I S E H T s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P e h t n i a t b O o t

147  Download (0)

Teks penuh

(1)

A

I

R

E

T

A

M

Y

R

A

L

U

B

A

C

O

V

H

S

I

L

G

N

E

F

O

T

E

S

A

L

S

F

O

R

T

H

E

D

R

I

H

T

G

R

A

D

E

S

T

U

D

E

N

T

S

O

F

S

D

N

E

G

E

R

I

1

P

A

N

G

G

A

N

G

L

A

C

I

S

Y

H

P

L

A

T

O

T

D

N

A

D

O

H

T

E

M

L

A

U

G

N

I

L

O

I

D

U

A

G

N

I

S

U

E

S

N

O

P

S

E

R

N A K I D I D N E P A N A J R A S

A THESIS

s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P

e h t n i a t b O o

t SarjanaPendidikanDegree n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a L h s il g n E n i

y B

ir a s a ti v o N n a i h D

0 5 1 4 1 2 1 9 0 : r e b m u N t n e d u t S

M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

N O I T A C U D E S T R A D N A E G A U G N A L F O T N E M T R A P E D

N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A

S T Y

A T R A K A Y G O Y

(2)

i

A

I

R

E

T

A

M

Y

R

A

L

U

B

A

C

O

V

H

S

I

L

G

N

E

F

O

T

E

S

A

L

S

F

O

R

T

H

E

D

R

I

H

T

G

R

A

D

E

S

T

U

D

E

N

T

S

O

F

S

D

N

E

G

E

R

I

1

P

A

N

G

G

A

N

G

G

N

I

S

U

A

U

D

I

O

L

I

N

G

U

A

L

M

E

T

H

O

D

A

N

D

T

O

T

A

L

P

H

Y

S

I

C

A

L

E

S

N

O

P

S

E

R

N A K I D I D N E P A N A J R A S

A THESIS

s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P

a t b O o

t int heSarjanaPendidikanDegree n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a L h s il g n E n i

y B

ir a s a ti v o N n a i h D

0 5 1 4 1 2 1 9 0 : r e b m u N t n e d u t S

M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

N O I T A C U D E S T R A D N A E G A U G N A L F O T N E M T R A P E D

N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

A

S NATADHARMAUNIVERSITY A

T R A K A Y G O Y

(3)
(4)
(5)

v i

g

r

e

d

n

U

s

i

h

T

r

a

d

u

a

t

e

T

h

e

s

i

s

:

o

t

d

e

t

a

c

i

d

e

d

s

i

T

W

S

h

a

ll

A

fl

e

s

y

M

r

e

h

t

a

F

d

n

a

r

e

h

t

o

M

d

e

v

o

l

e

B

y

M

y

li

m

a

f

y

M

y

li

m

a

F

s

o

n

r

a

H

e

h

T

y

li

m

a

F

s

o

m

o

S

e

h

T

s

d

n

e

i

r

f

y

M

r

e

n

t

r

a

p

y

M

(6)

v K R O W F O T N E M E T A T

S ’SORIGINALITY

k r o w e h t n i a t n o c t o n s e o d , n e tt ir w e v a h I h c i h w , s i s e h t s i h t t a h t e r a l c e d y lt s e n o h I

e h t d n a s n o it a t o u q e h t n i d e ti c e s o h t t p c e x e , e l p o e p r e h t o f o k r o w e h t f o s tr a p r o

. d l u o h s r e p a p c if it n e i c s a s a , s e c n e r e f e r

r e b m e c e D 6 , a tr a k a y g o

Y 2013

r e ti r W e h T

ir a s a ti v o N n a i h D

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

i x

S T N E T N O C F O E L B A T

e g a P E

L T I

T PAGE………..……….i. E

G A P L A V O R P P

A S………. ii

E G A P N O I T A C I D E

D ……….………i v

T

S ATEMENTOFWORK’SORIGINALITY………v I

S A K I L B U P N A U J U T E S R E P N A A T A Y N R E

P ………vi

T C A R T S B

A ………..v ii K

A R T S B

A ……….v iii S

T N E M E G D E L W O N K C

A ………...i x

S T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T ………...x i

S E L B A T F O T S I

L ………... vx i S

E C I D N E P P A F O T S I

L ………....x v

. 1 R E T P A H

C INTRODUCTION………1 .

A ResearchBackground ... .. ………1 .

B ResearchProblem ……… 4 ... .

C ProblemLimtiaiton ... ….. … ………5 .

D ResearchObjecitve . ………....5 .

E ResearchBeneftis ... ………6 n

o it i n if e D .

(13)

ii x A

L E R F O W E I V E R . I I R E T P A H

C TEDLITERATURE………. 01

.

A Theoreitca lDescirpiton……….……1 0 .

1 Kemp’sI nsrtucitona lDesign………1 1 .

2 TeachingVocabularyt oYoungLearners……… 51 .

3 TeachingEngilsht oYoungLearners………... 02 o

i d u A .

4 ilngua lMethod……….….. 12 a .Pirnciple so fAudio-ilngua lMethod .. ………2 2 b. Designi nAudio-ilngua lMethod………...2 3

l a t o T .

5 Physica lResponse………..……2 5 a .Pirnciple so fTota lPhysica lResponse………...25 b .Designi nTota lPhysica lResponse………27 .

6 KTSP(KurikulumTingka tSatuanPendidikan)……….. 82 B .Theoreitca lFramework……….. 92

.

1 Identfiyingt heLearne rCharacteirsitcs………...29 .

2 Staitngt heGoals ,Topics ,andGenera lPurposes………30

3 .Staitngt heLearningObjecitves………..31

4 .Lisitngt heSubjec tContent……….……31

5 .Selecitngt heTeachingandLearningAcitviites………….………33 .

6 Evaluaitngt heDesignedMateirals……….3 3 v

e R .

7 isingt heDesignedMate irals……….34

I I R E T P A H

C I .METHODOLOGY ... ………36 .

(14)

ii i x

. … … … … … … … … … … … g n it c e ll o C n o it a m r o f n I d n a h c r a e s e R .

1 . 37

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … g n i n n a l P .

2 . …… . 7. 3

r P e h t g n i p o l e v e D .

3 eilminaryFormo fProduct……….38 d

l e i F y r a n i m il e r P .

4 Tesitng………38 o

r P n i a M .

5 duc tRevision………38 .

B ResearchSetitng………40 .

C ResearchParitcipants……….4 1 .

1 TheParitcipant soft heResearchandI nformaitonCollecitng……4 1 .

2 TheParitcipant so fthePreilminaryFieldTesitng……..…………4 1 d

n a s t n e m u rt s n I .

D aD taGathe irngTechniques………4 2 …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … s t n e m u rt s n I h c r a e s e R .

1 ..……42

a t a D .

2 gatheirngTechnique………...………44 e

u q i n h c e T s i s y l a n A a t a D .

E ……….………..45

a e s e R .

F rchProcedures………..…4 8 .

1 AskingPermission………...48 .

2 ConducitngObservaiton………..48 .

3 Staitngt heGoals ,andGenera lPurposes………49 .

4 Designingt heVocabularyMateirals………...49 .

5 ConducitngExper tVaildaiton……….49 …

… … s l a ir e t a M d e n g i s e D e h t g n i s i v e R .

6 ……….50

(15)

v i x V

1 R E T P A H

C .RESEARCHRESULTANDDISCUSSION.. ………51 .

A TheGoa loft heDesignedMateirals. ... .. ………...51 .

B TheLearners ’Characteirsitcs……….………….…… 2..5 c

e j b O e c n a m r o f r e P e h T .

C itves……….5 5

.

D TheEvaluaitonf romt hePreilminary………...57 .

E TheFina lVersionoft heDesignedMateirals………61

V R E T P A H

C . CONCLUSIONS ANDSUGGESTIONS .. ………6 8 . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. … … … … … … … s n o i s u l c n o C .

A 68

… … … … … … … s n o it s e g g u S .

B …………...……….7 0

e h t r o f s n o it s e g g u S .

1 EngilshTeache ro fSDNeger i1Panggang… .70 r

o f s n o it s e g g u S .

2 theFutureResearchers………...71

2 7 .. . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S E C N E R E F E R

E P P

(16)

v x

S E L B A T F O T S I L

a P g e

g n it s e T d l e i F y r a n i m il e r P f o s t n a p i c it r a P e h t f o n o it p ir c s e D e h T 1 . 3 e l b a

T ….…42

r a d n a t S y c n e t e p m o C e h T 1 . 4 e l b a

T dandBasicCompetence………... 15 f

o a t a D e h T 2 . 4 e l b a

T theClass……….53 3

. 4 e l b a

T TheTopicandTheLearningObjecitves………56 e

l b a

T .4 4 DataPresentaitonTablef ort hePreilminaryFieldTesitng e

ri a n n o it s e u

Q ………. 75 9 5 .. . … s tl u s e R g n it s e T d l e i F y r a n i m il e r P e h t r o f e l b a T n o it a t n e s e r P a t a D 5 . 4 e l b a T

t a M d e n g i s e D e h t f o s e lt i T e h t d n a s c i p o T e h T 6 . 4 e l b a

T eirals………61

o t n e m e g n a r r A e h T 1 . 5 e l b a

(17)

i v x

S E R U G I F F O T S I L

e g a P a

n o it c u rt s n I s ’ p m e K 1 . 2 e r u g i

F lDesignModel……….15 s

’ r e ti r W e h T 2 . 2 e r u g i

F Model………..35

e h T 1 . 3 e r u g i

F RelaitonBetweenR&DCycleandt heTheoreitca lFramework i n o

c e S e h

(18)

ii v x

S E C I D N E P P A F O T S I L

e g a P

A x i d n e p p

A PermissionLetter……… . 4..7 e

ri a n n o it s e u Q B x i d n e p p

A fo rResearchandI nformaitonCollecitng……….… ..75 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … e n il e d i u G w e i v r e t n I l a m r o f n I C x i d n e p p

A … 77

… … … … … … … … … g n it s e T d l e i F y r a n i m il e r P r o f s t n e m u rt s n I D x i d n e p p

A … 87

. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … s u b a ll y S E x i d n e p p

(19)

1 1 R E T P A H C

N O I T C U D O R T N I

s ri f e h t n

I tchapte,rt hewrtie relaborate stheresearchbackground ,research m

e l b o r

p ,problem l imtiaiton ,research objecitve ,research beneftis ,and de ifniiton f

o termswhichareexplainedclealryandreasonablyi neachpar.t

.

A ResearchBackground

d h s il g n E h c a e t o t t n a tr o p m i s i t

I ue to the rtend development fo the d

lr o w e h t n i e g a u g n a l h s il g n

E (Brewste,r Elils ,& Griard, 2002 , 1p. ) .In many n

i y ll a i c e p s e , s e ir t n u o

c Indonesia , the Indonesian governmen t ha s insrtucted h

s il g n

E languagetobei nrtoduceda sthel oca lsubject ni elementarys chool .Based t

n e m n r e v o g e h t n

o ’ sinsrtuciton ,Engilshi sinrtoduced a telementaryschoo lleve l k

i d p e D ( e d a r g h tr u o f e h t m o r f g n it r a t

s bud ,1994: i ia sciitedi nSu ityono ,2000 ,p . 1) .However ,in some school sin Indonesia ,especially SD Neger i1 Panggang ,

s i h s il g n

E taugh tstaritng from t hefris tgrade. According t o StandarKompeten is n

a

d Kompetensi Dasa rTingka tSD ,MI ,dan SDLB which i scovered in KTSP

) m u l u c ir r u C d e s a B l o o h c S

( , the purposes o f teaching Engilsh staritng from o

o h c s y r a t n e m e l

e lleve laredeveloping thestudents ’communicaitvecompetence e l P M S n i h s il g n E n r a e l o t y ti li b a ’ s t n e d u t s e h t g n ir a p e r p d n a m r o f l a r o e h t n

i v e.l

y ll u f e p o h , e c n e

H byl earning Engilshf romt heelementaryl evel ,thestudent swli l n

r a e l o t y d a e r e m o c e

b et h Engilshl anguageatt hehigherl eve lo feducaiton. e

h t , a i s e n o d n I n

I governmen t estabilshed the 2006 Schoo l Based m

u l u c ir r u

(20)
(21)

s t n e d u t s e h t , y lt n e u q e s n o

C stli lneede d assistancebyt het eache rto dot he s

e s i c r e x

e tha tareprovidedi nt hetextbook .Then,l ackoft eacher’ sexplanaitonon s

t n e d u t s e h t e d a m s e c n e t n e s e h t n i d e s u g n i e b e r e w t a h t s d r o

w feel t ha tEngilsh

i d s a

w f ifcutl .Fu trhe,rt herewa snoattemp tmadebyt het eachert or ecal land drli l s

l a ir e t a m e h

t . Therefore,reteniton oft hestudents ’memoryo fEngilsh vocabulary e

l b i s s o p m i t s o m l a s a

w .

s r o t c a f e h t n o d e s a

B menitoned ,thi sstudyaimstodesign a se to fEnglish y

r a l u b a c o

v mateiralsf ort het hridgradestudents fo SDNeger i1Panggang using o

i d u

A lingua lmethod and Tota lPhysica lResponse .The Audio ilngua lmethod y

r a l u b a c o v n r a e l s t n e d u t s e h t s p l e

h through repeititonand i mtiaiton .Richards and r

e g d o

R s (1986 )a dd tha tAudioilngua lmethod i s inrtoduced in orde rto help e

l p o e

p masterf oreignl anguageorallyi nashor t itme . tIemphasize son oralf orm y

b imtiaitng and drliilng . Emphasizing on ora l form s means ilstening and d

n a t s ri f e m o c g n i k a e p

s nthe readingandwiritngcomel ater. R

l a c i s y h P l a t o

T esponse i scommonly appiled t o young l earner sbecause P

l a t o

T hysica lResponse method involve sthe natura lcharacte irsitc so fyoung r

e n r a e

l s andi tprovide shighly contextuailzed acitviite ssuch a sbodymovements , o

it c

a n song sand chants (Brewster ,Elils ,& Griard ,2002 ,p .27) .Besides ,Larsen d

n

a Freeman (2000 ,p .107 )also propose tha tTota lPhysica lResponse i sa .

s r e n r a e l g n u o y d n a s r e n n i g e b h ti w l l e w s k r o w h c i h w d o h t e m g n i h c a e

t Therefore ,

, y d u t s s i h t n

i Tota lPhysica lResponsei sa sutiablemethod in ordert o i nrtoduce .s

(22)

y r o e h t s ’ d r a r ri G d n a , s il l E , r e t s w e r B y b d e tr o p p u s s i n o it p m u s s a s i h T

l a u g n il o i d u A t a h t e t a t s y e h T . ) 2 0 0 2

( method and Tota lPhysica lResponse i sa e

t a ti li c a f s d o h t e m e s o h t e c n i s d o h t e m n o it a n i b m o c d o o

g the young learner sto

n r a e

l Engilsh vocabulary through imtiaiton , repeititon , drliilng , and body .

t n e m e v o

m In thi sstudy ,Audioilngua lmethod help sthe young learners learn y

r a l u b a c o v h s il g n

E throughimtiaiton,r epeititon ,anddrliilngwhlieTota lPhysica l e

s n o p s e

R help s the young learners learn Engilsh vocabulary through body t

n e m e v o

m s and physica lacitviite .s Hence, the wrtie rexpect stha tthe designed a

l u b a c o

v ry mateiral s which apply Audioilngua l method and Tota l Physica l e

s n o p s e

R wli ldevelop and enhance the Engilsh vocabulary o fthe thrid grade f

o s t n e d u t

s SDNeger i1Panggang.

B. ResearchProblem

s m e ti y r a l u b a c o v e h t s s u c s i d y lr a l u c it r a p l li w y d u t s s i h

T presented i n t he

d ri h t e h t r o f k o o b t x e

t gradestudent so fSDNeger i1 Panggang and t hen develop f

o t e s a o t n i m e h

t Engilshl earningmateiral .sTherei soneproblemt obeexamined t

s s i h t n

i udy .

n g i s e d e h t s e o d t a h

W o fEngilsh vocabulary mateirals rfo thethrid gradestudent s f

o SD Neger i1 Panggang using the Audioilngua lmethod and Tota lPhysica l e

s n o p s e

(23)

.

C ProblemLimtia iton s ti m il r e ti r w e h

T thediscussionon Engilshl anguaget eachingbyworking n

o the insrtucitona ldesign area .Thi sstudy aim sto design a se to fEngilsh g

d ri h t e h t r o f s l a ir e t a m y r a l u b a c o

v rade students o felementary schoo llevel. tI t

e s a n g i s e d o t w o h n o s e s u c o

f o fEngilshvocabularymateiralsf ort het h ridgrade s

t n e d u t

s o f SD Neger i 1 Panggang using Tota l Physica l Response and d

o h t e m l a u g n il o i d u

A a s the supplementary learning mateirals . The learning s

e it i v it c

a which are included in the designed mateiral s such a s imtiaiton , s

n o it c a l a c i s y h p g n i m r o f r e p e li h w g n i n e t s il , n o it it e p e

r in term so fdrliilng w ill

d n a t s r e d n u s t n e d u t s e h t p l e

h the Engilsh vocabulary easliy .A sstated by Sea l )

1 9 9 1

( , imtiaiton and habi t formaiton (drliilng ) are the keys in language .

t n e m p o l e v e

d Accordingly , the wrtie r expects the learning acitviite s in the s

l a ir e t a m d e n g i s e

d wli ldevelop and enhance the students ’understanding o f r

a l u b a c o v h s il g n

E y . Fu trhermore , the se to f Engilsh vocabulary mateirals si d

e ti m

il f orfou runtisfort hehal foff rists emeste.r

.

D ResearchObjec itve e

h

T researchobjecitvei nt hiss tudy f is ormulatedi nonestatemen tbelow. o

t s m i a h c r a e s e r e h

T design Engilsh vocabulary mateiral sfo rthe thrid grade f

o s t n e d u t

s SD Neger i1 Panggang using the Audiolingua lmethod and Tota l .

(24)

.

E ResearchBeneftis ti f e n e b e h

T s oft hes tudyarepresentedont hef ollowingpage. .

1 Fort heEng ilshTeachero fThirdGradeStudent sSDNeger i1Panggang e

r a s l a ir e t a m d e n g i s e d e h

T expectedt osuppo trt heexisitngt extbook .The e

s u t h g i m r e h c a e

t t his book a sthe supplementary Engilsh learning mateiral s c

i h

w hareapprop iratet othesyllabust hatt heschoo lowns .Moreove,rt het eache r t

a h t k o o b g n it s i x e e h t h ti w s l a ir e t a m e h t y fi d o m n a

c i sused in tha tschool .

e h t , e r o f e r e h

T designed mateiral shelp the teache rdevelop and enhance the .

y r a l u b a c o v h s il g n E ’ s t n e d u t s

.

2 Fort heThirdGradeStudent so fSDNeger i1Panggang e

h

T designed mateiral s are expected to enhance the students ’ y

e h t , e r o f e r e h T . y r a l u b a c o v h s il g n E f o g n i d n a t s r e d n

u wli l have bette r

E f o n o i s n e h e r p m o c d n a g n i d n a t s r e d n

u ngilsh vocabulary mateirals to the nex t .s

s a l c r e p p u

.

3 F For uture Researchers

e b n a c y d u t s e h t f o n o it a m r o f n i e h t d n a t l u s e r e h t s t c e p x e r e ti r w e h T

s e h t t c u d n o c o t t n a w o h w e s o h t r o f l a i c if e n e

b amer esearchi nt hes ame ifeld.

.

F De ifniitono fTerms r a p s i h t n

I t ,the wrtie relaborate sthe de ifniiton o fterm srelated to thi s r

e d a e r e h t p l e h o t r e d r o n i y d u t

s obtain the genera lunderstanding of t hi sstudy. .

(25)

.

1 Vocabulary o t g n i d r o c c

A Naiton (1990), vocabulary i sa se to fwords tha ti svery .

g n i n r a e l e g a u g n a l n i t n e m e l e t n a tr o p m

i Vocabulary i s impo trant elemen t in u

g n a

l age learning because vocabulary ha s conneciton wtih othe r language a

h c u s s e it i v it c

a s ilstening ,speaking ,reading ,and w iritng .I ti ssuppo tred by 1

0 0 2 ( r e m r a

H ) ,hes tatest ha tvocabularyi sas tocko fwordsi nal anguaget ha tcan .

e g a u g n a l f o s ll i k s d n a s t n e m e l e r e h t o e h t n r a e l o t s r e n r a e l e h t tr o p p u

s Therefore ,

y d u t s s i h t n

i thewrtie rdeifne svocabulary a a s se to fword stha tare i ncluded i n s

l a ir e t a m g n i n r a e l e h

t and t hewordsare selected based on t he need sof t het hrid f

o s t n e d u t s e d a r

g SDNeger i1Panggang. .

2 AudiolingualMethod r e ti r w e h t , y d u t s s i h t n

I deifnest het erm so fAudiolingualmethodbyusing r

e p x e e h t m o r f s a e d i e m o

s ts .According t o Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard (2002 ,p . )

4

4 ,A ou ldi ingua lmethod i sa languageteaching method which i nvolvest heuse n

o it it e p e r f

o and imtiaiton fo remphasizing the memo irzaiton o fnew language . ,

e r o m r e h tr u

F Freeman and Larsen (2000)also proposetha tAudioilngua lmethod l

a r o n a s a n w o n k s i h c i h w d o h t e m a s

i -basic approach tha td irll sstudent sin .

n o it a i c n u n o r p t c e r r o

c Therefore ,in thi sstudy ,the wrtie rdeifnes Audiolingua l e

m thod a sa learning method t ha thelpsthe t hrid grade student so fSD Neger i1 g

n a g g n a

P to pronounce ,memo irze the Engilsh word sthrough repeititon and .

(26)

.

3 Tota lPhysica lResponse d r a h c i R o t g n i d r o c c

A s and Rodgers (1986 ,) Tota lPhysica lResponsei sa d

o h t e m g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a

l whichattemptst ot eachnewlanguaget hroughphysica l .

y ti v it c a ) r o t o m

( Thi sassumpiton i ssuppo tred by Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard d o h t e m g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a l a s i e s n o p s e r l a c i s y h P l a t o T t a h t e t a t s y e h T . ) 2 0 0 2 (

n i e g a u g n a l w e n s e c u d o rt n i h c i h

w a ev ry visua lway ,involve sacitviites and d

n a s t n e m e v o

m i tdoe sno ta tfris tpu tpressure on young learner sto speak . e

li h w n a e

M Larsen and Freeman ( 2000 )also deifneTota lPhysica lResponsea sa h

c i h w d o h t e m g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a

l faclitiate s the language learner s to learn v

r e s b o h g u o r h t e g a u g n a

l ingaciton sa swel la sperformingt heaciton .s

The language learners wli lunderstand the meaning o fword sby making y

e h t s e c n a r e tt u e h t n e e w t e b s n o it a i c o s s

a are heari ng and the aciton sthey are g

n i v r e s b

o (Larsen&Freeman,2000 .) A sar esutl, i n t hi sstudy,t hewrtie rdeifne s P

l a t o

T hysica lResponse a sa language teaching method tha tinrtoduce snew e

g a u g n a

l visually ,involving the body movement .I tfaclitiates et h students to s

d r o w f o g n i n a e m e h t p s a r

g throughphysica lacitvtii esandbodymovements. .

4 TheThirdGradeStudent sofSDNeger i1Panggang n

o d e s a

B Peraturan PemerintahR INo .28 ,1990( Depdikbud ,1994 ,p .1) , m

r o f ti n u a s i l o o h c s y r a t n e m e l e f o n o it i n if e d e h

t o fbasiceducaiton ,whichr un sa x

i

s -yea reducaiton program .The thrid grade o felementary schoo lmean sthose m o r f n e r d li h c e r a y e h T . l o o h c s y r a t n e m e l e e h t n i l e v e l r o r a e y d ri h t e h t n i e r a o h w

9-10 year sold .In t hi sstudy, t hewrtie rdeifned the t erm elementary schoo la sa n

o it a c u d e c i s a b f o t i n

(27)

f o s t n e d u t s e d a r g d ri h

t SD Neger i1 Panggang are student sin the ages o - f9 10 d

l o s r a e

(28)

I I R E T P A H C F O W E I V E

R RELATEDLITERATURE

c s i h t n

I hapte ,rt her esearche rdiscussessomet heo ire swhicharer elatedt o y

d u t s s i h

t ast het heoreitca lbasi sfor t hi sstudy .Thi sseciton i s divided i nto t wo s

i t r a p t s ri f e h T . s tr a

p the theoreitca ldescirpiton ,and the second par tis the .

k r o w e m a r f l a c it e r o e h t

.

A Theoreitca lDescrip iton

t a l e r e r a h c i h w s e ir o e h t e h t s e s s u c s i d n o it c e s s i h

T ed to the topic o fthi s

i h t n I . y d u t

s spar,t t heresearche rdiscusse sand elaborates thet heo ire sabout t he l

a n o it c u rt s n

I Design Model ,the theo ire so fteaching vocabulary ,the theo ire so f s

r e n r a e L g n u o Y r o f h s il g n E g n i h c a e

T , t he t heo ire so fA oudi ilngua lmethod, the f

o s e ir o e h

t Tota lPhysica lResponse ,and the theo ire so fKTSP (Schoo lBased .s

l a ir e t a m e h t g n i n g i s e d e r o f e b n o it a r e d i s n o c e h t s a ) m u l u c ir r u C

.

1 Instrucitona lDesignModel y

n a m e r a e r e h

T design model swhich can be appiled a sthe basic o f e

h t g n i n g i s e

d mate irals .However ,in thi sstudy the wrtie ronly appile sKemp’ s n

g i s e d l a n o it c u rt s n

i model to develop and design the Engilsh vocabulary s

l a ir e t a

m .Thewrtie rappilest hi smode lwtiht heconsideraitont ha tKemp’ smode l r

o f e l b a ti u s s

i wrtierwhen t hewrtierconductsherr esearch becauset hestep sare e

l b i x e

lf .Thewrtie rcan star tfrom any of t he steps .The step so fKemp’ smode l i

d e n i a l p x e e b l li

(29)

.

a Kemp’ sModel e t a t s ) 7 7 9 1 ( p m e

K s tha tthe insrtucitona lproces si sa complex matter .I t f

o s t s i s n o

c many i nterrelated patr sand funciton in ordert o achieve success .The s

s e c o r p l a n o it c u rt s n

i which i sknown a sinsrtucitona ldesign consist so fa plan l

e v e l l a n o it a c u d e y n a n o d e il p p a e b n a c h c i h

w -elementary,s econdary ,o rcollege. f o t n e m e l e l a it n e s s e e h t d e r e d i s n o c e b y a m h c i h w s n o it s e u q e m o s e r a e r e h T c u rt s n

i itona ldesign .Thosequesiton sa reasf ollows( Kemp ,1977 ,p.8 .) u

m t a h W .

1 s tbel earned? s

e c r u o s e r d n a s e r u d e c o r p t a h W .

2 wli lwork bes tto reach the desried

) s e c r u o s e r d n a s e it i v it c A ( ? l e v e l g n i n r a e l

t a h t w o n k e w l li w w o H .

3 the requried learning ha s taken place? )

n o it a u l a v E (

t , ) 7 7 9 1 ( p m e K o t g n i d r o c c

A here are eigh t step s to be employed in h

c r a e s e r e h t g n it c u d n o

c .Theeights tep sareasf ollow .s )

1 Consideringt heGoa sl ,Topics ,andGenera lPurposes

Kemp ( 1977 , p 4p . - 41 3 ) statestha tal leducaitona lprogram sarebased on , y t e i c o s , s e c r u o s e e r h t m o r f d e v ir e d e b y a m s l a o g e h t , n e h T . s l a o g d e t a t s y l d a o r b

an d students ,and subjec tarea .Statement so fgoal sshould recognize changes i n a

e

l rners ’need sand interest .Goal sshould be stated fris tbefore topics .A tfe r r

o j a m n e h t ,s l a o g s ti g n i h s il b a t s e d n a g n i z i n g o c e

r topic sshould be ilsted .Kemp b

e h t s a d n a m a r g o r p f o e p o c s e h t s i c i p o T “ s e t a t

s asisf ort hei nsrtuciton” .Then,i n r

e ti r w e h t , c i p o t e h t g n it c e l e

s should sequence this according to a logica l o

t e l p m i s m o r f d n a , n o it a z i n a g r

(30)

. d e t s il e b n a c s e s o p r u p l a r e n e

g Generalpurpose scontaino fsomethingt ha twould d

e h s il p m o c c a e

b int het opic .sI tsta trsf romteacher-o irenteds tatement so fgenera l s

l a o g d a o r b e h t o t n o it a l e r n i d e t c e l e s d n a , s c i p o t r o f s e s o p r u

p o finsttiuiton o r

m a r g o r

p .

2 ) Identfiyingt heLearnerCharacterisitcs 7

7 9 1 ( p m e

K , p. 8p 1 - 91 )convey s the designe r should recognize and l

a u d i v i d n i s a t n e d u t s e h t t c e p s e

r learneri n ordert o assureani ndividua’l ssucces s r

o s i h n

i he reducaitona lprogram .Each i ndividua lha sdfiferen tcharacte irsitcsi n e

h t t u o b a n o it a m r o f n i n i a t b o t s u m r e h c r a e s e r e h t e r o f e r e h t ; g n i n r a e

l learners ’

n a , s d e e n , s e it il i b a p a

c di nterestsf ris tbeforet heresearcherdesigns themateirals in o

t r e d r

o e ase the researcheri n determining t hegoa,l t opic ,and genera lpurpose . ’

s t n e d u t s e h

T informaiton can be obtained from having consutlaitons wtih othe r e

h t r o s r e h c a e

t resul to fquesitonniares. )

3 Sta itngt heLearningObjecitves

Kemp (1977 ,p .p 32 - 42 )state stha tin staitng the learning objecitves ,al l s t n e d u t s e h t t a h t s l a o g e h t s a h c u s s e it i v it c a f o s m r e t n i d e t a t s e b t s u m s e v it c e j b o

i d e d u l c n i e b d l u o w t a h t s ll i k s e h t d n a s a e d i e h t , n i a tt a t s

u n t hedesign ,and t ype s

d l u o w t a h t r u o i v a h e b f

o beexpected du irng evaluaiton .In othe rwords ,learning r a e l r i e h t f o d n e e h t t a e g d e l w o n k ’ s t n e d u t s e h t h ti w g n il a e d e r a s e v it c e j b

o ning

d n

a whatt heywli lacquriei nt heendoft hel earningproces .s )

4 Lis itngt heSubjec tContent p m e K o t g n i d r o c c

(31)
(32)

a t n e i c if f e t s o m e h t e n i m r e t e d o t r e d r o n i s l a ir e t a m s u o ir a v f o d n

a nd effecitve

o h t e

m d .I ti simpo trant t hing to do because selecitng the learning mate iral sand s

i s e it i v it c

a requriedto connectt heconten tand each objecitvei n ordert o rtansfe r .

y ll a c it a m e t s y s s l a ir e t a m e h t

)

7 Determiningt heSuppor tService a

t s ) 7 7 9 1 ( p m e

K test hatt hedesigne rmus tconsidert hesuppo tri veservice il

i c a f , t e g d u b s a h c u

s it e ,s equipments ,and itme schedules ta the same itme a

l p l a n o it c u rt s n

i ns arebeingmadeandt hemate iral sarebeings elected. )

8 Determiningt heEvalua iton

According to Kemp (1977) , evaluaiton i s conducted a t the end o f d

e ri u q e r s i n o it a u l a v E . s l a ir e t a m e h t g n i n g i s e

d inorde rtor eviseand i mprovet he o

t d e s u s i n o it a u l a v E . n g i s e

d obtainthebette rdesign . s i l e d o m n g i s e d l a n o it c u rt s n i s ’ p m e K f o e r u g if e h

T presentedbyt hewrtier

e g a p g n i w o ll o f e h t n

(33)

e r u g i

F 2 K.1: emp’sI nstrucitona lDe isgnModel (Kemp ,1977)

.

2 TeachingVocabularyforYoungLearners ,

) 0 9 9 1 ( n o it a N o t g n i d r o c c

A vocabulary ha s conneciton wtih othe r s

, g n i n e t s il s a h c u s s ll i k s e g a u g n a

l peaking ,reading ,and wiritng .Meanwhlie e

t a t s ) 0 0 0 2 ( n w o r

B s “vocabularyi sa ils to rse to fwordsf o raparitcularl anguage e

s u t h g i m e g a u g n a l f o s r e k a e p s l a u d i v i d n i t a h t d r o w f o t s il a r

o ” .Therefore, i n

s i h

t case , teaching vocabulary canno t be neglected in the second language .

m o o r s s a l

c According to Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard (2002 , p 5 . 8 ) , teaching y

r a l u b a c o

v off oreign l anguage rf o youngl earners( chlidren)i sacomplexmatter . g

n i n r a e L

s e v it c e j b O

e r P

-t n e m s s e s s A

, s l a o G

, s c i p o T

d n a

l a r e n e G

s e s o p r u P

t r o p p u S

s e c i v r e S

t c e j b u S

t n e t n o C

s r e n r a e L

s i r e t c a r a h C

s c it n

o it a u l a v E

g n i h c a e T

d n a

g n i n r a e L

s e it i v it c A

(34)
(35)

w o h

s the rea l object sto presen tand inrtoduce vocabulary in the classroom s

e it i v it c a g n i n r a e

l . Showing students t herea lobject sort hing ssuch a sabook ,a a

, li c n e

p penci lcase ,even aschoo lbag whlieasking t hestudent t o say t hem in h

s il g n

E drieclty wli leaset hem to understand themeaning o fword sdeeply. The u

s i d n o c e

s singpictures ,photos ,and lfashcard .sInt hi scase ,theteache rmaydraw s

d r o w h s il g n E e h

t ont heblackboard o ron the lfashcard so revenont hepaper sa n

o c e h

t sideraiton t hat mos tof the chlidren in the ealry age scanno trely on the s

d r o w t c a rt s b

a . In addiiton, picture swli lmake the mateiral sto be contextual . ,

e li h w n a e

M picture swli lmaket hemeaning o fword sbeclearr athert han correc t m

e h

t through rtanslaito n. u s i d ri h t e h

T singmimeandgesture.I tcanbeconductedwhent het eache r :

s d r o w s e v it c e j d a e m o s s e c u d o rt n

i sad ,happy ;and verb :swimming,r unning ,and .

g n i p m u

j The student smay perform those words in aciton ,because performing n

o it c

a reduce stheyoung l earners ’srtes swhen l earningf oreign l anguage .Hence , e

g a t s s i h t n

i ,thestudent swli lno tonly l earn themeaningo fwords ,bu talso t hey l

li

w buliddeepunderstandingaboutt hemeaningi nt her ea lcontex.t h

tr u o f e h

T technique i susing s go s ,n rhymes , ro chants. Thet eache rmay g

n o s e s

u s ,rhymes ,or chants as t hevehicle t o l earn new vocabulary .The rhyme s

i h c i h

w includedi nasongandachan tallowst henewl anguaget o bei nrtoduced n

a d new vocabulary to be reinforced .Songs ,rhymes ro chant scan be used a s ,

s r e m r a

w o ra sa rtansiiton from one acitvtiy to the next acitvtiy .The aim so f ,

e g a u g n a l w e n e c u d o rt n i o t e r a s t n a h c r o , s e m y h r , s g n o s g n i s

u changet hemood ,

d n

(36)

e h

t menitoned technique swork , rtanslaitngwordsi st hebes twayt ha tsave sal o t .

e m it f o

: 2 e g a t S .

b A ttendingt of orm(Brewster ,Elils ,andGriard ,2002 ,p .87) r

e h c a e t e h t , e g a t s s i h t n

I may ask the student sto ilsten and repeat . g

n i n e t s i

L fo rspeci ifc phonologica linformaiton (consonant ,and vowe lsounds) . Listening and repeaitng areconducted atfert he student sconveyi ng themeaning. T heaimso f ilstening andr epeati ngacitvtiyaret hestudent scan ilsten f o rdetalis ,

r e d r o n

i to i mprove t hei rmemory and concenrtaiton;t hestudent scan ilsten wtih e

l b a y o j n

e acitvtiy to i mprove t hei r ilstening atttiude. Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard 2

0 0 2

( ,p .88 )a dd thati nt hi sstep,t het eache rmay ask t hestudentst osay o rread a

s d r o w e h

t loud.I ft hes tuden ts s ay correclty,t het eache rmayuset hiss tuden ta sa .

s s a l c e l o h w e h t r o f l e d o

m I ftii sno,t t het eache rmaysayt hewordsl oudlyagain .

t a e p e r o t s t n e d u t s e h t k s a d n

a T nhe teache rmayorganizei nt hei rexercise .s .

c Stage3 :Vocabularypracitcing ,and memorizing acitviite s(Brewster ,Elils , d

n

a Griard ,2002 ,p .87) , p e t s s i h t n

I Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard (2002 , pp .88-89 )state tha tin e

k a m o t r e d r

o asrtong memory ,the t eache rmay ge tinvolved young learners in g

n i n r a e l e h

t acitviites .The learning acitviites requrie the young learners to do s

d r o w e h t o t d e t a l e r s g n i h

t .The acitviite swhich are included in thi sstep are a

l

c ssfiying ,giving i nsrtuciton, picture dictaiton ,game ,and labeilng .Classfiying s

e ri u q e

r chlidrens houlds or twordsi ntocatego ires .Fo rexample ,thet eache rgive s s

t n e d u t s e h t d n a s d r o w h s il g n E e m o

s should sor tword sbased on ho tand cold d

e r ,s g n i h

(37)

i

smple insrtucitons by using the word stha thave been learned in the previou s ,

e l p m a x e r o F . e g a t

s “Pointt o you rnose!” ,“Show me you rbook!” ,“Touch you r k

o o

b ! ,” and soon whlie the chlidren pracitce those insrtuciton swtih thei rbody .t

n e m e v o m

n o it a t c i d e r u t c i

P faclitiates the student sto draw o rto colo rthe picture s n

o d e s a

b wha tthe teache rsays .I tcan be a simple insrtuciton such a sdraw a k

o o

b ! ,draw a pencli ,! and draw a cricle!. Fu trhermore ,when the teache ruses e

s u y a m r e h c a e t e h t , e g a t s s i h t n i e m a

g t heKim’ sgameo rwhispe irng game. In r

i e h t e c it c a r p o t d e ri u q e r e r a s t n e d u t s e h t , y ti v it c a g n il e b a

l understanding o f

. e r u t c i p d e d i v o r p e h t g n il e b a l y b y r a l u b a c o v

.

d Stage4 :Conso ilda itng ,recycilng ,andextendingvocabulary t

, e g a t s s i h t n

I he student sneed ot pracitce regulalry ,conso ildate and o

t r e d r o n i t x e t n o c t n e r e f fi d n i s d r o w e l c y c e

r ease thestudent smemo irzing new k

s a y a m r e h c a e t e h T . y r o m e m m r e t g n o l ri e h t n i s d r o

w thestudents t o wrtiet he

n w o d s d r o

w a sthei raid sreteniton .Fu trhermore, Brewster ,Elils ,and Griard )

2 0 0 2

( addvocabularybook ,collages ,ands impledialogueast heothert echniques r

e h c a e t e h t y b d e s o p o r p e b n a c t a h

t .Vocabulary book encourage sstudent sto k

o o b y r a l u b a c o v n w o r i e h t e t a e r

c ,wh lie collages can be conducted by asking o

t s t n e d u t

s collec tpicture saroundaparitculart hemeandsitckt hesepicture son a e

g r a

l pape .r n e h

T in a simple dialogue , et h teache r g s ive the student s a simple ,

e u g o l a i

d and then the student spracitce the simple words /dialogue wtih thei r e

t a m s s a l

(38)

t o n n a c y r a l u b a c o v , g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a l n i s g n i h t t n a tr o p m i t s o m e h t s i y r a l u b a c o v

t h g u a t e

b in the form o fisolated unti .Therefore ,word sshould be presented r

e h t e g o

t in themeaningfu lsentenceo fphrase in orde rto maket hem funcitona.l t s ri f r i e h t e ri u q c a s r e n r a e l w o h n o s e l u r c i s a b e h t w o ll o f t s u m n o it a t n e s e r p s tI

. g n it ir w d n a g n i d a e r e r o f e b t s ri f e m o c d l u o h s g n i k a e p s d n a g n i n e t s i L . e g a u g n a l

a n i e b d l u o h s s y a w l a n o it a t n e s e r p e h t , n e h

T meaningfu lcontext .

.

3 TeachingEngilsht oYoungLearners

Teaching Engilsh ,especially ot ESL young l earner ,s i sno teasy because L

S

E young learners stli lbulid up thei rown language .Brown (1987, p .49 ) s

d n e m m o c e r e r o f e r e h

t that t hesecond l anguaget eaching methods o rprocedures e

b d l u o h

s based onhowyoung l earner sacquriet herif ristl anguage. Frislty ,when g

n i h c a e

t Engilsh languaget o ESL young l earners , ilstening and speaking should r

t s ri f e m o

c athe rthan reading and wiritng .They wli lmuch ilsten to wha tthei r .t

i t a e p e r n e h t d n a y a s s t n e r a

p Reading and w iritng are advanced stage so f e r o f e b t h g u a t e b t o n d l u o h s g n it ir w d n a g n i d a e r e r o f e r e h t ,t n e m p o l e v e d e g a u g n a l

k a e p s d n a n e t s il o t e l b a e r a s r e n r a e l g n u o

y .

Secondly ,in teaching foreign language ,the teacher should pracitce the e

t a r a p e

s d sound s ifrst ,words ,andthensentences .Pracitce should ber epeatedand d

e c it c a r

p repeatedly .I ti sa sconsideraiton tha ta smal lchlid learns a language d

n u o s e h t m o r f d e tr a t

s tha the o rs he hears ,and then learn word ,and then e

c n e t n e

s . Th ridly ,consideirng tha tthe chlidren learn thei rmothe rtongue by g

n it a e p e

(39)

y

b imtiaitngandrepeaitngEngilshword sors entences a so tfena spossible .Thisi s .

g n i h t y r e v e s e t a ti m i o h w d li h c l l a m s a f o n o it a r e d i s n o c e h

t Then,t eache rdoe sno t

o h w n e r d li h c l l a m s s a y lt c e ri d r a m m a r g e h t h c a e t d n a s d r o w e h t e t a l s n a rt o t d e e n

. r a m m a r g l a m r o f g n i n r a e l t u o h ti w e g a u g n a l e s u y l p m i

s tIi sequally unnecessary

. e g a u g n a l n g i e r o f g n i h c a e t n i n o it a z il a u t p e c n o c l a c it a m m a r g e s u o t

r e t s w e r B , e li h w n a e

M ,Elils ,and Griard(2002 , .p )4 0 alsoassumetha tthe r

e h c a e

t should i nvolve t henatura lcharacteirsitco fyoung l earne rwhen t eaching c

it s ir e t c a r a h c l a r u t a n t a h T . e g a u g n a l n g i e r o

f i s“chlidren ilket ot alk”. Thu ,si nt hi s t n e m e c r o f n i e r e v it i s o p m e h t e v i g o t y ti n u tr o p p o e h t e s u y a m r e h c a e t e h t , e s a

c to

n r a e

l language ,especially vocabulary ,such a simtiaiton in the form o fdrliilng . r

e h c a e t e h t ,s e d i s e

B m ayprovidet heoppo truniitesf o rmeaningfu lcommunicaiton s

s a l c e h t f o t n o r f n i e u g o l a i d s a h c u s e l b i s s o p r e v e r e h w s e it i v it c

a .

.

4 Audioilngua lMethod

Audioilngual method i s a method which i s known a s an oral-basic t c e r r o c d n a n r e tt a p r a m m a r g f o e s u e h t n i s t n e d u t s s ll ir d h c i h w h c a o r p p a

n o it a i c n u n o r

p (Larsen&Freeman ,2000) .Thedrliilnginvolve srepeititono fusing e

g a u g n a l w e n

a . Hence in the Audioilngual method , language learner s are d

e p p i u q

e wtih knowledge and skli l which requ ried them to have effecitve w

e n a n i n o it a c i n u m m o

c language.

.

a Principle so fAudiolingua lMethod

Richard sandRodger s(1986 , 5p.5 )statethepurposeo fusingo fusingt he l

o i d u

(40)

n o it a i c n u n o r

p na d grammaitca lcorrectness .Drliilng i sacenrtal t echniquei n t hi s s

s e c o r p g n i n r a e l e g a u g n a l f o l a o g n i a m e h T . d o h t e

m ist helanguagel earner sare e

t a c i n u m m o c o t e l b

a in thecorrec tpronunciaiton .Therefore, i n ordert o achieve s

s e c c u s e h

t o flearning language by using Audioilngua lmethod ,the teache r s

e l p i c n ir p e h t r e d i s n o c d l u o h

s o fAudio ilngualf ris.t eTh rearesomep irnciple so f e

m l a u g n il o i d u

a thods tatedbyLarsenandFreeman(2000 ,pp .42- 44 .)

Fris,t thepurposeofl anguagel earningi st o l earnhowt o uset hel anguage t

a c i n u m m o c r o

f ion .Therefore ,language form soccu rmos tnaturally wtihin a .t

x e t n o

c Second,t eache rha samajorr olei n l earning l anguage .Sincethestudent s r

e h c a e t e h t e r o f e r e h t ,l l e w l e d o m e h t c i m i m n a c o h w s r o t a ti m i d o o g e r

a shouldbe

e n o e h

t who provide sagood modelto pronouncet he wordsf orhe/rhi sstudents. t

, d ri h

T eache rshould be ilke an orchesrta leader .She conducts ,guides ,and r

o i v a h e b ’ s t n e d u t s e h t s l o rt n o

c in teaching learning acitviites .Fou trh ,language e h t , d e t a e p e r n e tf o s i g n i h t e m o s e r o m e h T . n o it a m r o f ti b a h f o s s e c o r p a s i g n i n r a e l

. d e m r o f s i ti b a h r e g n o rt

s Especiallywhent eachingnewvocabulary ,vocabularyi s d

e n r a e

l through repeititon and imtiaiton which si presented in the srtuctura l .

n r e tt a p e u g o l a i d

The nex tp irnciple o fAudioilngua lmethod si learning foreign language e

h t e b d l u o h

s same as t heacquisiiton o fnaitvel anguage .Student sareno tgiven e

h

t gramma rrules .Gramma rrules are taugh tthrough example sand d irll .s The p

s i e l p i c n ir p t s a

(41)

h t s i m i a y r a m ir p e h t e c n i

S eablitiyto communicate,t helanguagel earner s r

e h c a e t e h t d n

a shouldthereforeuset het argetl anguagea tallt he itme .Moreove r a s s tated by Brewster ,Elils ,andGriard (2002, p .53) ,in Audioilngua lclassroom

y ti v it c

a ,drliilng and dialogue memo irzaiton are the techniques which usually d

e s

u . Drliilng i s used fo rrepeititon and memo irzaiton ,emphasizing more in .

n o it a n o t n i d n a , m h t y h r ,s s e rt s , n r e tt a p l a c it a m m a r

g Whliedialoguememo irzaiton

o t s r e n r a e l e h t s e l b a n

e learn srtuctures ,sound so rwordsi n a contex.t Therefore , h

s s ll ir d e v i s n e t n

i ould be provided to enable the students learning language in .

n o it a c i n u m m o c r o f t x e t n o c

.

b Designi nAudioilngua lMethod

Richard sand Rodgers(1986 )statethatt herearet wo consideraitonswhen .

d o h t e m l a u g n il o i d u A g n i s u s l a ir e t a m g n i n g i s e d

1) Objecitves

A sstatedbyRichard sand Rodgers(1986) ,theobjecitve so fAudio ilngua l o

h t e

m d s include rtaining in ilstening comprehension , accurate pronunciaiton , d

n a l o b m y s h c e e p s f o n o it i n g o c e

r ablitiyt or eproducet heses ymbols inw iritng. In ,

d n a h r e h t o e h

t the objecitve sconsis to f(a )conrto lo fthe srtucture so fsound , e

c n a t n i a u q c a ) b ( , e g a u g n a l w e n e h t n i r e d r o d n a , m r o

f wtih vocabulary tiemst ha t

c ( d n a , s e r u t c u rt s e s e h t o t n i t n e t n o c g n ir

b )meaning.

Richard s and Rodger s (1986 ) underilne the focu s o f Audio ilngua l d

o h t e

M . They are ilstening comprehension , pronunciaiton , grammar , and y

r a l u b a c o

v masterywhicharer elatedt othedevelopmen to fora l lfuency .Reading e

b y a m s ll i k s g n it ir w d n

(42)

2 )Type so fLearningandTeachingAcitvi ites

Richard sand Rodger s(1986, .p53 )state ,“Dialogues and d irll sare the c

i s a

b o fAudio ilngua lclassroom pracitce.”Dialogue sareused fo rrepeititon and z

ir o m e

m aiton . Correc t pronunciaiton , srtess , rhythm , and intonaiton are d

e z i s a h p m

e in thi s teaching learning acitvtiy. Some vairou skind so fd irll sin o

i d u

A ilngua l method a sstated by Richard sand Rodger s are repeititon ,and s

ll ir d n o it it e p e R . t n e m e c a l p e

r studentst or epea tanutterancealoudatfert heyhave n i r e h t o n a y b d r o w e n o e c a l p e r o t s t n e d u t s e h t s ll ir d t n e m e c a l p e r e li h w , ti d r a e h

s t n e d u t s e h t , ” k o o b a s e k a t i d n A “ , s y a s r e h c a e t e h t n e h w e l p m a x e r o F . e c n a r e tt u

a t e H “ o t n i ” i d n A “ d r o w e h t e c a l p e r t s u

m ke sabook” .

Meanwhlie ,LarsenandFreeman( 2000 , p 7p . - 94 4 )dividesomet echnique s f

o theAudioilngua lmethod .Theyaredialoguememo irzaiton ,backward bulid- up n

i a h c , ll ir d n o it it e p e r ,l li r

d d irll ,andcompletet hedialogueo rsentence .Dialogue n

o it a z ir o m e

m ist het ermof a shor tconversaitonbetween t wopeoplewhich aim s e h t s e k a t t n e d u t s y ll a u s u , tr a p s i h t n I . y r c i m i m h g u o r h t e u g o l a i d e h t e z ir o m e m o t

l o

r eo fone person i n t hedialogueand pracitcet he dialoguewtih he/rhi spatrne.r o

l a i d e h t n

I g ue memo irzaiton ,cetrain sentence gramma rpoin tand pattern are d

e d u l c n

i and pracitced t hrough drliilng .Then thenex td irlli sbackwardbulid- up ll

ir

d .I nt hi sacitvtiy ,thet eache rbreak sdownt hedialoguei ntos omepatrs andt he t

n e d u t

s sarer equ riedt orepea tpar tbypatr .Usuallyr epeititondrli li sappiledwhen .

e u g o l a i d e h t f o s e n il e h t s e h c a e t r e h c a e t e h

t Chain drli li sgiven by asking a ,t

n e d u t s a o t n o it s e u

q da n then the studen tconitnuing t o othe rstudent swtih t he n

o it s e u q e m a

(43)

the student sare requried to ifll the blank so fa dialogue / ifll themissing words .

d e n r a e l e v a h s t n e d u t s e h t t a h t e u g o l a i d e h t m o r f

l a t o T .

5 Physica lResponse e s n o p s e r l a c i s y h p l a t o

T i s a method which i s developed by Ashers . e

r B o t g n i d r o c c

A w rste ,Elils ,and Griard ( 2002 ,p .44 )Tota lPhysica lResponsei s d

o h t e m g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a l

a which develop s ilstening skill , inrtoduce s new l

a u s i v a n i e g a u g n a

l andacontextua lway . tIi nvolve sphysica lacitviitesandbody t

n e m e v o

m s so i t doe sno tpu tpressure young learner sto speak . Moreove,r (

n w o r B o t g n i d r o c c

a 1987 ,p .43) ,Tota lPhysica lResponsei sal earning method e

h t s e z i s a h p m e t a h

t comprehension o flanguage which sitmulates the memory .

y ti v it c a r o t o m h ti w n o it a i c o s s a h g u o r h t

a .Principle so fTota lPhysica lResponse d

r a h c i R o t g n i d r o c c

A s and Rodgers (1988) ,Tota lPhysica lResponsei sa d

o h t e m g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a

l which i sbuli taround t he coordinaiton o fspeech and l

a t o T . n o it c

a Physica lResponse( TPR)i spopula rmethodt ot eachyoungl earner s e

R l a c i s y h P l a t o T e s u a c e

b sponse develop s ilstening skill , inrtoduce s new o

s l a e s n o p s e R l a c i s y h P l a t o T . y ll a u t x e t n o c d n a y ll a u s i v e g a u g n a

l involve sthe

l a c i s y h

p acitviitesandbodymovement .s dI t oe sno tatf ris tpu tpressureonyoung .

k a e p s o t s r e n r a e

l A sstated by Ashers (1988 ,p .127) by making associaiton s o

it c a e h t d n a r a e h y e h t e c n a r e tt u e h t n e e w t e

b n sthey are observe therefore the .

(44)

d n a , s il l E , r e t s w e r

B Griard( 2002)and Ashers proposet hethreep irnciple s s y a l e d e s n o p s e R l a c i s y h P l a t o T s i e l p i c n ir p t s ri f e h T . e s n o p s e R l a c i s y h P l a t o T f o

e r p m o c e h t li t n u t s ri f g n i k a e p s g n i h c a e

t hension skill sareestabilshed . tIi sr elated w

o h n e r d li h c f o e r u t a n o

t they acqurie ht ei rfris tlanguage .Asher s(1988 )adds t

t a h

t het eache rshouldemphasizet he ilsteningf ris.tI tcanbeconductedby giving g

n il e d o m e li h w s d n a m m o

c the corresponding aciton and letitng the student sto understandf rist .Fo rexample,t het eachers ay “ s Standup!”whiles tandingup .The

s i d n a m m o

c repeated and modeled untli t hestudent sunderstand and respond the d

n a m m o

c easliy .

f o e l p i c n ir p d n o c e s e h t , n e h

T Tota lPhysica lResponse i sthi smethod l

a c i s y h p s a h c u s s e it i v it c a g n it s e r e t n i s e v l o v n

i movements o rphysica lacitviites . e

n if e d ) 2 0 0 2 ( d r a ri G d n a , s il l E , r e t s w e r

B tha tperforming aciton susing physica l s

t n e m e v o

m i sbeileved t o makel anguagel earnersl earn t het argetl anguagemore o

s l a d n a g n it i c x

e tomaket heri memorys rtonge randeasyt oberecalled .Ass tated d

n a n e s r a L y

b Freeman (2000) ,physica lmovement salso reduce thesrtes swhen u

b a c o v n g i e r o f g n i n r a e

l lary becausel anguagel earningi smoreeffecitvewhent he .

n u f e r a s e it i v it c

a In t ha tcase ,whent hestudent sunderstand t hecommandeasliy , y

l n o d n a m m o c l a b r e v e h t e v i g d l u o h s r e h c a e t e h

t wtihou tmodeilng .

s i e l p i c n ir p t x e n e h

T Tota lPhysica lResponsedeal swtih erro rcorreciton . s

n a e m e l p i c n ir p s i h

T when the learner smake an error ,the teacher repeat sthe T

. t u o g n it c a e li h w d n a m m o

c herefore there i sno delay o fthe correciton tisel f d

e c it o n s i r o r r e e h t s a n o o s s a e n o d e b l li w n o it c e r r o c e h t e s u a c e

b (Larsen &

0 0 0 2 , n a m e e r

(45)

y a m r e h c a e

t give more complex commands and a sk some o fthe student sto f

o t n o r f n i e c it c a r

p theclas seven doing conversaitonin apai r(Brewste,rElil s& ,

d r a ri

G 2002 .) .

b Designi nTota lPhysica lResponse s n o it a r e d i s n o c e m o s e r a e r e h

T to designt hemateiral susingTota lPhysica l y

e h T . e s n o p s e

R wli lbepresentedasf ollow .s )

1 Objecitves d r a h c i

R s and Rodger s(1986 , p. 75 )state that ,“The genera lobjecitve o f s

i e s n o p s e R l a c i s y h P l a t o

T to t each ora lpro ifciency at t hebeginning l evel”.The n

i a tt a e b t s u m l a o

g a ble through the use o faciton-based d irll sin the imperaitve .

m r o f

)

2 Type so fLearningandTeachingAcitvi ites s

A saidbyRichards and Rodgers( 1986 , p.29) ,theimperaitved irlli s the v

it c a r e h t o e h T . m o o r s s a l c e h t n i s e it i v it c a R P T f o r o j a

m iite swhich also are

n

i cluded in TPR acitviite sare role play sand silde presentaitons .Meanwhlie , d n a e r u t c u rt s e t a d il o s n o c r e h tr u f o t d e s u e b o s l a y a m s e it i v it c a g n it ir w d n a g n i d a e r

r a l u b a c o

v y .Accordingt oLarsenandFreeman( 2000 ,pp .115- 711 ,)t herearet hree f

o s e u q i n h c e

t Tota lPhysica lResponsein t eachingl earningacitviites .Thef risti s using command to d riec tbehavior .A tthe beginning o flearning process ,the

d n a m m o c e h t s n i a l p x e r e h c a e

t bydemonsrtaitngt heacitons ,wh liet hes tudent srty .

g n i n a e m e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t

s i y ti v it c a t x e n e h

T the teache rcall sone studen tand give shim/he ra d

n a m m o

(46)

r e l o r s i e u q i n h c e t d n o c e s e h T . s d r a w r e tf

a ehearsal. I nt her oler ehearsa,l student s e

h t o t s d n a m m o c e h t e v i

g teache rort o t heselected classmatein orde rtoperform s

n o it c a e h

t drieclty. Thel astt echniquei saciton sequence. Teache rexplainst hree d

e c n e u q e

s command sbydemonsrtaitngthreeacitonsi norder .Thestudent swatch f

o g n i n a e m e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t y rt d n

a thoset hreeorderedcommands .Fo rexample , e

v i g r e h c a e t e h

t s astudent t hreesequencecommands ,such as :Poin tto thedoor , ,r

o o d e h t o t k l a

w andopent hedoor .Then,t hestudent sshouldpefrormtheaciton s r

e d r o n

i .

, e li h w n a e

M Richard sand Rodger s(1986) provide the procedure susing Tota l Physica l Response in the classroom teaching learning acitvtiy . Those . g n it ir w d n a g n i d a e r d n a , l a s r a e h e r e l o r , s d n a m m o c w e n , w e i v e r e r a s e r u d e c o r p

t s a f a s i w e i v e

R -moving warm-up in which each individua l i smoved wtih o

c mmands , fo r example , “Icha , open the window!”. Then , new command s s

e h t e t a ti li c a

f tudentst ol earnsomenewwords .Fo rexample ,“Combyou rhari!” , o t r e e t n u l o v o t s t n e d u t s s e ri u q e r l a s r a e h e r e l o r e li h w n a e M . ” ! e c a f r u o y h s a W “ d n a

e h t d n a s d n a m m o c e h t r e tt

u teache ro rothe rstudent spefrormt heaciton basedon d

n a m m o c e h

t s given .

.

6 KTSP( KurikulumTingka tSatuanPendidikan )

P S T

K which stand sfo rKurikulum Tingka tSatuan Pendidikan ha sbeen .

6 0 0 2 n i d e il p p

a Thedevelopmen toft hecurirculumi sgivenand arrangedbyt he f

o e s o p r u p e h T . fl e s ti l o o h c

s KTSP toward Engilsh learning i sto develop the s

t n e d u t

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...