UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
(JATI BERINGIN SDN. BHD)
This report submitted in accordance with requirement of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the Bachelor Degree of Manufacturing Engineering
(Manufacturing Management) with Honours.
MOHAMAD BIN ISMAIL
UTeM Library (Pind.1/2005)
(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)
(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)
1246-B, KG. MASJID BATU BUROK 20400, KUALA TERENGGANU
* Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM). ** Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD.
BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS* UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
JUDUL: ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY (JATI BERINGIN SDN.BHD)
SESI PENGAJIAN: 2009-2010
Saya _____________________________________________________________________ mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah) ini disimpan di
Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:
1. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.
3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.
4. **Sila tandakan (√)
MOHAMAD BIN ISMAIL
I hereby, declared this report entitled “Ergonomic Assessment in Manufacturing Industry (Jati Beringin sdn. Bhd)” is the results of my own research except as cited in references.
Signature : ……….
Author’s Name : MOHAMAD BIN ISMAIL
This report is submitted to the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering of UTeM as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Management) with Honours. The member of the supervisory committee is as follow:
(Signature of Supervisor)
Utmost gratefulness to The Almighty ALLAH SWT for the abundant blessing and favours for me to accomplished the research Projek Sarjana Muda.
I would like to extend my warmest gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Nor Akramin B. Mohamad for his excellent supervision, invaluable guidance, advice trust, constant help, support, encouragement and assistance towards me throughout this project.
I would also like to thank Jati Beringin Sdn. Bhd. and their staff as they provided me to place, time and always shows their sincere kindness in helping and gave me useful information.
viii 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Ergonomics 6
2.2 Manual material handling 8
2.2.1 Lifting tasks 9
2.3 Musculoskeletal Disorders 10
2.3.1 Musculoskeletal Problem in Sitting and Standing 11 2.3.2 Effects of MSD on productivity efficiency 12
2.4 Low back pain 12
2.4.1 Back pain and muscular fatigue 13
2.4.2 Other Causes of Back Pain 14
2.4.3 Spinal Problems in Standing 15
2.5 Workstation design 15
2.6 Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) 17
2.7 Noise 19
2.8 Light 20
2.9 Illumination 21
2.10 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Heath
2.11 Research for Ergonomics 23
3.1 Planning of Study 26
3.1.1 Define problem 29
3.1.2 Define the objective, scope and problem of
the study 29
3.1.3 Visit and observation the current
3.1.4 Literature Review 30
3.1.5 Data Collection 30
184.108.40.206 Semi-Structure Interview 30
3.1.6 Data Verification 31
3.1.7 RULA Method 31
220.127.116.11 RULA Analyze Procedure 31 18.104.22.168 Procedures of Experiment 33 3.1.8 Data collection noise assessment 33 3.1.9 Data collection lighting assessment 34 3.2 Conclusion and Recommendation Improvement 35
3.3 Conclusion 35
3.4 Research Methodology 35
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 38
4.2 Data Collection 39
4.2.1 Observation 39
4.2.2 Semi Structure Interview 41
4.3 Ergonomics Assessment 43
4.3.1 RULA Result before Implementation 43 22.214.171.124 Result from Real Situation 44
4.3.2 Noise Assessment 49
126.96.36.199 Data Noise Assessment 50
4.3.3 Lighting Assessment 53
188.8.131.52 Data Lighting Assessment 55
4.4 Proposal for Ergonomics Improvement 59
4.4.1 Workspace Design 59
184.108.40.206 Work surface height 59
220.127.116.11 Work Area 60
4.4.3 Proposal Drawing for New Workstation Design 62
4.4.4 Training 65
4.4.5 Proposal Improvement for Noise and Lighting
4.5 Result after Improvement 68
4.5.1 Result after Workspace Design Improvement 68 4.5.2 Ergonomics Awareness Improvement 71
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction 72
5.2 Observation the Result Findings 72
5.3 Limitation of the Project 73
5.4 Recommendation of the Project 73
5.5 Conclusion 74
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Safe noise level recommended by OSHA 20
2.2 Summary of journal 23
3.1 The Description of methodology 36
4.1 Situation the operator does the job 39 4.8 Data collection for noise level at afternoon 51 4.9 Data collection for noise level at evening 52 4.10 The occupational Safety and Health Administration 53 4.11 Data collection for lighting level at the morning 55 4.12 Data collection for lighting level at the afternoon 56 4.13 Data collection for lighting level at the evening 57
4.14 Table of light level 58
4.15 Training details 65
4.16 Example training at the factory 66
4.17 Posture risk assessment for group A 69
4.18 Posture risk assessment for group B 70
4.19 Scoring for group A body part 70
4.20 Scoring for group B body part 71
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Method of ergonomic assessment 8
2.2 Example of manual material handling 9
2.3 Example of low back pain 13
2.4 Task requirement workstation design 16
2.5 Recommended work surface for standing work 16 2.6 Wrist posture is determined by the height an orientation of
the work surface and the shape of the hand tool 17
2.7 Example table of ergoweb of RULA 19
2.8 Example of Table ergoweb NIOSH 22
3.1 Project methodology flow chart 28
3.2 Selection of RULA in the Job Evaluator Toolbox 4.0 32 3.3 Posture risk factor assessment for Group A
(upper arm, lower arm, and wrist) 32
3.4 Posture risk factor assessment for Group B
(neck, trunk and legs) 33
3.5 Digital Sound Level Meter 34
3.6 Lux Meter 34
3.7 Description of flow chart from methodology 37
4.1 Graph of Semi-Structure Interview 43
4.2 The workers do the job 44
4.3 Data collection using RULA software 44
4.4 Digital Sound Level Meter 49
4.5 Data collection for Noise 49
4.6 Distribution of noise level at morning 50
4.7 Distribution of noise level at afternoon 51
4.8 Distribution of noise level at evening 52
4.10 Data collection for lighting 54
4.11 Distribution of lighting level at morning 55 4.12 Distribution of lighting level at afternoon 56 4.13 Distribution of lighting level at evening 57 4.14 Recommended work surface for standing work 59
4.15 Normal and maximum working areas 60
4.16 Example the conveyor 62
4.17 View from front, side and top 63
4.18 The measure of the conveyor 64
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
RULA - Rapid Upper Limb Assessment
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health MMH - Manual material handling
MSDs - Musculoskeletal Disorders CTDs - Cumulative trauma disorders RSI - Includes repetitive strain injuries OS - Overuse strain
OOS - Occupational overuse syndrome RMDs - Repetitive motion disorders
WRMSD - Work related musculoskeletal disorders EMG - Electromyography
Appendix A: Gantt chart PSM
Appendix B: Table Result RULA Method
Appendix C: References Diagram for RULA Analysis Appendix D: Semi Structure Interview
This chapter explains the background of the study which consists the study background, problem statement, objective, scope of the project.
1.1 Background of study
Ergonomics, which referred to as human engineering, is designed to improve the relationship between workers and the work environment. In order to know how effectively the factory is utilizing ergonomics or exactly where to begin when first implementing ergonomics, need to undergo an ergonomic assessment. An ergonomic assessment of workplace can reveal any unsafe or problem areas, identify ergonomic solutions, and help the implement an ergonomic plan of action that will improve the overall ergonomics in the factory. Environment comfortable can increase productivity, reduced injuries, and costly downtime.
The improvement proposed by using the ergonomic assessment to reduce the injuries risk by Jati Beringin Sdn.Bhd. workers.
1.2 Problem Statement
At the Jati Beringin Sdn.Bhd, the workers do their task with no comfortable condition. The workers will do the assembling while sitting for a long time to perform their tasks. The situation can give a risk for the workers and also will be effects the performance. This situation leads to tiredness and back pain for the workers. So, they also have take much rest from make the job. Also, the working environment is not comfortable cause of noise and lighting assessment. In this case, of course can increase the cost of doing directly and indirectly. Direct cost may include medical services and higher worker’s compensation premium. Indirect costs from increased employee turnover, absenteeism, and retraining may also occur. Productivity, product quality and employee morale may also suffer. Ultimately, ergonomics is used for industrial workstation to achieve an appropriate balance between worker’s capabilities and work requirement to optimize worker’s productivity and the total system as well as provide worker’s physical and mental well-being, job satisfaction and safety (Fulter el al, 2000). The better technique will be implementing to solve the problem.
a) To study and investigate the awkward posture that caused tiredness and back pain to operators while do the task.
b) To analyze the workers working posture activities using RULA method. c) To design and propose new solution.
The project mainly investigates the awkward posture that caused tiredness and back pain to workers. At Jati Beringin Sdn. Bhd. the worker will do the assembling while sitting. The location to improvement is assembling line. So, the project focuses to analyze working posture and low back pain using RULA method. This project will analyze, revise, and recommend a new technique as solution to improve present working posture.
1.5 Potential Benefits of Study
The potential benefits s from the study can be given to the following parties: a) Factory employer
The project will be helping the factory to change the working environment especially for the workers. For the project may increase productivity, reduced injuries, costly downtime and comfortable working environment.
b) Factory workers
This project may help the worker to protect the health. The project may change the workstation while the workers do the job and give the comfortable for workers. Workers can avoid the body from tiredness and back pain.
1.6 Structure of the Report
This report consist of introduction, theory, activities performed, suggestion and modification of material handling method. Help to change the environment of workstation. After that, reanalyze the result after doing the improvement. This report consists five chapters. Each chapter is described as below:
a) Chapter 1
Chapter one is a introduction of the project, that consists the background of the study, problem statement, objective project, scope of study, potential benefits of study and structure of the report.
b) Chapter 2
Consists of the literature review about the theoretical concept of ergonomics. Background study on the evolution of ergonomics science is shown. The relationship between material handling activities and occupational health and types of safe working posture also the illness and injuries involved in material handling are started. Reviews are done on material handling which are suitable to be used for this project.
c) Chapter 3
5 d) Chapter 4
Describe details about the effectiveness of implementation of RULA method. These chapters also cover the noise assessment and lighting assessment.
e) Chapter 5
2.1 History of Ergonomics
(Christensen 1987) points out that the importance of a good fit between humans and tools was probably realized early in the development of the species. Australopithecus Prometheus selected pebble tools and made scoops from antelope bones in a clear display of selecting objects to make tasks easier to accomplish. The association between occupations and musculoskeletal injuries was documented centuries ago. (Bernardino Ramazinni 1633-1714) wrote about work-related complaints that he saw in his medical practice in the 1713 supplement to his 1700 publication, "De Morbis Artificum (Diseases of Workers)."
In the early 1900's,energy human and ergonomic concept depend the largest of the production industry that develop to improve worker productivity. Scientific
Management, is a method where to improved worker more efficiency by improving the job process.
After World War II, the focus of concern expanded to include worker safety and productivity. Research began in a variety of areas such as:
a) Muscle force required to perform manual tasks. b) Compressive low back disk force when lifting.
c) Cardiovascular response when performing heavy labor. d) Perceived maximum load that can be carried pushed or pulled.
Areas of knowledge that involved human behavior and attributes such as decision making process, organization design, human perception relative to design became known as cognitive ergonomics. The knowledge that involved physical aspects of the workplace and human abilities such as force required to lift, vibration and reaches became known as industrial ergonomics or ergonomics.