Experimental study of a simple nozzle flow meter with various diameter ratio.

Teks penuh

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

!"#$%&'$()*+,-)./0,12,*,-&'#+$,(133+$,2+14,'$)$%,

4&)5,6*%&1.-,/&*'$)$%,%*)&1,,

!

7&(.+,85.%%&9,77,7/5&,:.%0*4*(,

;$<5*(&<*+,!(=&($$%&(=,>$#*%)'$()9,?(&6$%-&)0,12,?/*0*(*, @*'#.-,A.B&),C&'D*%*(9,A*+&,EFGHI,

!J'*&+K,*L=5.%%&M='*&+L<1', ,

!"#$%&'$(

,

!"#$%&'$()*+,-)./0,12,(133+$,2+14,'$)$%,4*-,51(/.5)$/,60,.-&(7,(133+$,8*9&(7,/&*'$)$%,

%*)&1,

!

,:,;<=>,;<?>,*(/,;<@>,%$-#$5)&9$+0,*),A$,:,,

"

,=;;;,

#$

,,

"

,BC;;;<,D8$,-8*#$,12,)8$,

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

(

)*+(,-%.#Q,L133+$>,2+14,'$*-.%$'$()>,#%$--.%$,/%1#,

!

NL,O()%1/.<)&1(,

"#$! %&! '($! )%*'! +%))%#,-! .*$/! /$01+$! &%2! &,%3! )$4*.2$)$#'! 1#! 1#/.*'21$*! 1*! 52$**.2$!

/1&&$2$#'14,! &,%3! )$'$2! 67%#/(!$)<, *+<8! 9::9;<! =#! 4! +%#0$#'1%#4,! 52$**.2$! /1&&$2$#'14,! &,%3!

)$'$28!'($! /1&&$2$#'14,! 52$**.2$! )$4*.2$/! 4+2%**!'($! %21&1+$! 5,4'$8! #%>>,$! %2! 0$#'.21! 1#/1+4'$*!

'($! &,%3! 24'$<! ?%)542$/! '%! %21&1+$! )$'$28! '($! #%>>,$! (4*! 4! ,%3$2! ($4/! ,%**<! =#! )4#-!

455,1+4'1%#*8! '(1*! 4//1'1%#4,! ,%**! /.$! '%! '($! &,%3! )$'$2! 1*! #%'! /$*124@,$! 4#/! '($! #$$/! &%2! 4#!

4,'$2#4'$! '-5$! %&! )$'$21#A! /$01+$! 42%*$<! B(1*! 545$2! 2$5%2'$/! '($! $C5$21)$#'4,! *'./-! %&! 4!

*1)5,$! #%>>,$! (401#A!*(45$!4*!2$0$2*$/D%21&1+$!5,4'$<!B($!2$*.,'*!3$2$!'($#!+%)542$/!'%!'($!

,1'$24'.2$*! %&! #%>>,$! &,%3! )$'$2! '%! +%#+,./$! 3($'($2! '(1*! *1)5,$! #%>>,$! +4#! 2$52$*$#'! '($!

#%>>,$! )$'$2<! E$2-! ,1'',$! 1#&%2)4'1%#! 1*! 4041,4@,$! %#! '($! #%>>,$! )$'$2! +4.*$/! '($! ,1'$24'.2$!

2$01$3!@$,%3!1*!1#!2$,4'$/!'%!'($!%21&1+$!&,%3!)$'$2<!

F%221*%#! $'<4,<! 6GHHI;! 1#0$*'1A4'$/! '($! 2$*5%#*$! %&! %21&1+$! &,%3! )$'$2! /.$! '%! 4! &,%3!

/1*'.2@4#+$! 4'!'($! .5*'2$4)<! B($! 2$*.,'*! *(%3!'(4'!'($! 52$**.2$! /1*'21@.'1%#! /%$*! #%'! +(4#A$!

31'(! 042-1#A! 4C1*-))$'21+! &,%3! /1*'%2'1%#*<! "#! '($! %'($2! (4#/8! '($! 52$**.2$! /1*'21@.'1%#! 1*!

0$2-! /$5$#/$#'! .5%#! '($! *312,<! J24@.! $'<4,<! 6GHHK;! 4#/! L1))$2)4##! 6GHHH;! .*$/! 4! *1)1,42!

/1*'.2@4#+$! 1<$<! *1#A,$! 4#/! /%.@,$! @$#/! '%! $C4)1#$! '($! +(4#A$*! %&! +%$&&1+1$#'! %&! /1*+(42A$!

6?/;! '($! %21&1+$! )$'$2<! B($! /4'4! *(%3! '(4'! '($! %21&1+$! )$'$2! 1*! )%2$! *$#*1'10$! '%! .5*'2$4)!

/1*'.2@4#+$!'(4#!'($!+%#1+4,!&,%3!)$'$2<!L1))$2)4##!2$+%))$#/$/!4!+%22$+'1%#!'%!=7"!IGMK!

(6)

2$N.12$/! )1#1).)!*'241A('!,$#A'(!4'!'($!.5*'2$4)!%&!1#*'4,,$/!%21&1+$!&,%3!)$'$2<!O4)4).2'1!

4#/! P4#/4Q.)42! 6GHHH;! 1#0$*'1A4'$/! '($! *$5424'$/! &,%38! '($! *$5424'$/! &,%3! &%,,%3$/! @-!

4''4+()$#'8!4#/!'($!+401'4'$/!&,%3!'(2%.A(!'($!*)4,,!%21&1+$!5,4'$<!B($!2$*.,'!*(%3!'(4'!'($!?/!

+(4#A$/!*1A#1&1+4#',-!/.$!'%!'($!*$5424'$/!4#/!'($!+401'4'$/!&,%3<!R,,!%&!'($!52$01%.*!2$*$42+(!

.*$/!'($!*(425D$/A$/!%21&1+$!5,4'$<!

S1)! $'<4,<! 6GHHM;! $C4)1#$/! '($! $&&$+'! %&! %21&1+$! 5,4'$! '(1+Q#$**! %#! *)4,,! /14)$'$2! 24'1%!

%21&1+$!)$'$2<!B($!'$*'$/!%21&1+$!5,4'$!(4/!'T/!U!:<II!4#/!:<M!3($2$!'!1*!%21&1+$!5,4'$!'(1+Q#$**8!

/! 1*!%21&1+$!5,4'$!/14)$'$2<!B($!'2$#/*! 1#!'($!2$*.,'*!&%2!'(1+Q#$**!$&&$+'!3$2$!#%'!+%#+,.*10$!

4#/! +%.,/! @$! 4''21@.'$/!'%! $/A$! *(425#$**<! V%**4! 4#/! W.A,1$,)1#1! 69::9;!'$*'$/!'($! 52$**.2$!

/2%5! %#! *1#A,$! 4#/! '3%! 5(4*$! &,%3! 4+2%**! '($! '(1+Q! 4#/! '(1#! *(425D$/A$/! %21&1+$! 5,4'$<! B($!

/14)$'$2!24'1%!6!!U!/TX8!3($2$!X!1*!515$!/14)$'$2;!.*$/!1#!'(1*!$C5$21)$#'!3$2$!:<MY!4#/!:<ZI!

2$*5$+'10$,-<!B($!'(1+Q!%21&1+$!5,4'$!(4/!'T/!U!:<IH<!B($!2$*.,'*!%&!*1#A,$!5(4*$!&,%3!*(%3!'(4'!

'($!52$**.2$!/2%5!'($!'(1+Q$2!%21&1+$!5,4'$!34*!(1A($2!'(4#!'($!'(1##$2!6'T/!U!:<:Y!4#/!:<9;<!

W(.221! 4#/! P4'4! 69::K;! 2$5%2'$/! '(4'! '($! 5%*1'1%#! %&! 52$**.2$! '45! 4'! .5*'2$4)! 4#/!

/%3#*'2$4)!%&!%21&1+$!5,4'$!(4/!4#!1)5%2'4#+$!$&&$+'!%#!'($!&,%3!)$4*.2$)$#'<!B($!/1&&$2$#'!

5%*1'1%#! 2$*.,'$/! 1#! /1&&$2$#'! )$4*.2$/! 52$**.2$8! 4#/! '($#! '($! /1&&$2$#'! '($%2$'1+4,! +454+1'-!

'%%<!B($!2$+%))$#/$/!5%*1'1%#!%&!52$**.2$!'45!1*!'($!5%*1'1%#!3(1+(!2$*.,'$/!1#!'($!+%#*1*'$#'!

+(4#A$*!%&!'($%2$'1+4,!+454+1'-!+%)542$/!'%!'($!4+'.4,!+454+1'-<!

B($! 52$*$#'! 2$*$42+(! 1*! 41)$/! '%! 1#0$*'1A4'$! '($! $&&$+'! %&! /14)$'$2! 24'1%! %#! '($! ?/!

+(4#A$*8! 4#/! '%! $C4)1#$! 3($'($2! '($! .*$! %&! 2$0$2*$/! %21&1+$! 5,4'$! 4*! #%>>,$! 31,,! (4*! ?/!

+(424+'$21*'1+!,1Q$!+%))%#!#%>>,$!&,%3!)$'$2<!!

IL,P+14,)5%1.=5,*,(133+$,

V1A.2$!G!*(%3*!'($!)%/$,!%&!4#!1/$4,!#%>>,$!1#!4!515$<!=#!'($!52$*$#'!*'./-8!4!#%>>,$!'(4'!

$C4+',-! *4)$! 31'(! *(425D$/A$! %21&1+$! 5,4'$! @.'! 1#! 2$0$2*$/D5%*1'1%#! 34*! 1#*'4,,$/! '%! &,%3! 4!

&,.1/!4*!*(%3#!1#!V1A!G<!='!+%.,/!@$!4**.)$/!'(4'!@$'3$$#!*$+'1%#*!!!4#/!*$+'1%#*!"!'($2$!1*!4!

&,%3! 31'(%.'! &21+'1%#<! B($! 52$**.2$! /1&&$2$#'14,! @$'3$$#!!! 4#/!"! +4#! @$! /$'$2)1#$/! @-!

)$4#*![$2#%.,,1!$N.4'1%#<!

!

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,

P&=.%$,N,O/$*+,(133+$,2+14,&(,*,#&#$, QN,

, RN,

QI,

RI,

QG,

, RG,

P+14,4&)51.),2%&<)&1(, A$%(1.++&,

P+14,4&)5,+1--$-, /,

>,

(7)

[-!4**.)1#A!'(4'!'($!&,%3!1*!(%21>%#'4,!4'!+%#*'4#'!$,$04'1%#8![$2#%.,,1!$N.4'1%#!@$+4)$\!

JG!]!GT9!^!EG9!U!J9!]!GT9!^E99,, , , , , , 6G;!

_($2$!

J!U!J2$**.2$!6J4*+4,;!

%!U!V,.1/!/$#*1'-!6QAT)Y

;!

`'(!U!B($%2$'1+4,!0%,.)$'21+!&,%3!24'$!6)YT*;!

RG!U!?2%**!*$+'1%#4,!42$4!4'!!!6)9;!

R9!U!?2%**!*$+'1%#4,!42$4!4'!"!6)9;!

[-!*.@*'1'.'1#A!EG!%&!$N.4'1%#!6G;a!3$!%@'41#$/!'($!#$3!&%2).,4!%&!$N.4'1%#!69;\!

`'(!U!R9!

/$01+$*!@-!+%)5421#A!'($!4+'.4,!'%!'($!'($%2$'1+4,! +454+1'-<! B($!24'1%!%&!4+'.4,!'%!'($%2$'1+4,!

&,%3!+454+1'-!34*!Q#%3#!4*!+%$&&1+1$#'!%&!/1*+(42A$8!?/\!

'(2%.A(!'($!#%>>,$!6M;!)4#%)$'$2! 31,,! )$4*.2$!'($!52$**.2$! 4'!.5*'2$4)!4#/!/%3#*'2$4)!%&!

(8)

B($! &,.1/! 34*! /1*+(42A$/! '%! 4! ED#%'+(! 3$12! 3($2$@-! '($! 4+'.4,! +454+1'-! +4#! @$! %@'41#$/<!

B($2$! 34*! 4! *1A('! A,4**! 1#! '(1*! $C5$21)$#'4,! 455424'.*! 4*! %'($2! 34-! '%! )$4*.2$! '($! 4+'.4,!

+454+1'-<!

V1A.2$!Y!6@;!*(%3*!'($!#%>>,$!.*$/!1#!52$*$#'!*'./-!3(1+(!1*!$C4+',-!*4)$!31'(!'($!%21&1+$!

5,4'$!6V1A<!Y64;;!1#!2$0$2*$/D5%*1'1%#<!B($!A$%)$'21+4,!/4'4!4#/!&,%3!+%#/1'1%#!3$2$\!

D! B($!515$!34*!4+2-,1+!'24#*542$#'8!GK!))!1##$2!/14)$'$2!

D! B($!#%>>,$!(40$!/14)$'$2!24'1%!!!U!:<I8!:<K8!:<M!4#/!:<Z8!2$*5$+'10$,-!

D! B($!#%>>,$!'(1+Q#$**!34*!Y:!))!

D! B($! 52$**.2$! '45! 5%*1'1%#*! 3$2$! 9I<b! ))! 4'! .5*'2$4)! 4#/! /%3#*'2$4)! %&! '($! #%>>,$!

2$*5$+'10$,-!

D! O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2!24#A$/!@$'3$$#!"!I:::!4#/!"!YG:::<!

!

,,,,,,,,P&=.%$,I,!"#$%&'$()*+,-$),.#,

!

!

!

!

!

!

,,,,,P&=.%$,G,,,S*TL,U%&2&<$,2+14,'$)$%,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,SDTL,V133+$,2+14,'$)$%,

WL,X$-.+),*(/,>&-<.--&1(,

WLNL,X*)&1,12,*<).*+,<*#*<&)0,SY*<)T,)1,)5$1%$)&<*+,<*#*<&)0,SY)5T,

V1A.2$! b8! I8! K8!M!*(%3!+(4#A$*!%&!`4+'!4#/!`'(!'($!'$*'$/!#%>>,$! &,%3! )$'$2! &%2!!!U!:<I8!

:<K8! :<M! 4#/! :<Z8! 2$*5$+'10$,-<! `'(! %&! #%>>,$! 31'(!!! U! :<I! 34*! A2$4'$2! '(4#! '($! `4+'<! B($!

/0!1*#$(#*'$2-3("&#*(

40!5678(

90!:&$*%($&3;(

<0!=6'$2-3(>23*(

?0!@&>A*(&$("+(8&##(>23*(

B0!@&>A*(&$(.2#'C&%D*(>23*(

E0!F-GG>*(

H0!I&3-7*$*%(

J0!I&3-7*$*%("-&%.(

/K0!@L3-$'C(,*2%(

//0!=2DC$(D>&##(

/40!=*'-3.&%+(,&$*%($&3;(

/90!(@&>A*(

!

!"

#$" #%"

&" '()*"

#$" #%"

(9)

/1&&$2$#+$!@$'3$$#!`'(!4#/!`4+'!/$+2$4*$/! &%2!!!U!:<K!4#/!:<M!4'!,%3!O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2<!B($!

+%#'242-!+%#/1'1%#!34*!*(%3#!&%2!!!U!:<M!4'!(1A($2!O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2!4#/!!!U!:<Z!3($2$1#!`'(!

34*!*)4,,$2!'(4#!`4+'<!B(1*!+4#!@$!4''21@.'$/!'%!'($!&,%3!5($#%)$#%#!4'!0$#4!+%#'24+'4!3($2$!

'($!&,.1/!)4-!@$!4++$,$24'$/!0$2-!$&&1+1$#',-<! R&'$2!4++$,$24'1%#8! 1'!34*!0$2-!/1&&1+.,'!'%!*,%3!

/%3#!6/$+$,$24'$;!'($!&,.1/!$&&1+1$#',-<!B(.*8!'($!$C'24!Q1#$'1+!$#$2A-!%&!'($!&,.1/!34*!542'14,,-!

,%*'! @$+4.*$! %&! 01*+%.*! /1**154'1%#8! *%! '(4'! '($! 52$**.2$! /%$*! #%'! 2$'.2#! '%! '($! 1/$4,! 04,.$<!

B($*$! ,%**$*! +%.,/#c'! @$! 4++%))%/4'$/! @-! '($! $N.4'1%#! %&! `'(! '(4'! /$210$/! &2%)! [$2#%.,,1!

$N.4'1%#!&%2!1/$4,!&,%3<!

B($!+%$&&1+1$#'!%&!/1*+(42A$!6?/;!3$2$!'($#!5,%''$/!61#!V1A.2$!Z;!@4*$/!%#!'($!`4+'!4#/!`'(!

4++%2/1#A!'%!'($!$N.4'1%#!6I;<!

!

P&=.%$,W,Y*<),6-,Y)5,V133+$,P+14,;$)$%,4&)5,!,Z,FL[,

!

P&=.%$,[,Y*<),6-,Y)5,V133+$,P+14,;$)$%,4&)5,!,Z,FLH,

"#""$%"" &#""$'"& (#""$'") (#&"$'") *#""$'") *#&"$'") +#""$'") +#&"$'") )#""$'") )#&"$'") &#""$'")

&#""$%"+ ,#&"$%"+ (#""$%") (#*&$%") (#&"$%") (#,&$%") *#""$%") *#*&$%") *#&"$%")

+,-.)(!/".01 2,3"4+,5

678

79

:;

-"

41

<=/5

-./0 -01

"#""$%"" (#""$'") *#""$'") +#""$'") )#""$'") &#""$'") 2#""$'") ,#""$'")

&#"$%"+ ,#&$%"+ (#"$%") (#+$%") (#&$%") (#3$%") *#"$%") *#+$%") *#&$%") *#3$%") +#"$%")

+,-.)(!/".01 2,3"4+,5

678

7

9:;

-"

41

<=/5

(10)

!

P&=.%$,H,Y*<),6-,Y)5,V133+$,P+14,;$)$%,4&)5,!,Z,FL\,

!

P&=.%$,\,Y*<),6-,Y)5,V133+$,P+14,;$)$%,4&)5,!,Z,FLE,

"#""$%"" (#""$'") *#""$'") +#""$'") )#""$'") &#""$'") 2#""$'")

&#" $%"+ ,#&$%" + (#" $%") (#+ $%" ) (#&$%" ) (#3 $%" ) * #" $%") *#+ $%" ) * #&$%" ) * #3 $%" ) + #" $%") + #+ $%" ) +,-.)(!/".01 2,3"4+,5

67

8

79:

;-"

41

<=/5

-./0 -01

"#""$%"" (#""$'") *#""$'") +#""$'") )#""$'") &#""$'") 2#""$'")

&#"$%"+ (#"$%") (#&$%") *#"$%") *#&$%") +#"$%") +#&$%")

+,-.)(!/".01 2,3"4+,5

67879:

;-"

41

<=/

5

(11)

! ! P&=.%$,E,]/,V133+$,P;,*),6*%&1.-,!,

V1A.2$! Z! *(%3! '(4'! '($! ?/! 1#+2$4*$/! 4*! '($! O$-#%,/*! #.)@$2<! B($*$! 3$2$! $C4+',-! '($!

+(424+'$21*'1+!%&!#%>>,$!&,%3!)$'$2!6*$$!V1A.2$!H;<!?/!04,.$*!d!G!+4#!@$!4++$5'$/!4*!5.@,1*($/!

@-! &$3! %&! ,1'$24'.2$*! 6V%C8! GHHba! S1)!$)<*+<8! GHHM;<! _4'$2! O$*%.2+$*! O$*$42+(! e4@%24'%2-!

69::G;! 2$5%2'$/!'(4'!'($! $&&$+'10$! ?/! 04,.$! %&! #%>>,$! &,%3! )$'$2! 1*! 4@%.'! :<HK! f! G<9<! 7%! 3$!

+4#!+%#+,./$!'(4'!'($!*1)5,$! #%>>,$!(401#A! *(45$!4*!2$0$2*$/D%21&1+$!5,4'$!+%.,/!2$52$*$#'!4!

#%>>,$!&,%3!)$'$2<!

,

P&=.%$,^,]1$22&<&$(),12,>&-<5*%=$,V133+$,P;,S;.(-1(9,IFFIT,

,

"#2 "#3 ( (#*

)#""$%"+ 4#""$%"+ (#)"$%") (#4"$%") *#)"$%") *#4"$%") +#)"$%")

+,-.)(!/".012,3"4+,5

6!

!,Z,FL[,

(12)

WLIL,M%%*'-A*%&">*(5%*##6%*(N%-8,

V1A.2$! G:! @$,%3! *(%3! '($! 52$**.2$! /1*'21@.'1%#! 4,%#A! .5*'2$4)! '%! /%3#*'2$4)! %&! '($!

#%>>,$!31'(!!!U!:<M<!L$2%!6:;!%&!'($!g!4C1*!2$52$*$#'$/!5%*1'1%#!4'!'($!#%>>,$a!DG!4#/!D9!42$!4'!

.5*'2$4)a!G8! 98! Y8! b!42$!4'!/%3#*'2$4)<! `G8! `98!`Y!h!3$2$!'($! 1#+2$4*1#A,-! &,%3!+454+1'-<!

B($!122$+%0$24@,$!52$**.2$!/2%5!34*!($4/!,%**!/.$!'%!'($!)$4*.2$)$#'!/$01+$<!B($!)4C1).)!

4#/! 122$+%0$24@,$! 52$**.2$! /2%5! %&! $4+(! &,%3! +454+1'-! 34*! *Q$'+($/! 1#! V1A.2$! G:<! B($!

122$+%0$24@,$!52$**.2$!/2%5!34*!4#!1)5%2'4#'!+%#*1/$24'1%#!&%2!'($!.*$!%&!52$**.2$!/1&&$2$#'14,!

&,%3! )$'$2a!4#/!455$42$/! 4*!5$2+$#'4A$!%&! )4C1).)!52$**.2$!/2%5<!R*!*(%3#! 1#!V1A.2$! GG8!

'($! 5$2+$#'4A$! %&! 122$+%0$24@,$! '%! )4C1).)! 52$**.2$! /2%5! /$+2$4*$/! 4'!'($! (1A($2! /14)$'$2!

24'1%!6!;a!4#/!*,1A(',-!/$+2$4*$/!31'(!'($!O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2<!B($!5$2+$#'4A$!%&! 122$+%0$24@,$!

'%! )4C1).)! 52$**.2$! /2%5! %&! '($! #%>>,$! 31'(!!! U! :<Z! 34*! 4@%.'! I:iDbIi<! B(1*! 34*! *'1,,!

(1A($2! '(4#! '($! 52$01%.*! 3%2Q! 6W(.221! j! P4'48! 9::K;! '(4'! .*1#A! 4! '(1+Q! %21&1+$! 5,4'$! 31'(!

@$0$,<! R'! '($! 52$01%.*! 2$*$42+(! '($! 122$+%0$24@,$! 52$**.2$! /2%5! 2$4+($/! b:iDY:i! &%2! '($!

%21&1+$!31'(!!!U!:<K!4#/!:<M!6W(.221!j!P4'48!9::K;<!

! P&=.%$,NF,R%$--.%$,/&-)%&D.)&1(,*+1(=,V133+$,P+14,;$)$%,4&)5,!,Z,FL\,

'*#&"$%"+ '*#""$%"+ '(#&"$%"+ '(#""$%"+ '&#""$%"* "#""$%"" &#""$%"* (#""$%"+ (#&"$%"+ *#""$%"+ *#&"$%"+ +#""$%"+

'+ '* '( " ( * + ) &

#)/:/:""#3,//03,">78

>,?

7

.7."

4"

#

7

/

9

7

("

5

-( -* -+ -) -& -2 -,

-3 -4 -(" -(( -(* -(+

@33

,9)A,

372(,"

83,//03,"

!3)8

" B7C:101"83,//0

3,"!3)8

"

R%$--.%$,)*#,#1-&)&1(,

R%$--.%$

,SR*-<*+

(13)

! !

P&=.%$,NN,O%%$<16$%*D+$,#%$--.%$,/%1#(*-,#$%<$()*=$,12,'*"&'.',R>,

,

[L,]1(<+.-&1(,

B($! $C5$21)$#'4,! *'./-! %&! #%>>,$! &,%3! )$'$2! 34*! +%#/.+'$/! @-! .*1#A! *1)5,$! #%>>,$!

(401#A! *(45$! 4*! 2$0$2*$/D%21&1+$! 5,4'$! 31'(! /14)$'$2! 24'1%8!!! U! :<I8! :<K8! :<M8! 4#/! :<Z! 4'!

O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2!"I:::!'%!"YG:::<!!B($!+%#+,.*1%#*!3$2$!%@'41#$/!4*!&%,,%3\!

G;! B($! ?/! 04,.$! (4/! +(424+'$21*'1+! 4*! +%))%#! #%>>,$! &,%3! )$'$28! 1<$<! 1#+2$4*$/! 4*! '($!

O$-#%,/*!#.)@$2!1#+2$4*$/<!!

9;! B($!?/!%&!#%>>,$!31'(!!!U!:<M!4#/!:<Z!+4#!@$!+4'$A%21>$/!4*!'($!$&&$+'10$!04,.$<!

Y;! B($! ,%3$*'! 5$2+$#'4A$! %&! 122$+%0$24@,$! '%! )4C1).)! 52$**.2$! /2%5! 2$4+($/! /.21#A!

$C5$21)$#'!1*!*'1,,!(1A(!$#%.A(!1<$<!I:iDbIi<!

,

X$2$%$(<$-,

,

V%**48! F<8! W.A,1$,)1#18! W<8! 9::98! R%$--.%$, /%1#, *(/, 61&/, 2%*<)&1(, #%12&+$-, /.%&(=,

51%&31()*+, 2+14, )5%1.=5, )5&(, *(/, )5&<B, 1%&2&<$-8! kC5$21)$#'4,! B($2)4,! 4#/! V,.1/! 7+1$#+$8!9K8!55<!IGYDI9Y<!

V%C8! O<_<8! F+X%#4,/8! R<B<8! GHHb8!O()%1/.<)&1(, )1, P+.&/, ;$<5*(&<-9! b'(! $/1'1%#8! l%(#!

_1,$-!j!7%#*8!P$3!m%2Q<!

W(.2218! R<8! P4'4! 7<8! =_8! 9::K8!:)./&, !B-#$%&'$(, U%&2&<$, P+14, ;$)$%, /$(=*(, Q*%&*-&,

R1-&-&, R$(=.B.%*(, A$/*, _$B*(*(, 7+&%*(, ;$+&()*-&, U%&2&<$, R+*)$8! J2%*1/1#A! 7$)1#42!P4*1%#4,!B4(.#4#!B$Q#1Q!F$*1#!E!67PBBF!E;8!9GD9Y!P%0$)@$2!9::K8!F9D :GKTGDZ8!n=8!X$5%Q<!

)"5 )&5 &"5 &&5 2"5 2&5 ,"5 ,&5 3"5

)#""$%"+ 4#""$%"+ (#)"$%") (#4"$%") *#)"$%") *#4"$%") +#)"$%")

+,-.)(!/".012,3"4+,5

@3

3,9

)

A,3

72

(,"

#

3,

//0

3,"

&3)

8"4

D"

)

E"B7

CF

"#&5

!,Z,FL[,

!,Z,FLH,

!,Z,FL\,

(14)

S1)8! [<[<8! J4Q8! [<?<8! ?(%8! P<o<8! ?(18! X<7<8! ?(%18! o<F<8! ?(%18! m<F8! 4#/! J42Q8! S<R<8! GHHM8! !22$<)-, 12, <*6&)*)&1(, *(/, #+*)$, )5&<B($--, 1(, -'*++, /&*'$)$%, %*)&1, 1%&2&<$, '$)$%-8! V,%3!F$4*<!=#*'2.)<8!E%,<!Z8!P%<!98!55<!ZIDH9<!

F%221*%#8!W<e<8!o4.A,1$8!l<8!X$"''$8!l28!O<k<8!GHHI8!A$)*,%*)&19,*"&-0''$)%&<,2+14,/&-)1%)&1(, *(/, -4&%+, $22$<)-, .#1(, 1%&2&<$, 2+14, '$)$%-8!V,%3!F$4*<!=#*'2.)<8!E%,<!K8!P%<!Y8!55<! 9:MD9GK<!

F.#*%#8! [2.+$!O<8!m%.#A8! X%#4,/!V<8! "Q11*(18! B($%/%2$! o<8!9::98!P.(/*'$()*+-, 12, P+.&/,

;$<5*(&<-8!b'(!k/1'1%#8!l%(#!_1,$-!j!7%#*8!n7R<!

J24@.8! 7<E<8! F4*+%)4#18! O<8! [4,4Q21*(#4#8! S<8! 4#/! S%##.28! F<7<8! GHHK8!_$<5(&<*+, V1)$K,

!22$<), 12, .#-)%$*', #&#$, 2&))&(=-, 1(, )5$, #$%21%'*(<$, 12, 1%&2&<$, *(/, <1(&<*+, 2+14'$)$%-8!V,%3!F$4*<!=#*'2.)<8!E%,<!M8!P%<!G8!55<!bHDIb<!

O4)4).2'18!S<8!P4#/4Q.)428!S<8!GHHH8!]5*%*<)$%&-)&<-,12,2+14,)5%1.=5,-'*++,-5*%#J$/=$/, <0+&(/%&<*+,1%&2&<$-8!V,%3!F$4*.2$)$#'!4#/!=#*'2.)$#'4'1%#8!G:8!55<!GYYDGbY<!

7%#/(8! o<7<8! 71#A(! 7<P<8! 7$*(4/218! E<8! W4#/(18! [<S<8! 9::98!>$-&=(, *(/, /$6$+1#'$(), 12,

6*%&*D+$, *%$*, 1%&2&<$, '$)$%9, P+14, ;$*-.%$'$(), *(/, O(-)%.'$()*)&1(8! GY8!55<!KHD MY<!

L1))$2)4##8! o<8! GHHH8!!"*'&(*)&1(, 12, /&-).%D$/, #&#$, 2+14, *(/, &)-, $22$<)-, 1(, 2+14,

'$*-.%$'$(), .-&(=, 1%&2&<$, #+*)$-8! V,%3! F$4*.2$)$#'! 4#/! =#*'2.)$#'4'1%#8! G:8! 55<! 99YD9b:<!

DDD8!9::I8!U%&2&<$9,(133+$,*(/,6$().%&,2+14,%*)$,'$)$%-8!333<k#A1#$$21#AB%%,[%C<+%)<!

DDD8! 9::G8! `*)$%, ;$*-.%$'$(), ;*(.*+K, 7, `*)$%, X$-1.%<$-, _$<5(&<*+, R.D+&<*)&1(8!

_4'$2! O$*%.2+$*! O$*$42+(! e4@%24'%2-8! n7! X$542')$#'! %&! =#'$21%28! [.2$4.! %&! O$+,4)4'1%#8!?(45'$2!Gb!p!F$4*.2$)$#'!1#!J2$**.2$!?%#/.1'8!55<!Gb6G!p!9M;<!!

!

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...