USING CINEMATOGRAPHY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟
DESCRIPTIVE WRITING SKILL
( A Study for Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in AcademicYear of 2018/2019)
A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd.)
English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga
113 14 065
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) SALATIGA
“Good, better, best. Never let it rest. „Til your good is
better and your better is best
This graduating paper is whole-heartedly dedicated to:
By beloved parents Rabun and Sopiyah, who always love and support me.
You are my sunshine and my energy.
My super brothers, mas Eko and mas Nano, thanks for always being my
My beloved partner, mas Ringgal who always help me to rise in my every fall.
Thanks for everything you give.
My big family that supported for my education and finishing this graduating
Bismillahi rrahman nirrahim
Assalamu’allaikum Wr. Wb
Alhamdu lillahi robbil’ alamin, all praises to be Allah SWT, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful who always bless and help the writer so the writer can finish the graduating paper. Bless and mercy is upon great Prophet Muhammad SAW for his guidance that leads the writer to the truth.
However, this paper will not be finished without support, advices, help and encouragement from several people and institution. Hence, the writer would like to express special thanks to:
1. Mr. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M. Pd., as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.
2. Mr. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of IAIN Salatiga
3. Mrs. Noor Malihah, Ph.D., the Head of English Education Department and the counselor of this paper, who gives great attention, suggestion and guidance for this paper from beginning until the end.
4. Mr. Ruwandi, S.Pd., M.A., as the writer‟s academic consultant.
6. All of the staff who have helped the writer in processing of graduating paper administration.
7. The big family of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa, especially the Head Master Drs. Hendro Saptanto thanks for permitting me to do the research, and Mrs. Nathalia Susiana D.A, S. Pd. as my collaborator, thanks for your kindness. 8. All of friends in TBI Family‟14, especially for HETTI Squad, Laela, Tari,
Hanik and Shintiya. Thanks for letting me to be your friend.
The words are not enough to appreciate their help and contribution in writing this graduating paper. May Allah SWT bless them all.
Finally, the writer realizes that this graduating paper is quite far of perfect. Therefore, the writer would like to accept critics and suggestions from everyone who reads this graduating paper.
Kusumawati, Ira. 2018. Using Cinematography to Improve Students’ Descriptive Writing Skill at SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in Academic Year of 2018/2019. A Graduating Paper. English Department. Teacher Training and Education Faculty. State Institute for Islamic Studies Salatiga.
Counselor: Noor Malihah, Ph.D
The objectives of the research are to find out the use of cinematography to improve students‟ descriptive writing skill and to define the significant improvement of the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in the academic year 2018/2019.
The methodology of the research was Action Research especially Classroom Action Research (CAR). There were two cycles; each cycles comprised planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The technique of collecting data was teacher‟s and students‟ observation checklists to find out the teacher and the students activity in the class, documentation to find out the critical moments in teaching and learning process, and written test to find out the students‟ mastery on writing descriptive text.
The result of the research shows that in cycle I, the of mean pre-test is 51.52 with 3% of students who passed the criteria of passing grade and the mean of post-test is 74.30 with 66% students who could pass the criteria of passing grade. The result of post-test in cycle II shows that there were 97% students who passed the criteria of passing grade with the mean 85.03. Furthemore, the result of t-test calculation in cycle I is 15.180 and cycle 2 is 19.754. These results indicate that cinematography as teaching media provides significant contribution to improve the students‟ descriptive writing skill.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ATTENTATIVE COUNSELOR‟S NOTE...………. iii
CERTIFICATION PAGE……….………..……… iv
TABLES OF CONTENTS………. x
LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLE…………..……… xi
CHAPTER I……….. 1
A. Background of The Research……….. 1
B. Problems of The Research……… 5
C. Objectives of The Research……….. 6
D. Significances of Research………. 6
E. Hypothesis and Success Indicator………. 7
F. Research Methodology………. 8
1. Research Design……….. 8
3. Step of Research………. 12
4. Technique of Data Collection and Research Instrument…….. 13
5. Data Analysis……….. 18
G. Graduating Paper Outline………. 20
CHAPTER II :THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK……..………….. 21
A. Supporting Theories………. 21
1. Writing………. 21
a. Definition of Writing……… 21
b. Purposes of Writing……….. 22
c. Process of Writing……….... 22
d. Teaching Writing of Senior High School in Indonesia….. 24
2. Descriptive Text……… 26
a. Definition of Descriptive Text……….... 26
b. Purposes of Descriptive Text……… 27
c. Generic Structure of Descriptive Text……….. 27
d. Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text……… 28
e. Example of Descriptive Text……… 28
3. Media in Teaching English Writing………. 30
a. General Concept of Media………. 30
b. Kind of Media in Teaching English Writing……….. 30
a. Definition of Cinematography……….. 31
b. Cinematography as Aid in Teaching and Learning Writing..32
B. Review of Previous Research……… 33
CHAPTER III : IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH………….. 37
A. The Procedures of Research……….. 37
1. Cycle I……… 37
2. Cycle II………... 40
B. The Minimal Standard of Successful………. 41
CHAPTER IV : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS.42 A. Result of Research……….. 42
1. Research Findings………. 42
a. Cycle I……….. 42
b. Cycle II……… 54
2. Discussions……… 65
a. Cycle I………. 65
b. Cycle II……… 67
CHAPTER V : CLOSURE……… 71
A. Conclusions……… 71
1. For Teachers………. 73
2. For Students……….. 73
3. For Other Researchers……….. 74
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1.1 Step of Classroom Action Research……….9
LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 List of X-MIPA 5 Students………..11
Table 1.2 The Research Schedule………...……….13
Table 1.4 The Analytical Scoring Rubric ………...16
Table 4.1 Students‟ Observation Checklist Result in Cycle I………47
Table 4.2 Teacher‟s Observation Checklist Result in Cycle I………48
Table 4.3 The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test in Cycle I……….50
Table 4.4 Count of Passing Grade of The Pre-Test in Cycle I………52
Table 4.5 Count of Passing Grade of The Post-Test in Cycle I……….53
Table 4.6 Students‟ Observation Checklist Result in Cycle II………58
Table 4.7 Teacher‟s Observation Checklist Result in CycleI………59
Table 4.8 The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test in Cycle II……….61
Table 4.9 Count of Passing Grade of The Pre-Test in Cycle II………..63
Table 4.10 Count of Passing Grade of The Post-Test in Cycle I……….64
Table 4.11 Descriptive Statistic of Cycle I………..65
Table 4.13 Descriptive Statistic of Cycle II……….67
Table 4.14 Paired Sample Test of Cycle II………..68
This chapter presents and discusses background of the research, research questions, objectives of the research, significances of the research, hypothesis and success indicator, research methodology and graduating paper outlines.
A. Background of the Research
English language is being the most important subject which must be learned and taught everywhere in all continents. English teaching and learning also occurs in various ages, levels, backgrounds and needs. Due to the English take a part of secure the beyond from its efficacy, nowadays, the learners are being increased in their ability day by day. The teachers figure out a new strategy to help increasing the students‟ level and skill.
skills the user more productively uses the language rather than receives it, and on receptive skills the user must be active to receive the language.
Indonesians which use English as a foreign language puts it as one of compulsory subjects for junior and senior high school. For senior high school, students are taught English from the basic. Here, the students have to start to recognize the English skills, and it can be a starting point to develop the English understanding.
The students of senior high school must develop their communicative competences.Those are oral form and written form. The oral communicative competence can be encouraged into speaking skill. Here, they must master public speaking. They have to be able to deliver the information into the hearers clearly. While the written competence, the students can be encouraged into writing skill. They must master communication via written form. In this case writing is one of the crucial ways to deliver information through language mastered by both the writer and the reader.
must write their idea in a complete thought, so the readers will be mastery the information they got.
Teaching English in Indonesia, especially writing is not an easy way to be done. According to Westwood (2008:56), written language is perhaps the most difficult of all skills to acquire because its development involves the effective coordination of many different cognitive, linguistic and psycho-motor processes. The students face some difficulties because it is a complex skill involving multiple processes and abilities. Moreover, not only the students find the difficulties on writing but also the teachers find it. Westwood stated (2008:59) that the challenge for teachers is to restore students‟ lost interest and motivation for writing. Another opinion comes from Ur (1996:163), one of the problems in teaching writing is to maintain a fair balance between content and form when defining teachers‟ requirements and assessing. It seems that teaching writing is not only about how the students understand about mechanical aspect of writing but also how to increase the student willingness becomes a writer.
The first problem deals with the students‟ difficulty in organizing their ideas. It means they do not know what they have to write. The second problem, they also do not have much capability to identify the words, in this case students are lazy to open their dictionary. Besides that, the third problem was faced by students is getting problem with „mechanical‟ aspects of writing
as like spelling, punctuation and coherence paragraph.
Furthermore, as an attempt to solve the problems especially in organizing the ideas, the teachers must have a new strategy and new innovation in teaching writing that will engage students‟ motivation to learn
writing. Besides that, the teachers have also to conduct creative writing for the students. By conducting the creative writing, the students will improve their ways of thinking. As Kroll (2003, in Pawliczak, 2015:348) stated that the notion that creative writing may be a medium for thought is very important in many ways. This is also appropriate with Ministry of Education and Culture Policy (2017:3) was emphasizes that the priority content of UKBM or Unit of autonomous learning activity is giving learning stimulation that enable to arise the students‟ autonomous and experience to engage them into student‟s active
In this case, teaching writing with interactional media can be a way to minimize the problems. A lot of interactional media can be needed to help the teacher to bring the students‟ ideas, such as realia, books, audio-visual and
much more. Numerous good reasons for teacher for encourage the students to watch movie, film or video. As Harmer (2007:308) asserted that watching movie can give the chance to them to describe easier what the unspoken rules of behavior in social situations. In the line ideas, Rivai, et.al (2017:164) suggested that using video in teaching writing has good influence of the students, the students also have a higher motivation on learning to write.
Here, the researcher finds the ideas that cinematography can be an alternative media to improve the students‟ enthusiasm and motivation to learn writing. Cinematography is the motion picture. It works in line as cinema, film or movie. Furthermore it can stimulate the students‟ brain and thought to
explore and illustrate what they are going to write by capturing ideas when the teacher is turning the cinematography. Beside of that, the presentation of cinematography is short term about 1-10 minutes. Which mean, it can manage the time allocation in teaching-learning process.
from their achievement. Here, the researcher formulates the research with using cinematography to improve students‟ descriptive writing skill in
SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa. B. Problems of the Research
Regarding the background above, the researcher considered the following problems for this research, they are:
1. How is the implementation of cinematography to improve the students‟ writing skill in descriptive text for the tenth-year students of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in the Academic year 2018/2019?
2. How far is the significant improvement of the students‟ writing skill in descriptive text when cinematography is implemented for the tenth-year students of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in the Academic year 2018/2019? C. Objectives of the Research
The objectives which are the researcher got from this research, those are: 1. To investigate how the implementation of cinematography use to teach
writing descriptive text for the tenth-year students of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa in the Academic year 2018/2019.
D. Significances of the Research
Dealing with the objective of the research which like to be achieved, this research is expected to give some benefits to English teaching-learning development. The benefits can be categorized as the following:
To give contribution in teaching writing especially descriptive text scope through cinematography to increase students‟ writing skill.
a. For the students
The use of cinematography in teaching writing descriptive text hopefully helps the students to improve their ability to write descriptive text and increase their willingness to write in creatively.
b. For teachers
This research is expected to provide an effective interesting media to facilitate the educators, here is the English teachers for senior high school in teaching writing descriptive text.
c. For the other researchers
This research is expected to be able to strengthen some typically previous researches and take a contribution for Indonesia‟s
E. Hypothesis and Success Indicator
Based on the pre-observation as illustrated in Chapter I. The researcher tries to overcome those problems by implementing cinematography as a media of teaching and learning writing descriptive text. By conducting this research, the researcher proposes a hypothesis: Using cinematography can improve the students‟ writing descriptive skill.
The success indicator of this research is taken from the Basic Competence shown in lesson plan (RPP) (see appendix 4 and 5). The students‟ success and failure in doing activities in cycle I and cycle II would
be assessed by referring the criterion of passing grade (KKM). The criterion of passing grade of English lesson in SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa is 75. The teacher and the researcher expect there are at least 85% of the students who pass the grade.
F. Research Methodology 1. Research Design
occurs since that the action research is done by the educators, in this case, English teacher in his/her teaching and learning setting. In undertaking action research, it must be highlighted that action research may use a variety data collection approaches. A qualitative approach or quantitative approach, both of them must be considered on the context of the research. Furthermore, classroom action research is made up by three words. They can be described as:
a. Class is a group of students who has regularly scheduled meeting with teacher to complete their educational setting during a particular year.
b. Action is the intentionally activities which are carried out by teacher in several purposes and using the form of phases or cycles. c. Research is the inquiry process to find out the information about
the improvement of the implementation the interesting educational setting which is based on the problems appear.
Figure 1.1 Step of classroom action research adapted by Kemmis and McTaggart
(2000 as quoted by Koshy 2005:4)
Based on Kemmis‟ action research above, the procedure of action research has four phases in a cycle of research. The four phases will be presented as follow:
Planning phase deals with the researcher‟s formulation of the
procedural acting in the implementation of cinematography to improve students‟ descriptive writing skill. At this phase, the
researcher also makes plans regarding to the ways of gathering data. b. Acting
At the acting phase, the researcher doing a process of the implement of the plan which has been formulated before.
Carrying out the observing phase is the researcher observes the CAR process. Here, the essential thing that must be a point of the researcher‟s information deals with the ways of collecting data.
The data will be collected by using observation checklist to the students and the teacher. The second data is gathering documentation in the form of photo and video. And the last one, to get the information of improvement will be conducted testing.
The purpose of this phase is to evaluate the result of acting and observing phases which is satisfy result pointed by reaching the criteria of success or not. Furthermore, if the result does not satisfy achieved the criteria of success, the researcher will conduct re-planning, re-acting, and re-observing in the next cycle until the result can be satisfy achieved.
2. Subject of the Research
The subject of this research is the students of tenth grade of MIPA 5 (X-MIPA 5). Actually, the number of students is 36. But when the researcher conducted the research, there were 5 students got absence. So, those five students are not being the subject of the students.
Table 1.1 List of X-MIPA 5 Students‟ Initial Name of SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa
No. Students‟ Initial Name Sex
3. Steps of the Research
To conduct the research, the researcher carries out the steps which are summarized on research schedule in order. The research was conducted on August, 2018 but the process of pre-observation has been started on November, 2017. The following research schedule can be described in the table 1.2:
Table 1.2 The Research Schedule
No. Date and Time Activities Place
1. On November 27,
Doing pre-observation and asking a
permission to conduct the research
in SMA Negeri 1 Ambarawa
2. July Asking permission and giving the
letter as the formal procedural
3. August Conducting the research X-MIPA 5 class
4. September Finishing the graduating paper
4. Technique of Data Collection and Research Instrument
the observer who is not involving the natural behaviorism of the subject of the research. She just monitors and observes the teaching and learning process with cinematography as the media of teaching and learning English. Furthermore, the English teacher is being the researcher‟s collaborator. She will teach writing using cinematography as the media. The instruments of qualitative data were gathered by using observation checklist and field notes, questionnaire and documentation. According to Kothari (2004: 3), qualitative research is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior.
a. Observation Checklist
According to Kothari (2004: 96) has argue that the observation method is the most commonly used method especially in studies relating to behavioral sciences. Therefore, the researcher will observe the research using observational checklists. To identifying the real condition during teaching-learning process using cinematography, the researcher will use the observational checklist. The observational checklist will be divided into two sorts, the first is teacher‟s observational checklist that will be used and the other is students‟ observational checklist.
learning process. “Yes” if the teacher or students do the following activities while “No” is the opposite, the teacher or students do not
do the following activities. (See Appendix 1) b. Documentation
Documentation in the form of photographs and video will be used in this research. Photograph helps the researcher to capture the critical moments while teaching and learning to write descriptive text using cinematography. Video-recorder is used to allow the researcher to observe and analyze the different an unexpected point which may be significant.
Moreover, the quantitative data was conducted to measure the data that got from the test. According to Kothari (2004: 3), quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. As instrument of quantitative data, the students are asked to write descriptive text. The instruments of quantitative data can be described as follow:
with. Pre-test will be occurred before giving treatment using cinematography in teaching writing descriptive text.
Post-test is used to evaluate the students‟ work after giving treatments. Post-test is administered in the end of each cycle. The form of post-test is essay. Students work in following the cinematography which has been they watched.
To analyze the students‟ written work, the researcher uses scoring rubric adapted from Jacobs et al.‟s (1981 in Weigle 2002:116). It consist of five components, they are context, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanic. Those components are used to decide the criteria scoring writing. The scoring rubric and criteria scoring writing can be seen in the table 1.4:
Table 1.4 Analytical Scoring Rubric Adapted from Jacobs et al.‟s (1981 in Weigle
Quality Level Indicators
ext Excellent to
30-27 Well development of writing and relevant to the
26-27 Limited development of writing and mostly
relevant to the topic and lucks detail
Fair to poor 21-17 Limited knowledge of subject and inadequate
development of topic
Very poor 16-13 Ideas unclear , not enough to evaluate
20-18 Ideas clearly stated and well-organized, logical
sequencing and cohesive
17-14 loosely organized but main ideas stand out ,
logical but incomplete sequencing and somewhat
Fair to poor 13-10 ideas confused or disconnected and lacks logical
sequencing and development
20-18 Use appropriate and varieties of vocabulary and
17-14 occasional error of word/idiom form, choice,
usage but meaning not obscured
Very poor 9-7 Essentially translation and have many errors in
25-22 Use effective complex grammar structures with
few errors of part of speech
21-18 minor problems in complex constructions and
several errors of part of speech
Fair to poor 17-11 Major problems in simple/complex constructions
and frequent errors of part of speech
Very poor 10-5 Virtually no mastery of sentence construction
rules and dominated by errors
5 Use well accuracy in punctuation, capitalization,
spelling and paragraphing
4 Occasional errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization and paragraphing
Fair to poor 3 Frequent errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization and paragraphing
Very poor 2 dominated errors by spelling, punctuation,
5. Data Analysis
After gathering the data, the researcher applies mixed-methods to analyze the data. Frankel and Wallen (2012:557) stated that mixed-methods are the way to collect and analyze data qualitative and quantitative in single research.
a. Qualitative Method
The qualitative method is used to describe the teaching-learning process regarding to the information assembled from observation checklist and field-note, also documentation.
b. Quantitative Method
The quantitative data in the form of written test will be analyzed using the quantitative method. The result of written test in pre-test will be compared with the written test in post-test results. The analyzed data result is used to get the information regarding to the students have reached the success criteria or not, and having improvement or not.
1) The students‟ Score Rubric
As stated previously, five components proposed from Jacob, et al in Weigle‟s book that is used to analyze the students‟ written test. They are
content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanic. The maximum score in written test is 100. (See Appendix 3)
In calculating students‟ test result, the researcher uses Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) 16.00. SPSS will be used to measure the data using Descriptive Statistic and the t-test to determine there was a significant difference in cycle I and cycle II.
G. Graduating Paper Outline
The graduating paper outline is composed into five chapters, and it can be describe as follow:
Chapter I is an introduction. It consists of the background of the research, research question, objectives of the research, significances of the research, hypothesis and success indicator,research methodology, and graduating paper outlines.
Chapter II is the theoretical framework. It deals with supporting theories and the review of previous research.
Chapter III is the implementation of the research. It deals with procedure of the research.
Chapter IV is research findings and data analysis. It deals with the significant differences between pre-test and post-test, mean of the different test and discussion of the research findings.
Chapter V is closure. It consists of the conclusions and suggestions of the research based on the analysis in chapter four.
This chapter discusses and presents theoretical framework. It consists of supporting theories and review of previous research.
A. Supporting Theories 1. Writing
a. Definition of Writing
As there are two definitions of writing. In this research, the researcher focuses to make a conclusion of them that writing is the form of producing the language as the way of communication by elaborating the brain, ideas and the rule of written in particular order to create a coherent text.
b. Purposes of writing
Talking about kinds of writing, it should be highlighted on their purposes. In other word, by identifying the purpose of each type it can be a way to classifying the kind of text. Beard (2003:25) suggested that there are four board areas in defining the purposes:
1) Texts produced for persuading
2) Texts produced for instructing or advising 3) Texts produced for entertaining
4) Texts produced for informing
In this research, the researcher focuses writing on informing of ecotourism destination in descriptive text. It will be discussed in the next section.
c. Process of Writing
students to understand clearly of the nature of writing. According to Seow (1995), as cited in Richard and Renandya (2002:316), there are four stages in the process of writing, namely, planning (pre-writing), drafting (writing), revising (re-drafting), and editing. Furthermore, it can be described as follow:
1) Planning (Pre-writing)
This stage deals with any activity that giving stimulates of the students‟ brain to develop the ideas and comprehend the writing
form. There are numerous activities as a way to provide this stage, as like group brainstorming, clustering, rapid free writing, WH-questions and much more. However, a variety activity can give a motivation to generating information for the students while in pre-writing stage.
2) Drafting (Writing)
Drafting means an activity of putting all ideas in a piece of paper. Here, the students are focused on the fluency of writing and not focused on grammatical accuracy and neatness of the draft. 3) Revising (Re-drafting)
done to improve the global content and organization the ideas so that the writer can give visualization and deliver the meaning clearly to the readers.
At this stage, the students are focused to tidying up their text as they prepare their final draft for evaluation by teacher. The students also are engaged to edit their grammar, spelling, punctuation, diction, and sentence structure. This stage helps the students to link their written communication in clear and unambiguous.
In this research, the researcher focuses these four stages in teaching writing descriptive text.
d. Teaching Writing of Senior High School in Indonesia
Indonesia has been revised the curriculum in order to develop and encourage in millennial era. Nowadays, Indonesia applies 2013 Curriculum (K-13/KURTILAS) revised on 2016. This is based on the Regulation of Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture in No. 103 Year of 2014.
orally or written in classroom should be a medium of doing social function contextually, regarding to the pupils‟ daily life interaction.
Quality of texts should be appropriated with texts structure and language feature of the function of each text. Then, the concept of genre is used to decide material of lesson.
This following is describing the kinds of materials that are taught in Senior High School. Here, the researcher only focuses on tenth grade students:
1) Interpersonal text
a) Giving and responding of complimenting (extended) and congratulating
2) Transactional text a) Talking our self
b) Talking about intentions 3) Special transactional text
b) Learning through song 4) Functional text
a) Descriptive text, regarding to ecotourism destination and historical places
2. Descriptive Text
a. Definition of Descriptive Text
In teaching-learning English for Senior High School in Indonesia, Descriptive text is involved into one of functional texts under the concept of genre. Genre, according to Pardiyono (2016:2) deals with sort of texts with their own characteristics and purposes. Here, genre might be known as text types.
Descriptive text belongs to factual genre. According to Hartono (2005:5), genre is divided into two sorts namely, story genre and factual genre. Story genre consists of narrative, recount, anecdote and spoof. Meanwhile factual genre consists of procedure, description, explanation, news item, exposition, commentary, report and review.
According to Knapp and Watkins (2005:98), descriptive text is type of text that is used to describe a particular thing, person, animal, place and event. Descriptive text differs from report text. In descriptive text, information is given in particular or specific subject rather than in general information.
Another opinion comes from Oshima and Hogue (2007:61), description deals with how something feels, smells, looks, tastes, and/or sounds.
b. Purpose of Descriptive Text
Description belongs to informing text. According to Ahmad (2018:375), descriptive text helps the reader to visualize, hear, or otherwise experience something. In other word, the descriptive text is “word picture”, the reader can get imagination of place, person, and
things in his or her mind.
c. Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
The generic structures of descriptive text are identification and descriptions. A more detailed generic structure of descriptive text has been proposed by Ahmad (2018:376) who argue that a descriptive text includes:
1) Identification or general statement deals with introducing and identifying the particular things, places, objects. It can be a form of statements or a short paragraph. It should be an interesting statement, since it can be used to provoke the readers to be eager of the text.
By highlighted the generic structure, the written product of descriptive texts will be effective and clearly comprehend by the readers. As it has a logical development and give a vivid detail of descriptions.
d. Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text
Related to its linguistic features, Ahmad (2018:376) stated that descriptive text employs the following linguistic features:
1) Use present tense as a dominant tense;
2) Used detailed noun phrase to give information about subject; 3) Various adjectives might be used to describing, numbering, and
4) Use action verb in giving additional descriptions and behaviour done by the participants in a text;
5) Use relating verbs to give information of subject;
6) Use adverbial phrases to add more information about manner, place, or time.
e. Example of Descriptive Text
Mahal” was derived from the name of Shah Jahan‟s wife, Mumtaz Mahal,
which means crown of palaces.
Taj Mahal represents the finest architectural and artistic achievement. The mausoleum was constructed of pure white marble. The white marble is inlaid with semi-precious stones (including jade, crystal, lapis lazuli, amethyst and turquoise) that form the intricate designs. Its central dome reaches a height of 240 feet (73 meters). The dome is surrounded by four smaller domes. Four slender towers, or minarets, stand at the corners. Inside the mausoleum, an octagonal marble chamber adorned with carvings and semi-precious stones house the false tomb of Mumtaz Mahal. Her actual remains lie below, at garden level.
Taj Mahal shows shades of magnificent beauty at different time during the day. At dawn when the first rays of the sun hits the dome of this epic monument, it radiates like a heavenly pinkish palace. At daytime, when the sky is bright and clear, the Taj looks milky white. At a moonlit night when the full moon rays fall on the glistening white marble, the cool moon rays reflect back from the white marble and give the Taj Mahal a tinge of blue color. It‟s simply breathtaking! With such beauty,
no wonder that Taj Mahal becomes one of the the Seven Wonders of the World.
3. Media in Teaching English Writing a. General Concept of Media
Media in teaching-learning is very necessary to used, especially in teaching English as foreign language. Here, media based on Prasetyo (2015:272) refers to anything that carries information from the teacher to the students. In using media, it helps not only teacher but also the students. In one hand, teacher will get easier and more effective way to convey and deliver the material. Other, the students can be more motivated, getting full of comprehension related to the core of material of lesson.
b. Kinds of Media in Teaching English Writing
Since today most students are surrounded by technology in their daily life, they may expect it in their class. There are many kinds of media which was found in teaching writing activity.
The implementation of a computer software program was found in Prasetyo‟s Jurnal. In Sa‟diyah‟s jurnal, she used a picture series to teach
writing in descriptive text. In Yunus and Salehi‟s Jurnal, it was found the
utilization of Facebook Groups to improve writing. In Rabbani‟s Jurnal,
In this research, the researcher takes focusing on using cinematography to improve students‟ writing skill. The detail of
cinematography will be discussed further. 4. Cinematography
a. Definition of Cinematography
Term of cinematography is come from Greek. The roots meaning is “writing with motion.” Brown (2012:2) said that cinematography is the
process of taking ideas, words, actions, emotional subtext, tone and other form of nonverbal communication then rendering them in visual term. Furthermore, as cinematography works more than just picture, it works as a language. It should convey a meaning, mode, tone, atmosphere, and subtext on its own, the viewers can reach the messages of it.
In visual story-telling, every element, every colour, every shadow works in purposes. They reach the viewer at a purely emotion.
b. Cinematography as Aid in Teaching and Learning Writing
In this study, documentary cinematography was chosen as the instructional media. Documentary cinematography was downloaded from youtube and instagram. Here, I made a limitation of documentary cinematography in term of ecotourism destination. Since, it is appropriate to the topic of syllabus of 2013 Curriculum (KURTILAS) Revised 2016. Using visual and the other same types of it, the teacher should be notice the plan of activity. Stempleski (1990) in Richard and Renandya (2002:367) stated that there are three stages of activity related to promote students‟ active viewing and increases the comprehension. They can be
described as follow:
1) Previewing activities
This stages deals with preparing the students to watch the video by tapping their background knowledge, stimulating interest to the topic, lessening their fear of unfamiliar vocabularies.
2) Viewing activities
At this stage, the students required to focus on important aspects, such as factual information, plot development, or the language used in a particular situation.
3) Postviewing activities
Here, the researcher focuses on following three steps by Stempleski in using cinematography to teach descriptive writing. As considering that cinematography is involved on kind of visual media.
B. Review of Previous Research
The media of audio-visual as like video, film, movie or cinema has been proven to be able to increase the students‟ English skill especially
in writing scope. Here are some studies regarding to use video, film, movie or cinema to improve students‟ language skills:
The first research was conducted by Kabooha, (2016). This research examined attitudes of EFL learners in using movies in their class to develop their language skills. The research questions of this research are: 1) what are the students‟ perceptions towards the integration of movies in
their classrooms to improve their language skills? 2) What are the teachers‟ perceptions towards the integration of movies in their
improve their language skills. As the result, from questionnaire indicated there are eighty-eight students strongly agreed that implementing movies in their EFL class can help them to improve their language skills. From interview, it can be seen that they agreed that integrated movies in their class is not waste of time activity. Movie can help the students to improve their language skills in term of speaking, vocabulary, grammar, listening skills and writing skill.
The second research comes from Manik and Sinurat (2015.) They concerned on the improvement students‟ narrative writing achievement
through film. The subject of this study was the second year students (XI-IPS-2) in SMA Negeri 1 Palipi, Medan. Manik and Sinurat applied Classroom Action Research which was done in 6 meetings. The data was obtained in two cycles and each cycles consisted of 4 steps. They are planning, action, observation, and reflection. To collect data, the researcher conducted qualitative and quantitative data. The instruments of qualitative that used to collect data were diary notes, questionnaire sheet, observation sheet and interview. While quantitative data instrument was got by doing test for students to write the film talk. Overall the findings indicated that using film to teach writing was acceptable media to improve students‟ achievement.
Environment-Based in teaching English can improve students‟ writing skill. The 4th
semester student of English Department Program of Slamet Riyadi University was chosen as a subject. He carried out this research in Classroom Action Research. The research was done in two cycles. The first cycle consists of four meetings, it comprises of pre-test, two of treatments and first post-test. Meanwhile, second cycle consists of three meeting which comprises of two of treatments and second post-test. Test, observation, questionnaire and documentation were used as technique of collecting data. The result showed that the students‟ achievements in
every cycle can pass the criteria of minimum score.
As there are some studies regarding to the implementation of video, movie, cinema or film in teaching writing. From the studies above, it gives idea to the researcher to conduct research entitled using cinematography to improve students‟ descriptive writing skill. May be
this research give some differences of those previous research. As I have stated in chapter I, concerning media in term of cinematography would minimize the time allocation. Because of cinematography has short-turning, but it has a story inside. As this is a new form of film development, it might provoke the students‟ willingness to construct
IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH
A. The Procedures of the Research
This research is a Classroom Action Research (CAR) and uses the design from Kemmis and Mc. Taggart cited in Koshy (See Chapter 1). The researcher conducts the research in two cycles, namely Cycle 1 and Cycle 2. In each cycle, it consists of two meetings. The procedure of the cycles can be seen as follow: 1. Cycle I
The researcher focuses the media of cinematography in improving the students writing ability. The topic of descriptive text is the ecotourism destination place. Here, the procedure of the first cycle can be described below:
In this stage, the researcher concerns on planning activities of the learning scenario.
1) Preparing the cinematography which appropriate with the selected topic;
2) Preparing the material of descriptive text based on the syllabus; 3) Preparing the lesson plan which uses following steps by Stempleski
(a) Pre-viewing activity
The teacher stimulates the students thought and brain to comprehend the material about descriptive text in ecotourism destination. The teacher also lessons the students‟ noun phrase as
the vocabularies. (b) Viewing activity
The teacher asks the students to focus in the factual information from cinematography. The teacher guides them to make a clustering of the information they got.
(c) Post-viewing activity
The teacher guides and monitors them to discuss the information they got.
4) Preparing the instruments of research, such as observation checklist, documentation, also pre-test and post-test;
5) Giving the training of the learning scenario to the teacher.
The preparation is designed in order to gain the purpose of teaching learning process. Students are supposed to improve their writing descriptive text skill by the treatment given.
implementer of learning scenario, while the researcher runs as the observer. The activities can be described as follow:
1) Conducting pre-test;
2) Giving the treatment of the students‟ comprehension about descriptive text by using cinematography about Bromo Mountain and a text appropriate with;
3) Demonstrating the writing about cinematography by following the Stempleski‟s steps;
4) Conducting peer-editing of the students‟ work; 5) Collecting the post-test of the students.
At this phase, the researcher focuses to collect data. The researcher observed the class situation by using observation checklist for teacher and students. The researcher also gathered the information by take pictures. The pre-test is used to getting knows of the students obstacles before giving treatment using cinematography. While post-test is given to get information of the students‟ improvement after giving treatment.
This phase deals with evaluating and analyzing the data. The focus is to getting knows the achievement of criteria of success.
2) Creating a new planning of the next cycle. 2. Cycle 2
Based on the result of reflection in cycle II, the researcher decided to conduct cycle II. The detail discussion can be found in chapter IV. Here, the researcher and the teacher do repairing their plan. The procedure can be shown as follow:
1) Designing the lesson plan based on the problem that should be finished;
2) Preparing the material of lesson in cycle 2;
3) Preparing the cinematography as the media of lesson in cycle 2; 4) Dividing the students into group of learning;
5) Giving the training to the students to find out the cinematography of ecotourism destination from YouTube and Instagram;
6) Preparing the post test of cycle 2. b. Acting
1) Lessoning the students‟ comprehension of descriptive text by using cinematography;
2) Giving the knowledge of subject, good development of descriptive paragraph;
4) Guiding the writing process of descriptive text by following the Stempleski‟s Steps;
5) Conducting peer-editing; 6) Giving post-test of cycle 2. c. Observing
1) Observing the teacher and students activity by using observation checklist and gathering documentation.
1) Evaluating the activity that have been done;
2) Analyzing the data from observation checklists and students‟ test score of post-test in cycle 2.
3. The Minimal Standard of Successful
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS
A. The Result of The Research
This chapter focuses on analyzing the collected data. The researcher gives the details of the findings. This chapter is likely the main discussion of the research conducted. It displays the finding of the collected data from the beginning until the end of the research. The findings consist of result of the cycle I and cycle II. The two cycles are treatment of the implementation cinematography to improve students‟
ability on writing descriptive text in ecotourism destination.
1. Research Findings
The research consists of two cycles, each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The whole steps of this research would be explained in the description below:
a. Cycle 1 1) Planning
In planning stage, the researcher prepared several instruments, they can be explained as follow:
a) Lesson Plan
guidance to manage time and activities during teaching and learning process in the class.
The material was prepared based on the syllabus. The descriptive text about ecotourism destinations was chosen as the topic. Here, the material focuses on meaning, generic structure, purpose, example and language feature.
c) Teaching Aids
The researcher prepared two of cinematography about ecotourism destinations as a main of teaching aid. Beside of it, the researcher also prepared card paper and students‟ handout.
d) Pre-Test and Post-Test
The researcher used pre-test and post-test to get information of the students‟ writing improvement. Here, pre-test was used
before the implementation of cinematography in teaching descriptive text in ecotourism destinations. Furthermore, the post-test was used after implementing of cinematography. The aim is to getting knows about the improvement skill of the students‟
The action of cycle I was done in two meetings, August 9th, 2018 and August 16th, 2018. The English teacher of X-MIPA 5 is Mrs. Nathalia Susiana, and the teacher runs as the researcher.
The first meeting was held on August 9th, 2018 at 12.30 p.m. The teacher started the lesson by greeted “Good Afternoon everyone.” and asked the condition of the students. The teacher opened the lesson, introduced the researcher, conveyed her purpose of coming in the class, and checked the students‟ attendance list.
In checking the students‟ attendance list, there were five students who not come in the class. They joined in PASKIBRAKA (Pasukan Pengibar Bendera Pusaka). Here, those five absent students would not involve as the subject of this research.
After checking the students‟ attendance list, the teacher reviewed the previous material by asking the students, “Did you still remember? What have we learned in previous meeting?” The
students answered that they learned about complimenting others. Then, the teachers brought the students‟ thought into descriptive text
Another opinion came from Velicia, “Descriptive text is text to tell about place, person and animal.”
Moreover, the teacher talked to the students that they would learn a descriptive text about ecotourism destinations that day and several days later. Next, the teacher did elicitation and brief explanation to the students to discuss about the topic. After giving elicitation and brief explanation, the teacher asked the students to conduct pre-test. Here, the students must create descriptive text about recreation place (see appendix 4). The students were given the time for 30 minutes to do pre-test.
After finishing the pre-test, the teacher and the students discussed about the material. The students were given a handout of material. In this occasion, the students focused on the meaning of descriptive text, generic structure and purpose. The students also learned about noun phrase. Considering the syllabus that noun phrase must be master by students in learning descriptive text. This section is involved in one of the Stempleski‟s Step. It is Pre-viewing activity.
very much and see you next week.” Then, the students gave respond, “Welcome miss, see you.”
The second meeting of cycle I was done in August 16th, 2018. In this section, the students are focused in write a descriptive text. The teacher entered in the class at 12.30 p.m. The teacher greeted the students by saying, “Good Afternoon.” And the students responded, “Good Afternoon, Miss.” Then, the teacher asked the students regarding to their condition and checking the students‟ attendance list.
Here, the five students who joined in PASKIBRAKA.
Next, the teacher reviewed the material in previous meeting. Here, the teacher taught the students following the Stempleski‟s Step.
In pre-viewing activity it was started since in previous meeting. And it was continued in the beginning of learning. The teacher gave the example of the descriptive text by turning the cinematography about Bromo Mountain and the appropriated text. Here, the students must analyze the generic structures, the language feature and findings the noun phrase.
thing of Umbul Sidomukti destination. The teacher turned the cinematography in three times.
In the post-viewing activity, the teacher asked the students to discuss with their partner regarding to the finding. The students also started to write the descriptive text. After creating a drafting of descriptive text, the teacher guided the students to conduct peer-editing. Then, the final result of descriptive text must be written in the post-test sheet. It was done in 45 minutes.
After finishing their works, the teacher closed the class and announced what they would do in the next meeting.
In observing the teaching and learning process, the teacher used the observation checklist for both, the students and the teacher. It was aimed to get know the how far the situation of teaching learning process. It also was proposed to know the teacher‟ and the students‟
enthusiasm in following the activity. This activity was proposed to evaluate the teaching and learning process, collect the data and monitor the class. The observation checklist for students can be seen in the table 4.1. and the table 4.2 is observation checklist for teacher
No The Students‟ several students had not finished it.
5 Being enthusiastic in
in writing descriptive
The students got their enthusiasm in application cinematography in
writing descriptive text
Table 4. 2: Form of Result Observation Checklist for Teacher Cycle I
No The Teachers‟ “good afternoon” and students answered it
2 Praying before the
Teacher did not ask the students to pray because the pray usually were
done only in the morning.
3 Checking student
4 Giving motivation Teacher forgot to give motivation. 5 Reminding previous
Teacher reminded previous material to the students and they still
remembered what they had learned in
7 Using cinematography
to teach writing
Teacher used cinematography which showed on the OHP to the students to
teach writing descriptive text
8 Giving opportunity for
Teacher gave time for students to ask question about everything that they didn‟t understand.
9 Guiding the students to
Teacher helped students to solve their difficulties
the students to do peer-editing
13 Giving feedback after
Teacher gave feedback to the students after the lesson
The data gotten from cycle 1 was analyzed. Here, the score of pre-test and post-test was evaluated based on scoring rubric writing assessment (see appendix 3). There are five components in scoring, namely, content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. Each component of scoring was given the quality of score that divided into four; excellent to very good, good to average, fair to poor and very poor.
The researcher analyzed the data of pre-test and post-test. The calculation and result of both tests are presented in the table 4.3:
a) The result of Pre-Test and Post-Test in cycle I
Table 4. 3: The Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the CycleI NO NAME Pre-Test
1. AA 35 71 36 1296
2. AFS 42 84 42 1764
3. BE 59 82 23 529
4. CEF 55 82 27 729
5. DWM 42 76 34 1156
6. DMR 35 78 43 1849
8. ECRN 42 84 42 1764
9. EL 58 74 16 256
10. FRU 60 89 29 841
11. FRF 59 86 27 729
12. GBI 42 84 42 1764
13. GMD 58 78 20 400
14. JRC 75 86 11 121
15. JPS 59 78 19 361
16. KAMH 71 88 17 289
17. KYAM 46 73 27 729
18. KEW 53 73 20 400
19. MTPR 42 73 31 961
20. MHH 42 73 31 961
21. NNH 64 71 7 42
22. NKW 48 86 38 1444
23. RFF 35 71 36 1296
24. RBS 58 75 17 289
25. SZD 47 79 32 1024
26. SAOP 58 82 24 576
27. SGS 42 79 37 1369
29. VFS 71 83 12 144
30. VKS 55 73 18 324
31. ZMA 42 73 31 961
= 847 26148
From the students‟ score in the pre-test of cycle I above, the
calculated number of students who passed the passing grade can be seen in the table 4.4:
Table 4. 4: Count of Passing Grade of the Pre-test in Cycle I
Criteria Number of students Presentation
>75 0 0
75 1 3%
<75 30 97%
Total 31 100%
Furthermore, the students‟ evaluated score in the post-test of cycle 1 can be presented in the table 4.5:
Table 4. 5: Count of Passing Grade of the Post-test in the Cycle I
Criteria Number of students Presentation
>75 20 66%
75 1 3%
<75 10 31%
Total 31 100%
From the data above, it can be shown there are an improvement from the pre-test. The students who can pass the passing grade in the pre test of the cycle I are 3%. In the post-test, there are 66% of the students can pass the passing grade. There are an improvement as many as 63%. However, the teacher and the researcher expect that there are at least 85% of the students pass the passing grade. Even there is the improvement, but the target of the teacher and researcher is not totally achieved. So, the teacher and the researcher conducted the cycle II.
teacher discussed the conclusion from the cycle I. The conclusions can be described as below:
a) There are some students who can state their ideas clearly.
b) Some students got major problems in simple construction of sentences.
c) The students got the frequent error in vocabulary usage.
b. Cycle II 1) Planning
The researcher prepared some the teaching and learning instrument, it can be seen below:
a) Lesson Plan
The lesson plan of cycle II was created based on the reflection of cycle 1.
b) The Material
The material of cycle II is same with the previous cycle. It is about descriptive text in ecotourism destinations. The material took focuses on language features of descriptive text.
Here, the researcher prepared some instruments for teaching and learning activity. The researcher provided cinematography and the card paper of clustering.
d) Observation Checklist
Observation checklist was prepared for knowing the teacher‟s and students‟ activities during the teaching-learning process.
The researcher only prepared post-test for her cycle II. It caused by the consideration of the same topic with cycle I. The purposed of post-test in cycle II is to get know the improvement of the students‟ writing ability after the implementation of
cinematography as the media. 2) Acting
The first meeting of cycle II was done in August 23th, 2018. Here, as usually the teacher entered and started the class by greeted and asked the condition of the students. “Good afternoon, class. How’re you today?” and the students gave respond, “Good afternoon, miss. I’m fine, and you?” Then, the teacher answered, “Not too bad” Then,
the teacher checked the students attendance list. There were all students come to the class.
answered the question, “Descriptive text miss, ecotourism destination” Then, the teacher did elicitation to the students about
definition, generic structure, social function, and language feature. To strength their comprehension, the teacher explained more detail about the material.
After giving the explanation, the teacher guided the students to analyze the descriptive text. “Here is the descriptive text about one of tourist destination in Batu City. The writer forgot to edit her draft.
Can you find errors of the text and try to correct them?” Here, the
students worked in pairs. After finishing the task, the teacher asked to the several pairs to present their work in front of the class. In 10 minutes left, the teacher announced what they would do in next meeting. The teacher asked the students to find out a cinematography about ecotourism destination. “Okay class, for the next meeting please find out a cinematography about ecotourism destination!”
Then, the teacher guided the students to get easy in finding the cinematic, “You can find the cinematic from YouTube or Instagram. Use #exploreJateng to help you easier to find. And you can work with
your learning group. But for the written test in next meeting, you must
do individually” The teacher also wrote the task in whiteboard, so the
After giving the task, the teacher closed the class. “That’s all for today, don’t forget with your task. See you next Thursday.” The first
meeting of cycle I was done.
The second meeting of cycle II was held on August 30th, 2018. Mrs. Susi as the English teacher and the researcher entered the class by greeting, “Good Afternoon” Then the teacher asked the condition of the students. Several students answered good, and the other said tired. After that, the teacher checked the students attendance list, “Who doesn’t come in today lesson?” The students answered none of
the students got absence that day.
The teacher continued the lesson by reminding the material by showing the cinematic. Then the teacher asked, “What is the cinematography tell about” the students answered that is the
cinematic of Rawa Pening. Then, the teacher asked again, “what can you see from the cinematic?” then, several students answered “Lake
Miss” Other students answered, “Kampoeng Rawa, Miss” then the
teacher asked to the students again, “What can you do there?” the students answered, “Mendayung, Miss”