AND ITS TRANSLATION
(A Study of Communicative Translation)
MUCHAMAD RAMDANI NIM 63706010
Bandung, July 2010
Acknowledged by: Head of English Department
Retno Purwani Sari, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 4127.20.03.004
Drs. Yani, M.A.
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
In the process of translating a text, there are several aspects that may cause a problem because of the different form of language between source and target text. One of them is implicit information towards communication situation that may indicate missinterpretation. It involves the situational meaning which may be only known by the author and the reader of the SL text. This also happens in the process of translating English into Indonesian text. The situational implicit information in the source text has to be made explicit in the translation in order to get the correct meaning by the translator. Besides, the translator has to manage the amount of information both implicit and explicit information.
Larson stated: “...the amount of information included in the text will depend
on the amount of shared information..” (Larson, 1984: 38). According to the
statement above, the process of transferring the meaning is conducted by considering the impression of the message that must be delivered accurately in the translation as well as in the source. Hence, communicative translation can be achieved.
A number of previous studies related to this research have been conducted by; Sari (2006), entitled “Analisis Sintaksis dan Semantis Beban Informasi Pada Beberapa Cerita Anak-anak dan Terjemahannya (Tinjauan Terhadap Terjemahan
Komunikatif)”, and Rosadi (2007), entitled “Analisis Makna Implisit pada
Penerjemahan Novel Harry Potter and The Prisoner of Azkaban karya J.K
The findings of these studies have not revealed specific aspect of management towards situational implicit to explicit information. Those studies leave several problems as follows:
First, the previous study described that the research was generally
concerned with managing implicit and explicit information. It left the analysis of managing implicit to explicit information especially on implicit situational information.
Second, the previous study was only focused on findings the type of
implicit meaning and the technique in figuring out its translation equivalent. It missed some management on the aspect of presupposition which brings to the communication.
1.2 Research Question
This research is intended to answer the questions as follows:
1. In what way is situational implicit information managed to explicit information in order to get the translation equivalent?
2. What are the effects of managing situational implicit to explicit information towards information loads?
On the first research question, the description is conducted through the management of situational implicit information that is made into explicit information. It is intended to find out the communication situation on the text that has the influence for the appearance translation equivalent. To obtain the readability of the target text, however, the second question is focused on how far both information deal with information load that has to be understood accurately by the reader of target text.
The objectives of the research are:
1. To describe the way to manage situational implicit information to explicit information in gaining translation equivalent;
1.4 Significance to Knowledge
The result of the research is intended to provide others with the description on managing implicit to explicit information. It is important since the description will share the knowledge used in managing the case. Sharing of how to deal with them and of how to employ the translation equivalent are also the significance of this research. Besides, the importance of the speed of information will be introduced towards the information load. Hopefully, those matter can bring the benefit for the reader to interpret both implicit information properly in gaining the correct meaning of the text.
1.5 Framework of the Theories
In the process of translating, the understanding towards the whole text must be mastered because there is a fundamental aspect of translating the implicit information that is expressed explicitly (Larson, 1984: 38). On a book Meaning
Based Translation – A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence, Larson also stated
that the meaning is classified into three type; Referential meaning, Organizational meaning, and Situational meaning (Larson, 1984: 36). Therefore, to limit the research problems, this research is focused on the managing situational implicit meaning.
that each brings to the communication; and the cultural background. (See also Larson, 1984)
Figure 1.1: The Framework of Theories Managing Implicit to
Implicit Situational Information
1. Relationship between the speaker and the addressee,
2. sex, age and social status between the speaker and the addressee,
3. Time and Place where communication took place,
4. Presupposition which bring to the communication,
5. Cultural background between the speaker and the addressee.
Information load Communication
The amount of new information
This research is conducted through some theories including the theories of translation and of problems in translation. Those are following description for the reviews of theories.
2.1 The Definition of Translation
When the translator is going to translate the text, he has to master the knowledge of the translation. Besides, the competency in mastering Source Language (SL) and Target Language (TL) is also important to employ. It is intended to make an translation equivalent. It is also meant to deliver the same information in the TL as well as in SL though in the different forms. According to the aspects above, there are some theories based on the viewpoint of the experts.
According to Larson (1984: 3), translation is defined as the process of delivering the meaning of SL to TL. In this process, the study of lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and the cultural context is important in determining how to translate some text in an acceptable way. In other words, the translator has to master more knowledge to make the translation appropriately.
to learn what message that the author deliver to the audience. Thus, the message is expected to be understood appropriately by the reader.
Another opinion comes from Cartford (1965: 20) which defines translation as the substitution of the textual material in SL into the equivalent textual material in TL. The textual material is defined as what text that is expected to be translated. It reflects the SL text that may not be translated entirely because there is the replacement signed by the TL equivalents.
To sum up, the three theories above argue that translation is the process of transferring the meaning. Besides, they also put the other aspects that have to be considered in this process. Those are contemplating the study of lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and the cultural context; considering the author’s intention; and studying the textual material of the text.
The translator must make a communicative translation in TL. It means that its aim is to be understood properly by the reader of the TL. It can be achieved by adapting the natural style related to the form of the language of TL text. On A
Textbook of Translation, Newmark said that, “communicative translation is
social, concentrates the message and the main force of the text, tends to
under-translate, to be simple, clear and brief, and is always written in a natural and a
resourceful style.” (1988: 48). This statement means that the communicative
On the basis of Larson (1984: 15), communicative translation is called idiomatic translation which delivers the meaning naturally from SL text to TL text. It expects that the translation can have the same impression as well as the original text.
Summing up the two theories above, we can conclude that communicative translation or idiomatic translation is the method used to deliver the meaning accurately based on the forms of TL text. This method will give the same impression on the meaning both SL and TL as the representation of the natural style of the adaptation in the process of translating.
2.3 Problems in Translation 2.3.1 Information Load
The goal of the translator in translating the text is to gain the translation equivalent when delivering the information of SL text to TL text. Information load needs to be maintained in order to get the readability of the text by the reader. However, to obtain that aspect, translator has to consider the information load.
related to the speed at which new information is introduced, and to the amount of
new information that the language normally incorporates in particular
constructions. (Larson 1924: 438). Thus, the aspect of information load in this
research is focused on managing situational implicit to explicit information that has to be handled by concerning the speed of new information (the information introduced in TL text).
2.3.2 Explicit and Implicit Information
The explicit and implicit information in the text is the information that has to be translated properly. Both information have different ways when delivering its message. Explicit information introduces the stated information while implicit information is implied information. Each of them also influences the readability of the text.
126.96.36.199 Explicit Information
Translation also notices the information that can be introduced by the existence of its surface structure. It is called by explicit information. On Meaning Based Translation - A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence, Explicit information is the information which is overtly stated by the lexical items and grammatical forms. It is a part of surface structure forms (Larson, 1984: 38).
188.8.131.52 Implicit Information
One of the meanings that translator has to be aware is implicit meaning. It needs to be treated appropriately because it has the implied information which the reader may not know. To make it clear, it has to be stated by the translator. As the statements of Larson, The implicit information is part of the meaning which is to be communicated by the translation, because it is part of the meaning intended to
be understood by the original writer (Larson, 1984: 38).
The meaning conveying the implicit information has the implied message that is a part of a whole meaning. It has to be understood when it is communicated to the target text. This meaning is defined as the implicit meaning that is introduced entirely. There is a term that is not included entirely but the meaning still as a part of a whole meaning. Thus, it is called implicit information.
On the same book Larson also stated the implicit information as follows:
“However, it is information which the author and readers of the text have in common, or it is old information already mentioned in the text. Since it
clearly understood by both the author and the readers, it is implicit”
The two theories above describe the implicit information that is introduced entirely and is introduced partly. Firstly, there is the implied message that is the part of the whole meaning. It is only known by the author of SL text. Secondly, the implied message refers to the old information that have already introduced in previous, so there is a part of the message which is shown partly.
A. Implicit Situational Information
In producing the translation, the translator has to know some kinds of meaning that need to manage. For instance, the translation of implicit information based on the situational meaning. It deals with several aspects related to the communication situation. If the text is introduced to someone who does not know the situation in SL, so it will be hard for the reader of TL to understand the information. Due to this fact, this information has to be made explicit in TL text.
2.3.3 Managing Implicit to Explicit Information
Implicit information of source language is made explicit for the correct meaning and then it is improved by adding information. It is called managing implicit to explicit information.
Some information for the reader of target text will be unnatural if it is translated literally without considering the context. In order to deliver the message accurately, it needs additional information (Martaya, 1989: 30). Additional information will reduce the speed of information. However, it is produced in order to get more natural result because there is some implied information that has to be stated clearly. However, a specific guideline may be useful to cover that case especially in managing implicit information of the SL text to be explicit on TL text (Larson, 1984: 455). Those are:
a) When required of the grammar of the target language;
b) When necessary for correct and clear expression of the source text
c) When needed for naturalness of style or to create some emotive effect as the
d) Only if truly implied in the source text.
Since the managing implicit to explicit information can not be separated with the old and new information, it is important to know the differentiation both them.
Given (old) and new information in every language has the different ways to deliver. In order to perceive the natural style, the form of language have to considered properly. Larson stated that: “Old information is that which had already been introduced in the text. New information is that not previously
referred to in the text” (Larson, 1984: 442). Another statement comes from O’Grady, Dobrovolsky, and Aronoff on Contemporary Linguistic who stated the
definition of both information as follows:
“Old (Given information) consists of the knowledge that the speaker
assumes is available to the addressee at the time of the utterance, either because it is shared by both or because it has already been introduced into the discourse. In contrast, new information involves knowledge that is introduced into the discourse for the first time” (O’Grady, 1997: 273).
Based on definitions above, old information can be defined as the information that had been introduced in the previous text (source text) while the new information is introduced in the target text.
Since the research conducts the managing implicit to explicit information, the implicit of the source text deals with old information while the explicit one of target text deals with new information.
already explained in the preceding text, those are the ways that have to be considered.
184.108.40.206 The Relationship between the Speaker and the Addressee
This aspect describes that the writer or the speaker is the communicator while the addressee is the audience in the communication situation. For example, when William Smith is called Professor Smith by his student in the college, it means that the relationship between them deals with the teacher and student. In other situation, Professor Smith is called by William by his relative. According to the statements above, the relationships between the speaker and the addressee emphasized by how the addressee calls the speaker based on their relationships.
However, the factors of speaker-addressee relationship in the implicit situational information can be managed by determining the chosen vocabulary. The selection of vocabulary will be conducted concerning to whom the speaker talks about and to what situation is held (see also Larson, 1984: 133). The information above defines as the implicit information that is introduced partly because some term is reduced but still a part of a whole meaning.
220.127.116.11 The Age, Sex, and Social Status of the Speaker and the Hearer and the Relationship between them
They agree with something that has to be covered for some appreciation when conducting communication with someone who has the different age, sex, and social status. It will make the speaker and the hearer interested in communication situation. For example, when the speaker is the boss and the hearer is the employee so the communication situation is held between two persons with different social status. Based on the example above, the employee must call his boss politely. The information above defines as the implicit information that is introduced partly because some term is reduced but still a part of a whole meaning.
To sum up, the factors of sex, age and social status might be managed by several ways. The translator can conduct the process of this management through the certain pronunciation, words, and grammar in the formal speech, informal speech, and casual speech. Formal speech may be used, for example, in the classroom, in parliament, when the elders of the village speak to the people, and in radio broadcasts. The usage of Informal speech may be in the outside of the classroom, around the fires of the village, when eating together, and in most conversations. For the casual speech, it is used, for instance, in the home and with the close friends (See also Larson, 1984: 136).
18.104.22.168 Time and Place where the Communication Took Place
time and place that influence some communication. It notices the speaker in how to communicate the information based on the certain time and place.
SL (English version) : It comes as relief when Wood suddenly stood up and yelled, Team! Bed! (J.K.R: 343)
TL (Indonesia version) : Lega sekali ketika Wood tiba-tiba berdiri dan berteriak, “seluruh anggota tim! Tidur! (L.S: 372)
Concerning to the example above, the word bed has the implied message. It signifies the place that Team have to go to sleep. In the TL text, the word bed is replaced by tidur that is clearly introduced the time for sleep. Due to this fact, the place and time that communication took place reflects the certain place and time of the communication situation. The implied information may introduce through the indicator related to the place and time. The information bed above defines as the implicit information because this term does not show the intention to offer to sleep. The information tidur has the intention for that by considering the place-bed- , thus tidur can represent the whole meaning.
22.214.171.124 The Presuppositions which Brings to the Communication
This part stated about the presuppositions which each brings to the communication. Based on Brown and Yule (1983: 29), presuppositions are what is taken by the speaker to be the common ground of the participants in the
conversation. On the base of the statement above, presupposition defines as
The phrase „common ground’ signifies the notion of assumed as stated by
Stalnaker (1978: 321) on Brown and Yule, The notion of assumed „common ground’ is also involved in such a characterisation of presupposition and can be
found in this definition. Those aspects may make whether a right or a wrong
assumption of the audience since what is taken by the speaker is implied. Related to this research, the aspect brought by the speaker related to situational implicit information. Thus, it needs to be made explicitly. For example:
a. My uncle is coming home from Canada
b. My uncle isn’t coming home from Canada
c. I have an uncle
Keenan on Brown and Yule stated that “(2a) logically presupposes (2c) because
of constancy under negation” Keenan (1978:45). However, it may not need to
show the negative sentence (2b) through the consideration of relationship between (2a) and (2c). It means that because of the speaker prefer to say my uncle rather than I have an uncle and he…., we have to consider that she may not need to emphasize the information. The important thing is that there is a person coming home from Canada.
126.96.36.199 The Cultural Background of the Speaker and of the Addressee
The sixth aspect notices about the different cultural aspect, the communication that will obviously hard to do. It illustrates in the communication situation bellow:
SL (English version) : “Excellent, Harry,” Lupin Muttered, as Harry climbing out of the trunk, grinning, “Full Marks.” (J.K.R: 364)
TL (Indonesia version) : “Bagus sekali, Harry,” gumam Lupin ketika Harry memanjat turun dari dalam peti, nyengir.
“sepuluh.” (L.S: 391) (Rosadi: 2007)
Due to the example above, the cultural background between SL and TL text towards the italic words were introduced differently. The phrase Full Marks that represents a perfect mark is replaced by the equivalent translation sepuluh. The message of full marks and sepuluh has the same impression. However, by making the communication as natural as the other’s culture, the adaptation will be produced accurately. Thus, the cultural background may indicate the different utterance both SL and TL. The information above defines as partial implicit information because it has a form but has the different meaning if it is translated literally. In fact, the intention has the similarity that means a perfect mark signed by a ten.
both of SL text and TL text. Those are called a person’s pattern which impresses the naturalness of each culture.
2.4 Research Context
In this part, previous research on managing implicit and explicit information will be described. The description in this part will employ both managing of implicit and explicit information semantically and syntactically, and the analysis of implicit meaning on translation. Both cases are important to discuss because they have relevance with this research.
2.4.1 The Analysis of Syntactic and Semantic on Implicit and Explicit Information
In the first previous study by Sari (2006), entitled “Analisis Sintaksis dan Semantis Beban Informasi Pada Beberapa Cerita Anak-anak dan Terjemahannya
(Tinjauan Terhadap Terjemahan Komunikatif)”, the research was left to
construction and abstract nouns, the equivalent translation is employed by giving these three aspects in target text. Besides, Ellipsis and substitution, the result is left to the managing of grammatical structure of target text.
2.4.2 The Analysis of Implicit Meaning on Translation
In the previous study conducted by Rosadi (2007), entitled “Analisis Makna Implisit pada Penerjemahan Novel Harry Potter and The Prisoner of
Azkaban karya J.K Rowling”, was focused on finding the type of implicit
22 3.1 Research Object
The objects of this research are situational implicit and explicit information included on the chosen data whether in the source text as the old information or in the target text (after translated) as the new information.
The source of the data are the Novel Morning, Noon & Night by Sidney Sheldon (English Version), Published by Harper Collins Publisher in 1955; and
Pagi, Siang dan Malam, translated by Hendarto Setiaji (Indonesia version),
published by PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama in 2009. Both of novels are chosen as the source of the data since they have sufficient data involving situational implicit and explicit information that is representative for the topic of this research.
3.2 Research Method
The method used in the research is comparative-descriptive method. This method is intended to figure out the basic answer towards causality aspect by analyzing the factors that causes certain phenomenon (Nazir, 1988: 68).
be analyzed towards TL text. After both information are compared, then, there is some phenomenon which has to be described. The focus is to find the base of why some situational implicit information has to be made explicit as the author transferred. Thus, it must consider the detail of how the phenomenon appears.
3.2.1 Data Collection
The data of the research were collected within several steps, the first, reading Sheldon’s Morning, Noon, & Night and its Translation to find out the data that includes situational implicit and explicit information. The second, identifying situational implicit information of source text (English version), then identifying explicit information in target text (Indonesian version). The last, classifying the data of situational implicit that is made to explicit information, needs to conduct. The chosen data are taken from two of source data. It is meant to make the reader easy to find out the data that have implicit and explicit information.
The collected data is documented on the table by dividing to two aspect of information as follows:
Situational Implicit Information towards the cultural background.
3.2.2 Data Analysis
The classified data were analyzed according to the situational implicit information stated by Larson ((1984: 37). Several aspects including in this information are the relationship between the writer or speaker and the addressee; the age, sex, and social status of the speaker and the hearer; the relationship between them; where the communication took place; when the communication took place; the presuppositions which brings to the communication; and the cultural background of the speaker and of the addressee. Afterwards, the analysis will also be conducted in how to define translation equivalence. Hence, the data can be concluded whether it is communicative or not.
“the receiver” 1. Treasurer 2. A person appointed to hold in a trust
and administer property under litigation.
In the first data, the phrase the receiver does not show the correlation with the phone. Regarding with the situation of the text, this phrase is expressed to illustrate Harry Stanford who usually keeps in touch with his relation to make sure that his money is secured in the bank.
In the second data, the phrase gagang telepon is explicit either in the form or in the meaning. Gagang telepon is used to represent that this phrase has a correlation with a phone because the presupposition in the text indicates that Harry Stanford makes a phone call in the telephone booth, with his relation in a bank.
Based on the comparison above, the phrase gagang telepon has the specific meaning related to the part of telephone. However, in this situation, the translator used gagang telepon because itmay not cause the wrong assumption of TL text’s reader. Gagang telepon in TL text is commonly used to represent the
handle of the phone either in a public or private. On the basis of the data above, the term the receiver is categorized as partial implicit and the situational meaning is classified as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the presupposition which brings to the communication.
This chapter describes the result of the research. The research will be focused on the situational implicit information. This information is classified into several categories, such as the relationship between the speaker and the addressee; the social status of the speaker and the addressee (the writer focus on this aspect since there is no representative data for the aspect of the age and sex between the speaker and the addressee); time and place where the communication took place; the presuppositions which brings to the communication; and the cultural background of the speaker and of the addressee. After the data is being classified, it will be analyzed by Larson’s Theories.
4.1 The Relationship between the Speaker and the Addressee
Fitzgerald looked into the faces of the children of Harry Stanford. „As a matter of fact, he said, „each of you will share equally in the estate.’ (MNN, 142)
SL Text “you”
1. The one or ones being addressed 2. Used as the pronoun of the second
person singular. TL Text
Addressing someone in speech as a neutral form and has no close relation.
In the data 1a, pronoun you has the meaning the one or ones being addressed. Pronoun you does not show familiarity and unfamiliarity. According to the situation on the text, it is used by Fitzgerald to address Harry Stanford’s children that have never met before. Fitzgerald is a lawyer of Harry Stanford’s children as his works to dispense a legacy from their father.
In the data 1b, pronoun anda is explicit either in the form or in the meaning especially related to the relationship. Pronoun Anda is used to represent that there is unfamiliarity between Fitzgerald as the lawyer with Harry Stanford's children as the client. Due to this fact, it is more specific in TL text since the information is shown with the specific relationship.
On one side, pronoun you is implicit because it does not show the unfamiliarity between Fitzgerald and Harry Stanford’s children. On the other side,
In TL text, there are two pronouns used to address someone, anda and kamu. The first is used to address unfamiliar while the second is used to address familiar person. However, in this situation, the writer used anda rather than kamu because
Anda is commonly used in formal situation and show the unfamiliarity. In this
relationship of work. On the basis of the data above, the term you is categorized as partial implicit and the situational meaning is classified as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the relationship between the writer or speaker and the addressee. Since there is the additional information about the closeness of relationship, the information in TL text is slowly introduced. According to the fact above, communicative translation can be achieved easily as well as the situation in the text.
Harry’s father thought he was crazy, and he turn down the idea. But Harry didn’t intend to let anything get in mentah-mentah. Tapi Harry tidak menyerah.Dia memutuskan sudah suggesting that of father to child.
fact, in this situation, the translator used the old man rather than father. However,
the old man is explicit in a value of relationship but implicit in parenting.
In the data 2b, ayahnya is used by the translator to show explicitly the relationship between Harry Stanford and his father. Culturally in Indonesia, parents is highly evaluated. Thus, ayahnya is explicit in parenting but implicit in a value of relationship.
The phrase the old man shows the implicit information about the value of relationship between the speaker and the addressee. On the other hand, the word
ayahnya (his father) shows the parenting between Harry and his father explicitly.
Thus, the term the old man is categorized as partial implicit.
Concerning to that fact, the amount of information in TL text is the same as in SL text because the speed of information is maintained. Thus, communicative translation can be reached easily from the context since the adaptation is employed within the natural style as well as the cultural context of the reader.
4.2 The Social Status of the Speaker and the Addressee Data 3a
“Tunggu dulu”. Stanford mengamati awak kapal. Ia mengerutkan kening. “Orang di ujung sana. Dia orang baru bukan?”. Ya sir, salah satu pelayan jatuh sakit di Capri, orang baru ini sangat…. ”Pecat dia”. Stanford memerintahkan. (PSM,P.28)
Forms Meaning Concerning to the previous text of SL, Harry has no respect to the new cabin boy. He offers Captain Vaccaro to fire him. The meaning get rid of him may mean to throw away him to the sea. Thus, since the meaning may leave an ambiguity, this information is implicit in order.
In the data 3b, the form pecat dia shows that Harry Stanford can fire his employee whenever he wants. It is more explicit since there is the certain order and the situation give the meaning to a firing someone. Regarding to the explanation above, this information is more natural and specific.
The situational meaning in this situation is categorized as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the social status of the speaker and the addressee. The information load on SL text is still maintained because the speed of information in TL text is the same as in SL text. Pecat represents Get rid of In SL text. In this case, the speed of information may slow down. Dia represents him in SL text. In this case, the speed of information is still maintained. Therefore, communicative translation can be achieved appropriately.
„My dear girl, no self respecting
“Sayang, kau takkan memperoleh pekerjaan tanpa portfolio. Itu phrase have several meanings whether shooting head twice caused by the weapon and capturing a head twice by the camera. There is no specific meaning that appropriate for TL. However, in the previous text of SL there is the notice describing the conversation between Kendall – who wants to be a model – and Roxanne Marinack – person who has responsibility in recruiting the models, in his office. Roxanne wants Kendall’s photograph to make sure whether she can be a
model or not. Then, he captures Kendall’s face twice. In this phrase, there is implicit information which is pronoun. There is no pronoun representing Kendall.
represents two in SL text, the phrase foto close-up represents shots in SL text while wajah represents head in SL text. However, there is a clitic –mu that is not introduced in SL text. Based on the situation, clitic –mu on dua foto close-up
wajahmu can represent Kendall who will be photographed. Thus, this phrase is
explicit in TL text.
According to the description above, there is the influence of the place and time on some occasion to the Roxanne expression on two head shots. The place is the office of Roxanne (Paramount Models) where Kendall comes to propose herself to be a model. The occasion is when Kendall has to follow photo session because at the previous she cannot submit her portfolio to Roxanne. If the place in the jungle and at that time there was someone who shots the tiger’s head, the phrase two head shots means a real shooting by a weapons in a head of a tiger. It is not appropriate with the situation in the text. Thus, the translator makes the translation equivalent related to the situation in the text, on dua foto close-up
wajahmu. Concerning to those situations, the situational meaning in this context is
categorized as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the place and time where the communication took place. Since there is additional information –mu in TL text, the speed of information is delivered slowly. Yet, communicative
translation can be achieved properly because the natural form is introduced in TL. Data 5a
„is something wrong?’ „No my dear. Everything is fine. You said you liked to travel. Well, we’re going to take a little trip. She was wide awake now. „at this hour?’ „Yes. We must be very quite.’ (MNN, 11)
Dan kita tidak boleh ribut.” (PSM, 21)
Forms Shared Meaning
“at this hour?” Asking for the intention of something in some time.
“Pagi-pagi buta begini?”
Asking for the intention of something in the morning.
In the data 5a, the form “at this hour?” is explicit but the meaning of this form is implicit because there is some information that is not illustrated explicitly. Based on this situation, the phrase “at this hour?” does not show the exact time. Regarding to that matter, this information is categorized as partial implicit.
In the data 5b, the phrase Pagi-pagi buta begini? is introduced explicitly. This information states the exact time on the word pagi-pagi (Morning). Based on the explanation above, this information is more natural.
Based on the situation in SL text, Harry Stanford awakes Sophia after midnight. She was surprise then she expresses this situation with the question “at this hour?”. If it is expressed at noon, it will be impossible if Sophia become
wonder because at that time she was having the other activity. In TL text, “ pagi-pagi buta begini” (after midnight) is used based on the situation then, its meaning
TL text is added by the word pagi-pagi buta. Thus, the information in TL text is introduced slowly.
Underlining the fact above, the translation equivalent is conducted. Thus, communicative translation can be gained easily since the natural form has been And then his father’s voice, „I won’t let you leave. You’ve got to be reasonable, Rosemary! This is the only way that you and I can… „I won’t listen to you. And I’m keeping the baby!’ Then Rosemary had disappeared. (MNN: 65)
Ia sedang lewat di depan pintu ruang kerja ayahnya ketika ia mendengar akan mempertahankan bayi ini!” Setelah itu Rosemary menghilang. (PSM: 83)
“You’ve got to be reasonable” Someone who are being in accordance with reason.
“Jangan keras kepala”
Do not be headstrong.
appropriate with the situation. In fact, underlining the previous text, the utterance You’ve got to be reasonable is expressed by Stanford to his daughter – Rosemary – because of her decision to leave him. Since her father does not agree with her
decision, he assumes that his daughter is headstrong. In accordance with the information above, the information is categorized as partial implicit.
In the data 6b, the information on Jangan keras kepala is explicit whether in a form or in meaning. It tends to someone expression to other for his decision. It relates to the illustration on the previous text. Then, it is more natural in TL text as the translation equivalent.
If the phrase You’ve got to be reasonable is expressed in the class when a student argues with his teacher, the meaning from this information tends to make some argumentation. Since the situation in SL text shows the anger of Stanford to his daughter, so this phrase is expressed to show the headstrong of his daughter. The phrase keras kepala represents the phrase to be reasonable. Due to that fact, the amount of information in TL text is added by keras kepala which make the information in TL text is introduced slowly. Based on those situations, the situational meaning in this context is categorized as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the place and time where the communication took place. However, communicative translation can be obtained properly since there is natural form in TL.
Captain Vacarro studied him, tampak terburu-buru, tapi detik berikutnya dia bersikap seakan-akan mempunyai waktu tak terbatas. (PSM,34)
“studied” 1. Carefully considered or prepared. 2. Knowledgable and learned. 3. Produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation.
“menatapnya” 1. to. To conform one’s action or practice
2. To watch carefully especially with attention to details or behavior for the purpose of arriving at judgment.
3.To come to realize or know especially through consideration of noted facts.
may be some presupposition. If it is noticed from the form, this phrase tends to be defined as learning everything about Stanford. Thus, the information above is categorized as partial implicit.
In the data 7b, the word menatapnya is more explicit. This information reflects that Vacarro tends to observe Stanford for the reaction of why he still wants to stay in Portofino. This word represents the illustration that has been described in the previous text.
Underlining the comparison above, if studied is translated literary in TL text as to learn something as well as in the class, there will be the wrong assumption of TL text’s reader. In order to reduce first presupposition of TL’s reader that tends to the wrong meaning, the term studied him is translated into
menatapnya which represents looking at someone with full attention. This term is
4.5 The Cultural Background of the Speaker and of the Addressee Data 8a
Stanford and Sophia had lunch at the beach of Liscia in Vacca. Stanford ordered for them. „We’ll start with
malloreddus.’ Flakes of dough made
of hard-grainwheat. „Then the
porceddu.’ Little suckling pig,
cooked with myrtle and bay leaves. (MNN, 27) dari gandum. “Lalu porceddu.” Babi kecil yang dimasak dengan aneka
family myrtaceae, the myrtle family), of
southern Europe with oval to lance-European laurel used in cooking.
1. Any of various aromatic vegetables products used to season or flavor foods. 2. A small portion, quantity or
myrtle family), of southern Europe with oval to lance-scaped shyni leaves, fragrant white or rosy flowers, and black beries. As the previous text describes before, Stanford tries to give the information to Sophia about the food they ordered. The term of myrtle and bay leaves is commonly used in Europe to season some foods but the term does not work in the other place which has the different terms. According to those illustrations, the information tends to partial implicit since though there is the existence of the term myrtle and bay leaves but their function still is unknown by the reader of TL text.
In the data 8b, the translator uses aneka rempah-rempah for the translation equivalent because it is more explicit in concept for the reader of TL text. The concept in TL text is more emphasized to season the food. In TL text, the adaptation for aneka rempah-rempah is applied because this term reflects the situation when Harry Stanford have a dinner with Sophia.
Tiba-tiba terdngar suara menggeram dari arah kabin. “Tenang, Prince.
A good boy: a favourable character of a male servant; of a male
which belong to Harry Stanford. Therefore, situation gives the meaning to a good dog. On the basis of those facts, the information is categorized as partial implicit.
In the data 9b, anjing manis is explicit information. It is because its meaning obviously describes a good dog which is very obedient to his caretaker. There is the set of values in TL text through this term. Anjing manis is transferred into TL text since the information is equivalent with description about Prince.
Concerning two both data, there is the different set of values between SL text and TL text. In SL text, a good boy may refer to a good dog. In TL text, anjing manis is more natural since it is directly refer to a good dog. Due to the different sets of values, the situational meaning through this context is classified as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the cultural background of the speaker and of the addressee. The information of a good boy in SL text is still maintained in TL text because it needs some additional information about the animal named dog.
Underlining the explanation above, communicative translation can be received easily in TL text. It is because the information of anjing manis is more proper with the sets of rules in TL text used to called a good dog.
Data 10a It was a perfect day. The sun had
horizon and rivers of silver light ran term is uncommon in TL text because there is the term that commonly used in TL text. If this term related to the several meaning on the table above, there will be ambiguous. In fact, according to the previous text in SL, the term horizon and
rivers is used by Stanford for his astonishment to the beautiful sky. He talks about
In the data 10b, cakrawala is explicit in TL text. This term is commonly used to express a sky. The meaning directly represents a sky or a firmament which related to the illustration in the previous text. Thus, cakrawala is translation equivalent for horizon and rivers because it is more natural in TL text.
Based on the analysis of both data, there is the different set of belief between SL text and TL text. In one side, horizon and rivers may represent two different things. On the other side, cakrawala is more appropriate since the situation the meaning to a sky. Comparing those different sets of belief, the situational meaning through this context is categorized as the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the cultural background of the speaker and of the addressee. The amount of information in TL text is added by cakrawala, so this information is slowly introduced in TL text.
45 CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
According to the data analysis in the previous chapter, this chapter consisted of conclusions and suggestions described in the clarification as follows:
1. Situational Implicit information in SL text is made explicit in TL text for the appropriate meaning related to the context in the previous text. It is intended to get the equal impression of both SL text and TL text. Thus, it is expected that the text can be readable for the reader especially of TL text.
2. Implicit information can be divided into partial implicit and implicit. Partial implicit introduces the form but there is the implied meaning included that is a part of the whole meaning. In contrast, implicit does not introduce its form but still as a part of the whole meaning.
3. The translation equivalent for the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of the relationship between the speaker and the addressee of SL text can be introduced explicitly by the specific relationship. The implied meaning or form tends to the expression representing whether a good relation or bad relation depending on the context in the previous text. Besides, there are close relationship or formal relationship.
explicitly in TL text by adding the information of social status. As shown as in the findings and discussion, the implied meaning show to whom the words deliver to what social status.
5. The translation equivalent for the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of place and time where the communication took place of SL can be described explicitly in TL text related to the time and place causing some expression on the communication. As introduced as in the findings and discussion, for instance, the expression two head shots representsthe time when someone’s picture will be captured and the place is in photo studio.
The translation equivalent will be dua foto close-up di wajahmu (two close-up photos of your face.
6. The translation equivalent for the implicit situational meaning through the aspect of presupposition which brings to the communication of SL text can be shown explicitly in TL text by changing the form which appropriate with the context. As described as in the findings and discussion, for example, the form studied him can be changed explicitly into menatapnya.
If studied him is translated literally, the presupposition may be to learn
him. In fact, based on the context, it is properly translated into menatapnya (look at him).
transformed explicitly into aneka rempah-rempah which has the similar meaning as in SL text. The form in SL text is not appropriate with TL text culture.
8. The information load on implicit information tends to slowly deliver because there is additional information that has to be added to make the information explicit.
9. The process of managing implicit to explicit information will cause the communicative translation since it gives the same impression and appropriate meaning.
According to the findings of the research in the previous text, the writer will give several suggestions related to the topic, as follows:
1. Some implicit information does not only translated literally, but also has to be conducted according to the context, Therefore, the translator has to comprehend the whole meaning of the context.
2. Since there are several aspects impressing the situation communication on the implicit information, the translator has to master those aspects in order to get the appropriate meaning. Besides, the translator has to know the different culture of SL text and TL text.
4. The translating skill is not only represented by reading many theories, but also by practicing every time. Thus, for the students who are interested in translating, they have to master how to translate any types of information involving implicit information.
5. For those who are interested in researching this topic, the writer expects that they can know the describes the other data related to this topic 6. In this research, especially on the aspect of sex, age and social status
between the speaker and the hearer, the researcher only focused on the analysis of social status between the speaker and the hearer. The next researchers can analyze the rest involving the aspect of sex and age between the speaker and the hearer.
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF APPENDICES x
LIST OF TERMS xi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1Background to the Study 1
1.2Research Questions 3
1.4Significance to Knowledge 4
1.5Framework of the Theories 4
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW 7
2.1 The Definition of Translation 7
2.2 Communicative Translation 8
2.3 Problems in Translation 9
2.3.1 Information Load 9
2.3.3 Managing Implicit to Explicit Information 13
188.8.131.52 The Relationship between The Speaker and The Addressee 15
184.108.40.206 The Age, Sex, and Social Status of The Speaker and
The Hearer and The Relationship between Them 15 220.127.116.11 Time and Place where The Communication Took Place 16 18.104.22.168 The Presuppositions which Brings to
The Communication 17
22.214.171.124 The Cultural Background of The Speaker and
of The Addressee 18
2.4 Research Context 20
2.4.1 The Analysis of Syntactic and Semantic on Implicit and
Explicit Information 20
2.4.2 The Analysis of Implicit Meaning on Translation 20
CHAPTER III RESEARCH OBJECT AND METHOD 22
3.1 Research Object 22
3.2 Research Method 22
3.2.1 Data Collection 23
4.2 The Social Status of the Speaker and the Hearer 30 4.3 Time and Place where the Communication Took Place 32 4.4 The Presuppositions which Brings to the Communication 37 4.5 The Cultural Background of the Speaker and of the Addressee 39
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 45
5.1 Conclusions 45
5.2 Suggestions 47
LIST OF DICTIONARIES 50
Submitted to fulfill one of the requirements of Sarjana Sastra Degree
MUCHAMAD RAMDANI NIM 63706010
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS
INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER BANDUNG
A. Personal Identity
1. Name : Muchamad Ramdani
2. Place and Date of Birth : Bandung, 11 June 1986 3. Student Number : 63706010
4. Major : English Department
5. Sex : Male
6. Nationality : Indonesia 7. Religion : Islam
8. Phone Number : (022) 76484969 9. Mobile Number : 085659363221
10.Address : Jl. Sayati Hilir No. 103 RT 05 RW 15 Margahayu Bandung 40228
11.E-mail : email@example.com
12.Weight : 65 kg
13.Height : 170 cm
14.Marital Status : Single 15.Parents
1. Father : Cahya Koswara Occupation : Employee
Mother : Leni Gustinar
Occupation : Civil Servant (PNS)
Address : Jl. Sayati Hilir No. 103 RT 05 RW 15 Margahayu Bandung 40228
B. Formal Education
No Year Institution
1 1991 – 1992 TK Marhamah Hasanah Margahayu Bandung 2 1992 – 1998 SDN Angkasa XII Margahayu Bandung 3 1998 – 2001 SLTP Negeri 2 Margahayu Bandung 4 2001 – 2004 SMK Negeri 7 Bandung
5 2006 – Now Student of UNIKOM Bandung
C. Informal Education
No Year Institution
1 1999 Victory English School Margahayu Bandung
2 2003 Self Motivation Training 3 2007 Workshop on copywriting 4 2007 - 2008 English Major Organization 5 2008 Leadership Training
6 2009 Copywriting Seminar and Workshop
8 2010 Copywriting Seminar
9 2010 National Technology Information Seminar 10 2010 Translating and Interpreting Workshop
No Year Organization
Commander of the unit of PKS SLTPN 2 Margahayu Bandung
Head of Students Internal Organization (OSIS) SMKN 7 Bandung
Laboratory Assistant at PT. Paragon Indonesia Bandung
Account Executive at Bandung Plus Magazine Bandung
5 2006-2007 Member of HIMA SAIS UNIKOM Bandung 6 2007-2008 Head of HIMA SAIS UNIKOM Bandung
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 1996. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
xi 2. TL : Target Language
SITUATIONAL IMPLICIT TO EXPLICIT
INFORMATION IN SHELDON’S
MORNING, NOON & NIGHT AND
(A Study of Communicative Translation)
THIS SKRIPSI HAS BEEN REVISED, APPROVED BY THE EXAMINERS AND ADVISORS, AND IS ALLOWED TO BE COPIED.