is the grammar

-translation approach where the teacher works with the learners, using the first

language to explain the meaning of a text, sentence by sentence.”17

Another

statement comes from Nuttal who claims that “intensive reading involves

15

Ibid. p. 90 16

Jeremy Harmer, op. cit, p. 99 17

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approaching the text under the guidance of a teacher or a task which force the

student to focus on the text.”18

From those definitions above, the writer assumes that intensive

reading is reading which often used in the classroom to teach students to

comprehend the text by giving them some study activities. The aim of

intensive reading is to arrive an understanding, not only of what the text

means, but how the meaning is produced.

b. Extensive Reading

The concept of extensive reading is different with intensive reading.

Harmer explains extensive reading as reading which students do often (but not

exclusively) away from the classroom such as reading novels, web pages,

newspapers, or magazines. Extensive reading also should involve reading for

pleasure.19 Meanwhile, Nuttal assumes that in order to understand the whole book, the reader must not always understand the parts such as sentences,

paragraphs, or chapters which are made up. But, the reader often understands

a text adequately without grasping every part of it.20

Based on the explanation which has been mentioned above, the writer

sum up that extensive reading gives opportunity to the reader to understand

reading without reading every language feature of the text. But, it’s more

focus to the meaning of the text. It also allows the students to read a lot of

texts and books in order to get fluency in reading.

18

Nuttal, op. cit., p.38 19

Jeremy Harmer, op. cit., p. 99 20

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4. Reading Skills

In reading certain text, there are number of skills which can be done by the

students; they are scanning, skimming, and reading fro detailed information.21 a. Scanning

This skill requires students to be able scan the text for particular bits of

information they are looking for. It means the students don’t have to read

every word or line, but they directly go to find specific information they are

looking for. It’s similar with Crawly and Merrit opinion which mentions that

“scanning is reading or examining something very quickly to find specific

information, such as the answer to a specific question. Students should not

have to read every word on the page to locate the answer.”22

From those views, the writer assumes that scanning is the type of

reading skill which directly focuses to specific information in the page which

the readers are looking for by avoiding reading every word on the page. The

reader does it very quickly to find what they need in order to get the

information and to answer their question.

b. Skimming

The purpose of this skill is to get the general understanding of what

the text is about. Skimming is done by running our eyes rapidly over a text.

For example, when the students read a novel review, they only run their eyes

over it to see what the novel is about and what the reviewer thought about the

story.23

In addition, Crawly and Merrit explains that “skimming is reading

rapidly and selectively, but purposefully, rather than carefully, to get an

21

Jeremy Harmer, op. cit., p. 100-101 22

Sharon J. Crawly and King Merrit, Remediating Reading Difficulties (Third Edition), (USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000), p. 101

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overview of what the material is about. During skimming, students identify

main ideas and a few of supporting details.24

By those opinions, it can be said that skimming is the type of reading

skill which focus to an overview of the text by running our eyes rapidly over

the text. In this step, students are also more focus to find main ideas than

supporting details.

c. Reading for Detailed Comprehension

This skill is very different with the skills mentioned above. Reading

for detailed comprehension is more complex than two skills above. This skill

required very rapid and automatic processing words, strong skills in forming a

detailed meaning representation of main ideas, and efficient coordination of

many processes under very limited time constrains.25 So, the writer looks that reading for detailed comprehension needs fluency in reading because fluent

reader can be automatically comprehend the text without giving them much

thought. Fluent reader also will avoid difficulties which often occur to

students such as longer texts under time constrains.

B.

Recount Text

1. Definition of Recount Text

In English, text is divided into some categories for example narrative text,

recount text, procedure text, report text and the others. Before the writer discuss

further about the definition of recount text, better we know about the meaning of text

itself. Siahaan and Shinoda assume that “text is a meaningful linguistic unit in a

context”.26

So, they define that either linguistic or non linguistic context can be

mentioned as a text with one condition, they must be in meaningful linguistic.

24

Sharon J. Crawly and King Merrit, op. cit., p. 101 25

William Grabe and Fredricka L. Stoller, op. cit., p. 14 26

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According to Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson “a recount text is a piece

of text that retell past events, usually in the order in which they occurred.” 27

In

addition, Anderson and Anderson point out that every time we want to tell other

people about something that happened in this life, we might be tell about what we did

in weekend or what happened in the campus yesterday. So, speaking or writing about

past event like that is called a recount.

Meanwhile based on Siahaan and Shinoda mark that recount text is retelling

what happened and recount has a social function because in recount text there is a

story which involved other people.28

From those explanations about the definition of recount text, it can be

conclude that recount text is a text that telling about something which happened in the

past to other people either by speaking or writing or retelling past experience to other

people about a information of what occurred and when it occurred.

2. The Purpose of Recount Text

When we make writing, we absolutely have a purpose to be delivered.

According to Siahaan and Shinola, “recount has a social purpose that’s retell an event with a purpose to inform or entertain the readers”.29

In recount text, the writer must

have intention to retell a story and entertain the reader and also inform what happened

and when it happened.

3. The Generic Structure of Recount Text

A recount text usually has three main sections as follow:

a. Orientation: First paragraph gives back ground information about who, what,

where, and when about the story.

27

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types, (South Yarra: Macmillan Education Australia PTY LTD, 2003), p. 24

28

Sanggam Siahaan and Kisno Shinoda, loc. cit. p. 9 29

(27)

b. Events : Series of paragraphs that retell the events in the order in which they

happened.

c. Conclusion: A concluding paragraph.

The language features usually found in recount text:

a. Proper noun to identify those involved in the text

b. Descriptive words to give details about who, what, where and how

c. The use of past tense to retell the events

d. Words that show the order of events30

4. The Example of Recount Text

As It Happened

Shortly after noticing this, the car was covered in a bright circle of light.

Inside the car it suddenly became very cold. The couple wrapped

themselves in thick blankets and turned on the heater bit they still

shivered.

Then their car began to act very strangely. Suddenly the headlight

went of, the brakes failed, the steering wheel locked and the fuel gauge

showed empty. Next the car began speeding up and raced along the road

at 190 kilometers an hour. To one side of the car, the UFO continued to

(28)

distance from where they first saw the UFO to Fort Victoria was 290

kilometers.

Although the couple’s description of what happened, contained

plenty of details, many people find it hard to believe that UFOs do exist.

31

C.

Two Stay Two Stray

1. Definition of Two Stay Two Stray

There area various method which can be applied by teacher in the class. In

teaching reading, one of various techniques which can be applied by the teacher is

cooperative learning. Olsen and Kagan in Kessler regarding is that “Cooperative

Learning is a body of literature and research that has examined the effects of

cooperation in education. It offers ways to organize group work to enhance learning

and increase academic achievement.”32

According to Kagan, “Cooperative, interdependent educational experiences in

our classrooms is necessary if we hope to make possible the democratic ideal of

informed and equal participation. It’s necessary if we hope to maintain traditional

values, including respect, kindness, and the ability to enter and maintain positive

social relations.”33

Kagan emphasizes that cooperative is need to be done in the

classroom because it will make students have same roles and can help each other.

The point of cooperative learning technique is emphasizing to the students to

have social interaction with all learners in a class by dividing into small groups. It

creates the opportunity for students to help their group members to solve the

problems. It’s similar with opinion of Johnson, Johnson and Holubec in Cayabyab

31

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, loc. cit., p. 50 32

Carolyn Kessler (editor), Cooperative Language Learning. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, inc., 1992), p. 1

33

Spencer Kagan, Kagan Cooperative Learning, (San Clamente, CA: Kagan Publishing, 2009), p.2.16

(29)

and Jacob that “Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that

students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning.”34

Cooperative learning has various techniques. One of them is Two Stay Two

Stray (TSTS). Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) technique is adapted from Spencer

Kagan. This technique will bring students to active in learning process, because

students will learn more though process constructing and creating working in group

and sharing knowledge. Nevertheless, individual responsibility is still the key of

success in learning English. This learning process is believed as being able to give

chance to students to be involved in discussion. It also encourages critical thinking

and is willing to take responsibility of their own learning by enhancing of their

reading comprehension.

According to Lie Two stay two stray is a technique that gives the students

chance to share their ideas, arguments and information to other groups. In this

technique, there are some activities. Then, by using this technique, students help each

others. The high level and the low level of students will work together to achieve the

purpose of their group”.35

Agus Suprijono pointed out that Two Stay Two Stray Teachnique is started by

dividing students into a group. After creating the group, the teacher gives them a task

to discuss and find out the answers with their own group.36

This technique emphasizes interaction between students, every member of the

group have same role and function to share their knowledge with the other group.

Besides, students are also hoped have individual responsibility to help other students

and they are motivated to understand material which is provided by the teacher.

34

Eleonor C. Cayabyab and George M. Jacobs, The ACELT Journal-Practical Papers on Teaching English Language and Literature in Philipines, Making Small Groups Work Via Cooperative Learnin, Volume 3, No.2, 1999, p.28

35

Anita Lie, Cooperative Learning, (Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, 2002), p.60 36

(30)

Furthermore, Two Stay Two Stray technique is very compatible to help

students are involved in active learning because this technique allows students to

enhance their interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face to

face interaction and their group processing when they work in group. In learning

process, this technique also can give the students experience in gathering information

when they become the strayer to other groups. In this activity the students are

encouraged to contribute their ideas to other students and after they come back to

their group they must share the information they got from the other groups to their

own groups.

According to Lie, Two Stay Two Stray consists of some steps as follow:

a. The students are set in group of four students.

b. Then two students of each group will leave the group, each of the two

students will stray to other groups.

c. The two staying students have task to share information and work result to

their guests.

d. The guests excuse themselves and back to their group and report their

findings from other groups.

e. The group matches and discusses the information.37

2. The Advantage and Disadvantage of Two Stay Two Stray technique The advantages and disadvantages of Two Stay Two Stray technique will

explain as follow:

1) The advantage of Two Stay Two Stray

a. Giving an opportunity to the students to decide their own concept by

solving the problem which is given to them.

b. Giving an opportunity to the students to build their creativity and to

communicate with their friends in group.

37

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c. Forming the habit of the students to open minded with their friends.

d. Increasing the students’ motivation in learning.

e. Helping teacher to reach learning goal, because the cooperative

learning method is easy to be applied.

2) The disadvantage of Two Stay Two Stray

a. TSTS needs more time for discussion.

b. Students who seldom work in group will feel difficult to cooperate.

c. Generally, fluent students in discussing usually dominate the

discussion.

3. Teaching Recount Text Using Two Stay Two Stray

In two stay two stray, the students will be divided into four students each

groups. Then, the teacher will give them a reading material to discuss in the group

and decide how long they discuss in the group. Each group has different material to

discuss. When time is up, two of four students in the group will leave the group to

stray to other group to look for the information. While the rest will stay in group

explain their material to other group who stray to them. This teaching learning

process gives an opportunity to the students to share their ideas related to material

which is discussed. The technique will give the students a chance to discuss with the

group and the other friends. In addition, this technique will give the students sharing

and discussing experiences while gathering the information.

In the real situation, the writer would like to explain further about the

implementation in the class. First, the teacher explains generally about recount text.

Second, the teacher sets students in a group that consist of four students and give

them opportunity to discuss about material given by the teacher. Every group has

different material to discuss. For example, a recount text which consists of some

paragraphs divided by the teacher into part per part. Group 1 will discuss paragraph 1,

(32)

minutes discussion, two students of each group will leave the group to come other

group to look for information and the rest stays in their based group to welcome the

strayers from other groups and share their group discussion. This will be carried out

for 5 minutes. The strayers group may ask questions or give suggestions or comments

on the explanation of stayers. This is carried out in 5 minutes (the time limit should

be mentioned: otherwise they will talk about other things). Then, after 5 minutes the

two strayers of each group return to their base group, discuss and make a report for

their group. After all activities are already held, the teacher will evaluate them by

giving them a question or quiz about the material. The group with highest score will

get the reward from the teacher.

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D.

Grammar Translation Method

1. Definition of Grammar Translation Method

The Grammar Translation Method is a method of teaching foreign

languages derived from the classical method of teaching language. In

grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules

by translating sentences between the target language and the native language.

Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The

method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written

in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development. In this modern era, there are various methods that can be applied by the

teacher in the classroom in teaching language. But in practically, there are some

teachers that still use the grammar translation method in their teaching. As stated by

Cagri quoted form Larsen-Freeman that “the purpose of the grammar translation

method was to help students read and understand foreign language literature”.38 It was also can be said that grammar translation method gives an efficient way in

learning vocabulary and grammatical structures.

There are two main goals to grammar-translation classes. One is to develop

students’ reading ability to a level where they can read literature in the target language. The other is to develop students’ general mental discipline. Furthermore,

Richard and Rodgers explain the principal characteristic of the Grammar Translation

Method as follow:

a. The goal of foreign language is to learn a language in order to read its literature or in order to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from foreign language study.

b. Reading and Writing is a major study; no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.

c. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used. d. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice.

38

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e. Accuracy is emphasized.

f. Grammar is taught deductively. That’s by presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercises.

g. The students of native language are the medium of instruction.39

2. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Grammar Translation Method Like the other method, grammar translation method has also many advantaged

and disadvantages. Those are as follows: 40

1) The Advantages of Grammar Translation Method

a. Reduced Teacher Stress.

Resources for GTMs are easier to come by then other approaches and

generally require less teacher involvement. Class activities or learning

games are rarely necessary, as students are translating the text to another

language directly, teachers who are not fluent in English (but fluent in the

other language that the students primarily use) can teach English using

this approach, as the emphasis is not on the spoken word but on

translation.

b. Focus in Grammar, sentence structure and word meanings

Unlike a verbal approach to language learning, GTM focuses on the

application of grammar and correct sentence structure. This is especially

helpful in teaching students how to write and read in another language,

allowing them to explore interchangeable words and phrases more

effectively than a verbal teaching method. The approach is also easily

applied and can be less stressful on students; verbal teaching methods do

not describe the application of grammar and sentence structure as

effectively as GTM does.

39

Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approach and Methods in Language Teaching (Second Edition), (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 3-4.

40

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2) The disadvantages of Grammar Translation Method

a. Learner Motivation and Participation

The GTM approach involves no learner participation and little

teacher-students relationship. Students are required to learn from a textbook and

use the same method throughout their learning. Because lessons using

GTM are not interactive and engaging for students, they become more

likely to lose interest in their subject and less motivated to learn.

Furthermore, the method does not require students to participate in any

activities or communicate with each other, so they will not learn how to

use language in a real-life conversation or situation and will only know

how to translate one language to another.

b. Unnatural and inaccurate pronunciation

As children, people generally learn how to speak before they learn how to

write and read. In the GTM approach, this natural learning method is

reversed. Students are only taught how to read and write the language.

This can affect how they learn to speak the learned language. The mere

application of grammar and sentence structure cannot adequately prepare

them for realistic conversations or verbal communications, as no emphasis

is given to spoken language in the GTM approach.

3. Teaching Recount Text Using Grammar Translation Method

Teaching using grammar translation method used teacher as a center in

teaching-learning process. In teaching reading, teacher used students’ native language

as a main communication. Teacher also emphasized that reading and writing is a

major focus in learning. In the class, teacher must explain all material to the students

and students must listen to what teacher said. After teacher explained the materials,

teacher gives them chance to ask about the material. Then, teacher gives them task to

(36)

everything they don’t understand they must ask directly to the teacher and teacher

will explain to them.

In Grammar Translation Method, understanding about grammar is much

stressed. Grammar is also taught deductively. That’s mean the teacher explain the

rule of the grammar first, before they give exercise to the students to be analyzed.

Besides, translation is also major attention in GTM. In teaching learning process,

teacher will ask students to translate some passages or text whether from target

language to native language or native language to target language.

In real situation, the writer would like to explain further about the

implementation teaching Recount text in the class. First, teacher will explain about

general structure about recount text and language features that usually found in

recount text. While the teacher explains the material, the students must be listening

and they may not ask before the teacher finished explaining the material. Second, the

teacher gives an example of recount text to the students. The teacher will ask student

to identify general structures, types of tenses used in the text, or translating the text.

The students do their work by themselves; they may not discuss or collaborate with

their friends in doing their work. Teacher also gives them a chance to ask what they

don’t understand with the materials. Teacher also emphasize in reading

comprehension question, antonym or synonym, memorization, or using word in

sentences in grammar section.

The major characteristics of Grammar Translation Method can be summed up

in the following list:

1) Instruction is given in the native language of the students.

2) There is little use of the target language for communication.

3) Focus is on grammatical parsing, i.e., the form and inflection of words.

4) There is early reading of difficult text.

5) Typical exercise is to translate sentences from the target language into the

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6) The result of this approach is usually an inability on the part of the student to

use the language for communication.

7) The teacher does not have to able to speak the target language.

E.

Previous Studies

Some studies dealing with the investigation of how Cooperative Learning

improves students’ reading comprehension, especially two stay two stray technique, were conducted by some researchers. The brief explanation of those studies is

described as follows:

First, A research was done by Devi Kusumayati (2009) in MA Jam’iyah

Islamiiyah Pondok Aren with the title Pengaruh Metode Cooperative Leanring

Teknik Two Stay Two Stray Konsep Ekosistem Terintegrasi Nilai terhadap Hasil

Belajar Biologi. The research focuses on experimental research about whether Two

Stay Two Stray technique can improve students’ comprehension in learning biology

which focuses in material of ecosystem. The result of the study shows that learning

through Two Stay Two Stray of cooperative learning model can improve their

comprehension significantly.41

Second, Bunajat Tohir (2011) conducted a study in order to investigate the

improvement of the ability of communication in math lesson with the title

Meningkatkan Kemampuan Komunikasi Sisa Melalui Penerapan Model

Pembelajaran Kooperative Tipe Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) in SMP Negeri 1

Jayanti. This research uses class room action research (CAR). The result is the

students can understand the concept of math improves significantly.42

41

Devi Kusumayati, Pengaruh Metode Cooperative Learning Teknik Two Stay Two Stray Konsep Ekosistem Terintegrasi Nilai Terhadap Hasil Belajar Biologi, Skripsi pada S1 UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta: 2009. Tidak dipublikasikan.

42

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Third, the research was conducted by Rima Ulwa Dewi (2010) in the title of

Pengaruh model Pembelajaran Kooperative Teknik Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS)

terhadap Hasil Belajar Biologi pada konsep Archaebacteria and Eubacteria di SMA

Negeri 3 Karawang. This research uses experiment research and the result is the

students can comprehend the concept of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria improves

significantly.43

43

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F.

Framework of Thinking

Reading is one of essential ways in building our knowledge. Reading is the

interaction between the writer and the reader through the written language using the

process of transfer idea or information from the writer to the reader. Reading is one of

tools in learning which is always involved in classroom activities. By mastering

Two Stay Two Stray technique of

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reading, students will be able to comprehend and to use the language because it also

builds the other abilities. In addition, reading is also tested in National Examination

in Indonesia. Consequently, students need to have good reading ability to pass the

National Examination.

But in reality in the class, based on the writer’s pre-observation before

conduct this research, the writer found that the students were not able to respond the

teacher’s question and they were not able to comprehend the texts after teaching learning process. Finally, they got low score achievement in reading English. After

analyzing the case, the writer found some causal factors that affect students’ reading

comprehension. First, the problem comes from the students such as they had low

motivation to read, they had difficulties in interpreting some aspect in reading, etc.

second, the problem comes from the teacher. The teaching learning strategy used by

the teacher is monotonous, therefore it made the students were bored while teaching

learning process. The other aspect is most activities in the classroom is dominated by

the teacher, therefore student had little rules in teaching learning process. Hence, the

writer assumes that the teacher should find an alternative and appropriate technique in

teaching the reading; because by finding an appropriate technique, the writer assumes

that all the problems such as students’ low motivation to read, teacher’s dominated

classroom, etc. will be covered by the technique it self.

Those explanations above are seemed to be reason for the writer to conduct

this research. Because the teaching strategy is a major problem in this research, the

teacher must find alternative and appropriate technique which can be applied in the

classroom. Finally, that technique is hoped to give the influences in students’ reading

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G.

Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a temporary answer or a conclusion of the research. To find out

is there any influences of using Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) technique towards

students reading comprehension of recount text. Therefore the hypothesis of this

research is, that Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) technique is giving influences or

effective towards students’ reading comprehension of recount text of class VIII of

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31

This chapter explains the methodology of the study. It consists of place

and time of the study, the object of the study, method of the study, the population

and sample, technique of data collection, technique of data analysis, and statistical

hypotheses.

A.

Place and Time of the Study

This research took place in SMP Dharma Karya UT which is located at Jl.

Talas II No.30 Pondok Cabe Ilir, Kecamatan Pamulang, Kota Tangerang Selatan,

Banten, on first semester.

The writer started the research on August 2014. This research was

conducted on August 2014. The writer conducted 6 meetings for each both

experiment class and control class. The first meeting was used to give the pre-test

in three clases. Next, second meeting until fifth meeting used to teach in

experiment class and control class. The writer used the treatment in the

experimental class. The last meeting was used by the writer to give the post-test.

Then, the writer collected all the data and analyzed them.

B.

Method of the Study

In this research, the researcher used quantitative research. This research

was conducted using an experiment design. Emzir pointed out as quoted from Gay

that experimental research is research methodology which can test hypothesis

related to casual relationship.1 In addition, Jogiyanto stated that experiment is a study which involves researcher manipulates some variables, analyzes them, and

observes the effect of the variable.2 Meanwhile, Kasiram explained that experimental research is a research methodology where the researcher

manipulates a stimulus or condition, then they observe the effect of the changing

1

Emzir, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008), p. 63-64

2

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of the stimuli or condition of the object.3 From the definition above, the writer conclude that experimental research is a research methodology where the

researcher gives the treatment to the variable or object, then they analyze them

and observe the changing effect of the variable.

This study used a Quasi Experiment Design specifically, because in a fact

it is difficult to get control group which is homogeny. Quasi experiment is one

approach of research which uses two groups; those are experimental class and

control class. Furthermore, Kasiram pointed out that, generally, the researcher in

experimental research uses two group, experimental group as a group that gets the

treatment and the control group that did not get the treatment. 4

The researcher implemented Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Technique in

the experiment class and conventional technique (Grammar Translation Method)

was delivered in the control class. This study focused on giving the treatment on

the experiment class by applying Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Technique in

teaching reading, and then the writer observed the result of teaching learning

process by classroom observation and test.

C.

The Population and Sample

The researcher conducted the experiment of SMP Dharma Karya UT,

academic year 2014/2015. The population of the research is the second grade of

Junior high school. There are 3 classes of second grade. The total number of

students or population is 75 students. The sampling technique of this research is

Purposive Sampling. It is purposive because the sampling is determined by certain

considerations.5 The sample is 50 students from two classes; both of those classes consist of 25 students. The researcher implemented Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS)

Technique in the first class and conventional technique that currently is used by

the teacher (Grammar Translation Method) was implemented in the second class.

Before the researcher conducted the research, he made sure that both classes have

3

Moh. Kasiram, Metodologi Penelitian: Refleksi Pengembangan Pemahaman dan Penguasaan Metodologi Penelitian, (Malang: UIN Malang Press, 2008), p. 210

4

Ibid, p. 211 5

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the same characteristic by doing a pre observation; they were observing the teaching and learning process in the classroom once and checking the students’ reading score from their real teacher. It will be found which classes that have the

same characteristic. The researcher also gave pre-test to all classes to know which

class that have same characteristic by seeing their scores. The researcher chose the

second grade because reading skill is the crucial skill for them in preparation of

facing the National Examination in the third.

D.

Technique of Data Collection

Technique and collecting data in this research used pre-test and post-test

which is given to both classes. In this research, the writer gave pre-test to see student’s basic capability in reading before using Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Technique of cooperative learning method in learning reading. The next test was

post-test which will measure the effectiveness of Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS)

Technique towards students’ reading achievement in a certain period.

The test which will be applied in this research is written test which consist

of 25 multiple choice questions. Before the test is applied, the researcher measures the instruments’ validity and reliability used ANATEST software.

The validity and reliability instrument test was conducted before the

researcher administered the test to both classes. There were 30 numbers of

questions given to the 40 students of class VIII.1 SMP Yadika Pasar Minggu

Jakarta Timur. From the ANATEST result, there were 25 valid questions from 30

questions which were gained. Further information about validity and reliability

result can be seen in the appendix.

E.

Technique of Data Analysis

The writer analyzed the data which taken from both classes 8-1 and 8-2.

Analyzing the data was the last step of the research to get the result of the

research. In this research, the writer used T-test formula as a technique of data

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(TSTS) Technique and to know the difference of students’ score in both

experimental class and controlled class. Here is the form of the T-test:

= Mean of Variable X

= Mean of Variable Y

SE = Standard Error

X = Experimental Class

Y = Control Class

N = Students

= t observation

Prior the calculation of the T-test there are several steps to be taken, they

are as follow:

a. Determining the Mean of Variable X, with formula:

b. Determining the Mean of Variable Y, with formula:

c. Determining the Standard Deviation Score of Variable X, with

formula:

√∑

d. Determining the Standard Deviation Score of Variable Y, with

formula:

(46)

e. Determining the Standard Error Mean of Variable X, with formula:

f. Determining the Standard Error Mean of Variable Y, with formula:

g. Determining the Standard Error of different Mean of Variable X and

Mean of Variable Y, with formula:

h. Determining to, with formula:

i. Determining the Degree of Freedom (df), with formula:

F.

Statistical Hypotheses

Before deciding the result of the hypotheses, the writer proposed two

hypotheses to be tested:

a. Ho: there is empirical evidence that the use of Two Stay Two Stray

(TSTS) technique is not effective in teaching reading in second grade

SMP Dharma Karya UT.

b. Ha: there is empirical evidence that the use of Two Stay Two Stray

(TSTS) Technique is effective in teaching reading in second grade

SMP Dharma Karya UT.

c. Ho : µ1 = µ2

d. Ha : µ1≠ µ2

And then, the criteria used as follows:

a. If ≤ ttable, in significant degree of 5% and 1%, the Null Hypothesis

Figur

Table 4.1 Pre-test and Post-test Score of Control Class

Table 4.1

Pre-test and Post-test Score of Control Class p.49
Table 4.2 Pre-test and Post-test Score of Experimental Class

Table 4.2

Pre-test and Post-test Score of Experimental Class p.50
Table 4.3 Normality of Pre-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Table 4.3

Normality of Pre-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test p.52
Table 4.5 Normality of Post-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Table 4.5

Normality of Post-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test p.53
Table 4.7 Pre-test Homogeneity

Table 4.7

Pre-test Homogeneity p.54

Referensi

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Related subjects : recount text and recount text