CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS IN MATA NAJWA TALK SHOW PROGRAM ON METRO TV.

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CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS IN MATA NAJWA

TALK SHOW PROGRAM ON METRO TV

A Thesis

Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program in

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Magister Humaniora

By:

JAMALUDDIN NASUTION

Registration Number: 8126112017

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUSTICS STUDY PROGRAM

POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

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CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS IN MATA NAJWA

TALK SHOW PROGRAM ON METRO TV

A Thesis

Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program in

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Magister Humaniora

By:

JAMALUDDIN NASUTION

Registration Number: 8126112017

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUSTICS STUDY PROGRAM

POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

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iii ABSTRACT

Nasution, Jamaluddin. Conversational Maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV. Thesis. English Applied Linguistics Study Program, Post Graduate School, State University of Medan (UNIMED). 2014

This study explains the conversational maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of conversational maxims occurring in the talk show, the difference of conversational maxims among three topics, and the reasons for obediences and violations of conversational maxims in the talk show. This research was conducted by qualitative content analysis method. The data were obtained from the downloaded videos and then were transcribed. The data were three topics of Mata Najwa namely politics, law, and

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iv ABSTRAK

Nasution, Jamaluddin. Bidal Percakapan pada Acara Talk Show Mata Najwa di Metro TV. Tesis. Program Linguistik Terapan Bahasa Inggris, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana, Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED). 2014

Penelitian ini memaparkan tentang bidal percakapan di Program Talk Show Mata Najwa di Metro TV. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan tipe bidal percakapan yang terjadi dalam talk show tersebut, menemukan perbedaan bidal percakapan diantara tiga topik, dan alasan terhadap kepatuhan dan pelanggaran bidal percakapan dalam talk show tersebut. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode analisa kualitatif. Data diambil dari video yang diunduh dan kemudian ditranskripsikan. Data terdiri dari tiga topik acara Mata Najwa yaitu; politik, hukum, dan pendidikan dengan tamu talk show yang berbeda suku; Jawa, Makassar, Batak, dan Cina. Transkripsi dari percakapan tersebut dianalisa dengan penyajian metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua bidal percakapan, seperti; bidal kualitas, bidal kuantitas, bidal cara, dan bidal relevansi, terjadi di semua topik dan tamu talk show. Bidal percakapan yang terjadi di topik politik didominasi oleh pelanggaran pada bidal relevansi. Bidal percakapan yang terjadi di topik hukum didominasi oleh kepatuhan pada bidal relevansi, dan bidal percakapan yang terjadi di topik pendidikan didominasi oleh pelanggaran pada bidal kuantitas. Bidal percakapan yang terjadi dengan tamu talk show bersuku Jawa didominasi oleh pelanggaran pada bidal relevansi. Bidal percakapan yang terjadi dengan tamu talk show bersuku Makassar, Batak, dan Cina semuanya didominasi oleh pelanggaran pada bidal kuantitas. Bidal percakapan yang terjadi dengan tamu talk show yang berbeda sebenarnya dipengaruhi oleh issu dalam topik percakapan itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu, tidak ada hubungan antara budaya dan tradisi bahasa tamu talk show tersebut dengan bidal percakapan mereka karena tamu talk show dari suku Makassar, Batak, dan Cina memiliki bentuk pelanggaran bidal kuantitas yang sama dan semua tamu talk show yang berbeda-beda tidak memiliki kepatuhan bidal cara sama sekali. Faktor lain yang mempengaruhi bidal percakapan adalah (1) sikap berbahasa dari tamu talk show tersebut dalam menjawab pertanyaan, (2) kecenderungan menyembunyikan sesuatu atau tidak ingin mengungkapkannya secara jujur, (3) membuat candaan atau jawaban humor, (4) penggunaan kata kiasan dalam membandingkan atau penggunaan majas bahasa, dan (5) issu dalam topik percakapan itu sendiri.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of God, Allah SWT, the most Gracious and the most Merciful. First of all, the writer would like to thank Allah the Almighty for His Blessing in the completion of this thesis.

In the completion of this thesis, the writer wishes to acknowledge his deepest gratitude for all generous guidance and assistance which has been given to him by a lot of people.

The highest appreciation goes to his two advisers, Dr. I. Wy Dirgeyasa, M.Hum as his first adviser and Prof. Dr. Berlin Sibarani, M.Pd as his second adviser for their guidance all through the completion of this thesis.

Then, his appreciation also goes to Prof. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd. as the head of English Applied Linguistics Program and Dr. Sri Mida Murni, M.S as the secretary of English Applied Linguistics Program who have assisted him in processing the administration requirement during the process of his study in the Post Graduate Program of State University of Medan.

The writer’s great thanks also go to his reviewers or examiners, Dr. Sri

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Finally, his special gratitude is dedicated to his beloved parents who always give him pray. For all USM STAN-Adzkia staff, especially Mr. Muhammad Ramli, M.Si. And a very special thank for his beloved wife, Nurhayani Pandia, and his proudest son, Jamee Irtiyanda Nasution. They both always become as the enthusiasm in his life.

Medan, 08 September 2014 The Writer,

Jamaluddin Nasution Reg. No.: 8126112017

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List of Abbreviation ... xiii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. ... 1

2.2Conversational Implicature ... 10

2.3Conversational Maxims ... 11

2.3.1 Maxim of Quantity ... 12

2.4.2 The Differences of Talk Show and Natural Conversations... 21

2.4.3 Factors Affecting Maxims in Natural Conversations ... 23

2.4.3.1Particular topic ... 24

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2.4.3.3 Getting Other’s Trust ... 25

2.4.3.4Showing up the Knowledge and Avoiding Confrontation ... 26

2.4.3.5Avoiding a Deep Evaluation ... 27

2.4.4 Mata Najwa Talk Show ... 28

2.5 Relevant Studies ... 29

2.6 Conceptual Framework... 30

CHAPTER III METHOD OF RESEARCH ... 32

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS, AND DISCUSSIONS ... 37

4.1Data Analysis ... 37

4.1.1. The Conversational Maxim Occurring in Mata Najwa Talk Show with Different Topics and Guests ... 37

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4.1.2. The Reasons for the Occurrences of Conversational Maxims

Occurring with Different Topics and Guests ... 77

4.1.2.1Talk Show with Topic of Politics ... 82

4.1.2.2Talk Show with Topic of Law ... 82

4.1.2.3Talk Show with Topic of Education ... 83

4.1.2.4Talk Show with the Javanese Guest ... 84

4.1.2.5Talk Show with the Makassar Guest ... 84

4.1.2.6Talk Show with the Bataknese Guest ... 85

4.1.2.7Talk Show with the Chinese Guest ... 86

4.1 Findings ... 87

4.2 Discussions ... 89

4.2.1. The Language Attitude of the Guests in Answering Questions ... 90

4.2.2. Tendency To Hide Something or Not To Reveal Truly ... 90

4.2.3. Making A Joke or Humorous Answer ... 91

4.2.4. Using Metaphorical Words in Comparing or Using Language Features ... 91

4.2.5. The Issues of the Topic Itself ... 91

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ... 92

5.1Conclusions ... 93

5.2Suggestions ... 94

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LIST OF TABLES

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Table 4.16. The Percentage of Maxims of Quality in Talk Show with the Chinese

Guest ... 61

Table 4.20. The Percentage of Maxims of Quantity in Talk Show with the Chinese Guest ... 67

Table 4.21. The Percentage of Maxims of Manner in Talk Show with the Javanese Guest ... 69

Table 4.22. The Percentage of Maxims of Manner in Talk Show with the Makassar Guest ... 70

Table 4.23. The Percentage of Maxims of Manner in Talk Show with the Bataknese Guest ... 70

Table 4.24. The Percentage of Maxims of Manner in Talk Show with the Chinese Guest ... 71

Table 4.29. The Percentage of Conversational Maxim Types in All Topics ... 78

Table 4.30. The Percentage of Conversational Maxims in All Topics ... 79

Table 4.31. The Percentage of Conversational Maxim Types in All Guests ... 79

Table 4.32. The Percentage of Conversational Maxims in All Guests ... 81

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1: The Transcriptions of Mata Najwa Talk Show ... 97

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LIST OF ABBREVIATION

NS = Najwa Sihab (Interviewer/Host)

AU = Anas Urbaningrum (Interviewee/Guest) RS = Ruhut Sitompul (Interviewee/Guest) AM = Andi Malarangeng (Interviewee/Guest) RM = Rizal Malarangeng (Interviewee/Guest) AS = Abraham Samad (Interviewee/Guest) ES = Elza Syarief (Interviewee/Guest)

BW = Bambang Widjayanto (Interviewee/Guest) HP = Hotman Paris (Interviewee/Guest)

MN = Muhammad Nuh (Interviewee/Guest) YS = Yohannes Suryo (Interviewee/Guest) W = Weilin (Interviewee/Guest)

R = Retno (Interviewee/Guest) Freq. = Frequency

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1The Background of the Study

Human communicates one another and it is known as a conversation. Conversation is a natural product in communicating information between two or among persons. Levinson (1987) states that conversation may be taken to be that familiar predominant kind of talk in which two or more participants freely alternate in speaking, which generally occurs outside specific institutional settings like religious services, law courts, classrooms, etc.

Just as Levinson’s statement above, the way of speakers and listeners

speaking will be strongly influenced by the topic or subject (Hofmann, 1980).

Ones’ tradition contributes the way of people speak in the conversation, whether

they speak clearly, wordy or indirectly (Rahardi, 2005). Getting other’s trust in conversation, showing up the knowledge, avoiding confrontation and a deep evaluation are the reasons as well to make people speak differently (Yule, 1996). On the other side, speakers and listeners are also supposed to respond each other in their turn and exchange with the needed information that benefits both of them in the conversation (Crowley and Mitchell, 1994).

The previous explanations are found in natural conversation in daily life. There are still several setting of conversation in which the explanations above do not happen, for example, conversation in television and radio as the medium. Recently, television has been the greatest medium of communication.

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Television as entertainment and information medium can also be used as a medium of education and social control for government. Different with the

previous Order of Soeharto’s Era, the television channel was only Televisi

Republik Indonesia (TVRI). It broadcasted the government achievement as well. Having been allowed by government in early 1989, several private television stations or channels aired and broadcasted various programs. One of the programs is talk show, where sometimes functioning as control program for government or politic elites.

A talk show or known also as chat show is a program where one person (or group of people) will discuss various topics which are leaded by a talk show host (Timberg, 2002:5). Metro TV is an example of private television stations that concerns on current issues. It has some talk show programs, for example, is Mata Najwa. Each talk show always performs the interesting conversation between the interviewer and interviewees.

Actually, conversation is a natural product in which an interaction runs regularly between two participants or more to reach the goal. In conversation, pragmatic always arises where people often have different intention for what they have said literally and listener or interlocutors have to understand what actually speakers say or mean.

Conversation, even in talk show, will succeed depending upon the various

speakers’ approach toward the interaction. Generally, conversation has principle

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(1999:51), conversational principle can be divided between cooperative principle and politeness principle. There is only one theory in cooperative principle proposed by Grice (1975). Meanwhile, according to Rustono (1999) in politeness principle, there are some theories used such as Lakoff, Brown and Levinson and Leech. Then in conversational principle, there is asset of rules in conversation including conversational implicature in order that the language users communicate effectively.

The way of people to make conversation works is known cooperative principle. Hence, Grice (1975) proposes four conversational implicature known as conversational maxims which involve in the pragmatic of natural language. These maxims are a way to explain the link between utterances and what is understood

from them in order. The maxim are based on Grice’s cooperative principle which

states, “Make your conversational contribution such as it is required, at the stage

at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in

which you are engaged,” because speakers and listeners are to speak cooperatively

and mutually one another. The principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations and is further broken down into the four maxims, namely maxim of quality, quantity relevance and manner.

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or ambiguous (violate maxim of manner). This is due to some factors, for example, the information cannot be caught properly, intention to lie, and deliberately for making jokes or humors.

The phenomenon of the conversational maxims also occurs in talk show as stated before that talk show always preforms the interesting conversation. Some of the interesting talk show programs broadcasted in Indonesian television channels are Indonesia Lawyer Club and Meja Bundar on TV One, Mata Najwa and Kick Andy on Metro TV, Hitam Putih and Bukan Empat Mata on Trans 7, Buka-Bukaan on RCTI, Ini Talk Show on NET TV, and still many others. These kinds of program contain a lot of conversation in delivering information.

In communicating each other, the casts (interviewees) in the talk show often obey the maxims by giving informative answer to what interviewer asks and violate them by giving uncooperative and complicated answers during the talk or

interview. The example of this phenomenon can be seen in “Sentilan-Sentilun”

program on Metro TV (episode: Mahkamah Konstitusi, October 2013).

A: Kenalkan, ibu Khofifiah Indarparawansyah. Mumpung ibu Khofifiah

datang ini, bagaimana sih pendapat ibu ya tentang tertangkapnya ketua MK? Karena kan bu Khofifiah ini mengajukan gugatan kepada MK masalah kekalahan beliau dimana, di Jawa Timur. Jadi gimana bu kira- kira? (U1)

(Introduce, Mrs. Khofifiah Indarparawansyah. Fortunately, she is coming, what do you think about the MK chief arresting? Because you have proposed the lawsuit to MK for your failure in East Java General Election. So, what do you think?)

B: Sebetulnya, di negeri ini memang keadilan mahal. Jangan berharap

keadilan tegak dengan sendirinya dan keadilan memang harus ditegakkan meskipun misalnya konstitusi itu Undang Undang Dasar 1945

menyebutkan ada lembaga sedikit di bawah Mahkamah Akhirat. (U2)

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Mahkamah Akhirat.)

The responses of B in U2 violates maxim of relevance. A in U1 asks about the opinions of B about the chief of Mahkamah Konstitusi who had been arrested. B responds with other sentences which have no relevancies between U1 and U2.

B’s answer is violation in maxim of relevance and it can occur since B has reason

not answering relevantly. It breaks the hope the interviewer and audiences to have the information.

The example above makes the study is conducted to discover whether the phenomena of conversational maxims occur in other a talk show. In relation to this, Mata Najwa Talk Show on Metro TV, with Najwa Shihab as the host, is observed because this program is one of the famous talk shows in Indonesia. It is proved that Mata Najwa Talk show on Metro TV is one of the nominations in Panasonic Gobel Awards in 2013 as the favorite talk show by polling of TV watchers. Mata Najwa Talk Show Program has succeeded to achieve several honors and appreciations nationally and internationally. In 2010, was nominated in The 15th Asian Television Awards for “Best Current Affair Program” category. In 2011, it got Dompet Dhuafa Award as inspiring talk show and also. Mata

Najwa Talk Show Program is also has been 3 years to be “Most Recommended

Brand” by SWA Magazine. In 2011 and 2014, it succeeded to achieve KPI Award

as “Best Talk Show” category (http://www.matanajwa.com/read/about).

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Najwa Shihab. This program always discusses crucial problem, current issue, and fact which become actual issue in Indonesia such as politics, economic issues, law enforcement, education, social phenomena and health issue. (http://www.matanajwa.com/read/about).

Therefore, based on the phenomena mention above, this study tries to find out the occurrence of conversational maxim whether interviewees obey or violate them during the interview in Mata Najwa Talk show on Metro TV.

1.2The Problem of the Study

Based on the explanation given in the background, the problems of the study are formulated in the following questions:

1. What conversational maxims occur in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program with different topics and guests?

2. Why do the conversational maxims occur in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program?

1.3The Objective of the Study

The objectives of study can be described as follows:

1. To find out the types of conversational maxims occur in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV.

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1.4The Scope of the Study

As stated in the previous explanation that conversational maxims can occur not only in daily conversation but in the talk show on television as well. And this study attempts to investigate the conversational maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV which are shown by the interviewees. The aspects to be observed are the occurrences of obediences and violations in conversational maxims proposed by Grice (1975).

1.5The Significance of the Study

The findings of this study have two general significances, theoretical and practical significances.

Theoretically, the results of this study are useful for:

1. The enrichment of linguistic knowledge in the field of pragmatics especially in conversational maxims.

2. Development studies on cooperative principle about conversational implicature which is known as conversational maxims.

Practically, the results of this study are useful for:

1. As a reference for the university students who are interested in studying pragmatics and interested in conducting any further studies in conversational maxims.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1Conclusions

After analyzing and drawing all the conversational maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV with different topics and different guests among three topics, politics, law, and education as well as four different guests, i.e. Javanese, Makassar, Bataknese, and Chinese, the researcher draws the conclusion as follows;

1. The conversational maxims (quality, quantity, manner, and relevance) occur in all different topics and guests.

2. Conversational maxim in topic of politics is dominantly violated maxim of relevance because the participants are reluctant to answer relevantly for private questions or to hide something from public. Conversational maxim in topic of law is contrary to topic of politics. Participants in topic of law answer relevantly, obeying maxim of relevance. It occurs because their conversation is discussing the issue in law or law enforcement which has to answer relevantly and clearly. Conversational maxim in topic of education is dominantly violated maxim quantity. The participants speak in detail, gives explanation as clearly as they can. It can be accepted because topic of education is mostly explaining a problem. Conversational maxim with the guests of Javanese is dominantly violated maxim of relevance. The participants speak irreverently to show their meaning and they tend to conceal

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or be reclusive. Conversational maxim with guests of Makassar is dominantly violated maxim of quantity. The participants tend to speak much with long explanation. Conversational maxim with guests of Bataknese is also violated maxim of quantity. The participants speak much with long explanation. Conversational maxim with guests of Chinese is similar to guests of Makassar and Bataknese. The participants tend to speak much with long explanation. 3. The conversational maxims occurring with different guests are actually

affected by the issues of the topic of the conversation itself. The guests do not show their cultural identity in the talk show. And it can be concluded that there are no relationship between culture and tradition of the guests and their conversational maxim because the guests of Makassar, Bataknese, and Chinese have the same violation of maxim of quantity and all different guests have the same abstain obedience of maxim of manner.

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5.2Suggestions

Having seen the result of the study, the researcher would like to offer the suggestions as follows;

1. It is advisable for the guests (either speaker or listener) to understand the cooperative principle, particularly the four maxims and to follow the rules of conversational maxim in making conversation run smoothly and clearly. 2. It is suggested that the rules of conversational maxims are taught to students in

Language Course or even for students of University in order to make them speak efficiently especially for those who face interview session in getting a job.

3. It is suggested to other researchers and the students of Applied Linguistics who are taking pragmatics or conducting research to find more the reasons in obedience and violation in conversational maxims.

4. The next research is suggested to elaborate the reasons of conversational maxims related to the language politeness especially in Indonesian language and culture.

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Website Materials:

(http://www.matanajwa.com/read/about) (http://m.artikata.com/arti-98695-issue.html) (www.wikepedia.org).

Figur

Table 4.1. The Percentage of Maxims of Quality in Talk Show with Topic of
Table 4 1 The Percentage of Maxims of Quality in Talk Show with Topic of . View in document p.13
Figure 2.1. Communicating scheme in a talk show and in daily or natural
Figure 2 1 Communicating scheme in a talk show and in daily or natural . View in document p.15

Referensi

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