Directory UMM :Slide_Kuliah:PPT:MP_Kotler_10:

13 

Teks penuh

(1)
(2)

Objectives

Objectives

Objectives

Objectives

Setting the Price

Setting the Price

Adapting the Price

Adapting the Price

Initiating & Responding to Price

Initiating & Responding to Price

Changes

(3)

Price

Premium Value

Premium Value

Medium Value

Economy Overcharging

Rip-Off False Economy

High Value

Super Value

Good-Value

Price - Quality Strategies

(4)

Setting Pricing Policy

Setting Pricing Policy

1. Selecting the pricing objective

2. Determining demand

3. Estimating costs

4. Analyzing competitors’ costs, prices, and offers

5. Selecting a pricing method

(5)

Types of Costs

Types of Costs

Total Costs

Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given Level of Production

Total Costs

Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given Level of Production

Fixed Costs (Overhead)

Costs that don’t vary with sales or

production levels. Executive Salaries

Rent

Fixed Costs

(Overhead)

Costs that don’t vary with sales or

production levels.

Executive Salaries Rent

Variable Costs

Costs that do vary directly with the level of production.

Raw materials

Variable Costs

Costs that do vary directly with the level of production.

(6)

The Three C’s Model

The Three C’s Model

for Price Setting

for Price Setting

Costs Competitors’ prices and prices of substitutes

Customers’ assessment of unique product features

Low Price No possible

profit at this price

High Price No possible

(7)

Pricing Methods

Pricing Methods

Pricing Methods

Pricing Methods

Markup Pricing

Markup Pricing

Target Return Pricing

Target Return Pricing

Perceived Value Pricing

Perceived Value Pricing

Value Pricing

Value Pricing

Going-Rate Pricing

Going-Rate Pricing

(8)

Some important pricing definitions

Some important pricing definitions

Some important pricing definitions

Some important pricing definitions

Utility: The attribute

Utility: The attribute

that makes it capable

that makes it capable

of want satisfaction

of want satisfaction

Value: The worth in

Value: The worth in

terms of other

terms of other

products

products

Price: The monetary

Price: The monetary

medium of exchange.

medium of exchange.

Value Example

Value Example:: Caterpillar Caterpillar Tractor is

Tractor is $100,000$100,000 vs. vs. Market

Market $90,000$90,000 $90,000 if equal

$90,000 if equal

7,000 extra durable7,000 extra durable

6,000 reliability6,000 reliability

$10,000 discount!

(9)

Promotional Pricing

Promotional Pricing

Promotional Pricing

Promotional Pricing

Loss-leader pricing

Loss-leader pricing

Special-event pricing

Special-event pricing

Cash rebates

Cash rebates

Low-interest financing

Low-interest financing

Longer payment terms

Longer payment terms

Warranties & service contracts

Warranties & service contracts

(10)

Psychological Pricing

Psychological Pricing

Most Attractive?

Most Attractive?

Better Value?

Better Value?

Psychological

Psychological

reason to price this

reason to price this

way?

way?

A

32 oz.

$2.19

B

26 oz.

$1.99

(11)

Discriminatory Pricing

Discriminatory Pricing

Discriminatory Pricing

Discriminatory Pricing

Time

Product-form

Customer

Segment

(12)

Price-Reaction Program for

Price-Reaction Program for

Meeting a Competitor’s Price Cut

Meeting a Competitor’s Price Cut

Has competitor

cut his price? NoNo

Hold our price at present level; continue to watch

competitor’s price

Is the price likely to significantly hurt our sales?

Yes

Yes

Is it likely to be a permanent

price cut? Yes

Yes

By more than 4%

Drop price to competitor’s

price

By 2-4%

Drop price by half of the competitor’s

price cut

How much has his price been

cut?

Include a

cents-off coupon for the next

(13)

Review

Review

Review

Review

Setting the Price

Setting the Price

Adapting the Price

Adapting the Price

Initiating & Responding to Price

Initiating & Responding to Price

Changes

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