Efek Ekstrak Biji Jinten Hitam (Nigella sativa Linn.) terhadap Motilitas dan Viabilitas Spermatozoa Mencit Swiss-Webster yang Diinduksi Gelombang Elektromagnetik Telepon Seluler.

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iv Universitas Kristen Maranatha ABSTRAK

EFEK EKSTRAK BIJI (Nigella sativa Linn.) TERHADAP MOTILITAS DAN VIABILITAS SPERMATOZOA MENCIT Swiss Webster YANG

DIINDUKSI GELOMBANG ELEKTROMAGNETIK TELEPON yang biasa dikenal sebagai gelombang elektromagnetik radiofrekuensi (RF– EMW) dapat menyebabkan perburukan fertilitas laki-laki akibat dari stres oksidatif. Jinten hitam (Nigella sativa Linn.) secara empiris memiliki kandungan antioksidan yang poten dan dapat memperbaiki parameter fertilitas laki-laki.

Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menilai efek proteksi jinten hitam terhadap motilitas dan viabilitas spermatozoa mencit yang diinduksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler.

Metode penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental laboratorik sungguhan dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) yang bersifat komparatif menggunakan 20 ekor mencit. Mencit dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok (n=5). Kelompok 1 diberikan ekstrak biji jinten hitam dengan induksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler, kelompok 2 diberikan ekstrak biji jinten hitam tanpa induksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler, kelompok 3 diberikan CMC 1% dengan induksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler, kelompok 4 diberikan CMC 1% tanpa induksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler. Penilaian motilitas dan viabilitas diamati dengan mikroskop. Analisis data menggunakan ANAVA satu arah dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Fisher LSD

dengan α = 0,05.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan rata-rata persentase jumlah spermatozoa motil dan hidup yang sangat signifikan (p < 0,01) antara kelompok 1 dan kelompok 3, dan perbedaan yang sangat signifikan antara kelompok 3 dan 4 (p < 0,01).

Simpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian ekstrak biji jinten hitam (Nigella sativa Linn.) meningkatkan motilitas dan viabilitas spermatozoa mencit yang diinduksi gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler.

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ABSTRACT

THE EFFECT OF BLACK CUMIN SEED EXTRACT (Nigella sativa Linn.) ON MOTILITY AND VIABILITY OF Swiss Webster MICE SPERM

INDUCED BY CELLULAR PHONE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE

Chakra Bakti, 2015;

1st Tutor : Endang Evacuasiany, Dra, Apt., MS., AFK. 2nd Tutor : Winsa Husin, dr. MSc, M.Kes

Electromagnetic waves emitted by cellular phone or known as radiofrequency electromagnetic wave (RF–EMW) has shown some correlation with the worsening of male fertility parameters. Empirically black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.) has shown some potent antioxidant properties which can improve male fertility parameters.

The research objective was to assess the protective effect of black cumin on motility and viability of mice sperm induced by electromagnetic waves emitted from cellular phones.

This study is a comparative, true experimental laboratorial research which used randomized controlled trial (RCT) to divide 20 mice into the treatment groups. Mice were divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group 1 was given black cumin seed extract with exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cellular phone, group 2 was given black cumin seed extract without the exposure of electromagnetic waves emitted by cellular phones, group 3 was given 1% CMC with the exposure of electromagnetic waves emitted by cellular phone, group 4 was given CMC 1% without the exposure of electromagnetic waves emitted by cellular phone. Assessment of motility and viability was observed using microscope. Analysis of data was done using one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD test with α = 0.05.

The results shown that the average difference in motility and viability percentages was highly significant (p < 0.01) between groups 1 and 3. Group 3 and 4 also shown that the average difference of viability percentages was significant (p < 0.01).

The conclusions of this study were the extract of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa Linn.) can improve sperm motility and viability of mice induced electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones. Black cumin seed extract increases the viability of spermatozoa of normal mice induced by black cumin seed extract.

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viii Universitas Kristen Maranatha DAFTAR ISI

JUDUL... ... i

LEMBAR PERSETUJUAN ... ii

SURAT PERNYATAAN ... iii

ABSTRAK ... iv

ABSTRACT ... v

KATA PENGANTAR ... vi

DAFTAR ISI ... vii

DAFTAR GAMBAR ... xi

DAFTAR TABEL... xii

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ... xiii

BAB I PENDAHULUAN 1.1 Latar Belakang ... 1

1.2 Identifikasi Masala ... 2

1.3 Tujuan Penelitian ... 3

1.4 Manfaat Karya Tulis Ilmiah ... 3

1.5 Kerangka Pemikiran ... 3

1.6 Hipotesis Penelitian ... 5

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2.1 Infertilitas... 6

2.1.1 Penyebab Infertilitas ... 7

2.2 Radiasi ... 9

2.2.1 Radiasi Non Pengion ... 10

2.2.2 Gelombang Elektromagnetik Radiofrekuensi ... 12

2.2.3 Specific Absorbtion Rate (SAR) ... 15

2.3 Telepon Seluler dan Fertilitas Laki-laki ... 16

2.3.1 Efek Non Termal ... 18

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2.3.1.2 Terhadap Sitoplasma Sel ... 20

2.3.1.3 Terhadap Nukleus Sel ... 20

2.3.1.4 Radikal Bebas ... 21

2.4 Anatomi Sistem Reproduksi Laki-laki ... 22

2.4.1 Testis ... 22

2.4.2 Epididimis ... 23

2.4.3 Vas Deferens... 23

2.4.4 Vesicula Seminalis ... 23

2.4.5 Kelenjar Prostat... 24

2.5 Fisiologi Sistem Reproduksi Laki-laki ... 24

2.5.1 Spermatogenesis ... 24

2.5.2 Tahap-Tahap Spermatogenesis ... 25

2.5.3 Morfologi Sperma... 26

2.6 Jinten hitam (Nigella sativa Linn). ... 26

2.6.1 Taksonomi ... 27

2.6.2 Karakteristik Tanaman ... 28

2.6.3 Komposisi dan Khasiat Jinten Hitam... 29

2.6.4 Mekanisme Kerja ... 31

BAB III BAHAN DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN 3.1 Alat dan Bahan Penelitian ... 34

3.2 Objek Penelitian ... 35

3.2.1 Perhitungan Sampel ... 35

3.2.3 Persiapan ... 35

3.3 Tempat dan Waktu Penelitian... 35

3.4 Metode Penelitian ... 36

3.4.1 Desain Penelitian ... 36

3.4.2 Variabel Penelitian ... 36

3.4.2.2 Definisi Operasional Variabel ... 36

3.5 Prosedur Kerja ... 37

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x Universitas Kristen Maranatha

3.5.3.1 Prosedur Pemeriksaan Motilitas Sperma ... 38

3.5.3.2 Prosedur Pemeriksaan Viabilitas Sperma ... 39

3.6 Metode Analisis ... 39

3.7 Aspek Etik Penelitian ... 40

BAB IV HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 4.1 Hasil Penelitian ... 41

4.2 Pembahasan ... 46

4.3 Pengujian Hipotesis Penelitian ... 47

BAB V SIMPULAN DAN SARAN 5.1 Simpulan ... 49

5.2 Saran ... 49

DAFTAR PUSTAKA ... 50

LAMPIRAN ... 56

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 1.1 Bagan Kerangka Pemikiran ... 5

Gambar 2.1 Spektrum Radiasi ... 11

Gambar 2.3 Kerusakan Sel Testikuler ... 18

Gambar 2.4 Bunga dan Biji Jinten Hitam ... 23

Gambar 2.4 Struktur Kimia Thymoquinone ... 30

Gambar 3.1 Urutan Penggantian Lapang Pandang ... 38

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xii Universitas Kristen Maranatha DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 2.1 Anjuran Nilai SAR ... 16 Tabel 2.2 Komposisi Jinten Hitam ... 29 Tabel 4.1 Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Motil Tiap Kelompok ... 40 Tabel 4.2 Hasil Uji Beda Rata-rata Fisher LSD Rerata Persentase Jumlah

Spermatozoa Motil Tiap Ke1ompok 4Error! Bookmark not defined. Tabel 4.3 Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Hidup ... 42 Tabel 4.4 Hasil Uji Beda Rata-rata Fisher LSD Rerata Persentase Jumlah

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran 1 Surat Keputusan Komisi Etik Penelitian ... 55

Lampiran 2 Perhitungan Dosis ... 56

Lampiran 3 Tabel Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Mencit Motil... 57

Lampiran 4 Tabel Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Mencit Hidup ... 58

Lampiran 5 Uji Homogenitas ... 59

Lampiran 6 Uji Analysis Of Variance (Anova) Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Motil Tiap Kelompok. ... 60

Lampiran 7 Uji Fisher LSD Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Motil Tiap Kelompok. ... 6Error! Bookmark not defined. Lampiran 8 Tes Analysis Of Variance (Anova) Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa Hidup Tiap Kelompok. ... 62

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48 Universitas Kristen Maranatha BAB V

SIMPULAN DAN SARAN

5.1 Simpulan

Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah :

1. Ekstrak biji jinten hitam meningkatkan motilitas dan viabilitas spermatozoa mencit yang diradiasi elektromagnetik telepon seluler.

5.2 Saran

Saran yang diberikan dari penelitian ini adalah :

- Perlu penelitian mengenai efek ekstrak biji jinten hitam terhadap parameter lain: jumlah, morfologi spermatozoa, level testosteron, FSH, LH, berat dan histologi komponen testis, serta waktu eksitasi.

- Perlu penelitian mengenai efek gelombang elektromagnetik telepon seluler terhadap parameter fertilitas wanita.

- Uji toksisitas kornis pada hewan coba untuk mengetahui profil efek toksik setelah pemberian berulang dengan waktu diperpanjang.

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Figur

Gambar 4.1 Grafik Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa motil dan Hidup  ... 44
Gambar 4 1 Grafik Rerata Persentase Jumlah Spermatozoa motil dan Hidup 44 . View in document p.6
Tabel 4.4 Hasil Uji Beda Rata-rata Fisher LSD Rerata Persentase Jumlah
Tabel 4 4 Hasil Uji Beda Rata rata Fisher LSD Rerata Persentase Jumlah . View in document p.7

Referensi

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