Mispronunciation of English final alveolar-alveolar and velar-alveolar consonant clusters by the Students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta.

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MISPRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH FINAL

ALVEOLAR-ALVEOLAR AND VELAR-ALVEOLAR

CONSONANT CLUSTERS

BY THE STUDENTS OF

SMA SANTA MARIA YOGYAKARTA

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHARDJOSIDHI Student Number: 124214090

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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ABSTRACT

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHADJOSIDHI (2017). Mispronunciation of English Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Clusters by the Students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: English Letters Department, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University.

The role of English as one of the universal languages makes people tend to learn this language. For some Indonesian people, English has been their second language besides Indonesian, their first language. English also has been one of the subjects that is taught in the formal school. The Indonesian students are taught about English since elementary school or even kindergarten until high school. However, the mastery of English, especially for the pronunciation, is often influenced by the first language. One of the examples is the pronunciation of English consonant clusters. English consonant clusters become one of the hardest parts to perform since Indonesian people are not really familiar with various consonant clusters in Indonesian.

There are two problems to lead the discussion in this research. The first is to find out the mispronunciation of final alveolar-alveolar and velar-alveolar consonant clusters that often made by Indonesian native speaker. The second is to analyze the reason behind the mispronunciations.

This research uses audio-records as the instrument to collect the data from the participants. The object of the study is the fifteen students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta that admitted using Indonesian as their first language. The reading material is from the English module Fokus Bahasa Inggris Kelas X of the participants and presented in sentences.

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ABSTRAK

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHADJOSIDHI (2017). Mispronunciation of English Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Clusters by the Students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Peran bahasa Inggris sebagai salah satu bahasa universal membuat orang cenderung untuk mempelajarinya. Bagi sebagian orang Indonesia, bahasa Inggris menjadi bahasa kedua selain bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pertama. Bahasa Inggris juga sudah menjadi salah satu pelajaran yang diajarkan di sekolah formal. Pelajar Indonesia diajarkan bahasa Inggris sejak sekolah dasar atau bahkan taman kanak-kanak sampai sekolah menengah atas. Hanya saja, penguasaan bahasa Inggris, terutama dalam hal pengucapan, masih sering dipengaruhi oleh bahasa pertama. Salah satu contohnya adalah pengucapan gugus konsonan bahasa Inggris. Gugus konsonan bahasa Inggris menjadi salah satu hal tersulit untuk dilakukan karena orang-orang Indonesia tidak mengenal berbagai macam gugus konsonan dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Ada dua rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini. Pertama adalah untuk mengetahui kesalahan pengucapan apa saja yang muncul dari pengucapan konsonan alveolar-alveolar dan velar-alveolar sebagai gugus konsonan di akhir kata berbahasa Inggris. Kedua adalah untuk mengetahui alasan dibalik kesalahan pengucapan tersebut.

Penelitian ini menggunakan rekaman audio sebagai instrumen untuk mengumpukan data. Obyek dari penelitian ini adalah lima belas siswi SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta yang mengaku menggunakan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pertama. Materi bacaan diambil dari modul bahasa Inggris milik responden dan disajikan dalam bentuk kalimat-kalimat.

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MISPRO

ALVEOLAR

SMA

Presen

KR

ENG

RONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH FIN

AR-ALVEOLAR AND VELAR-ALVE

CONSONANT CLUSTERS

BY THE STUDENTS OF

A SANTA MARIA YOGYAKARTA

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

ented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHARDJOSIDHI Student Number: 124214090

NGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

2016

INAL

VEOLAR

A

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MISPRO

ALVEOLAR

SMA

Presen

KR

ENG

ii

RONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH FIN

AR-ALVEOLAR AND VELAR-ALVE

CONSONANT CLUSTERS

BY THE STUDENTS OF

A SANTA MARIA YOGYAKARTA

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

ented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHARDJOSIDHI Student Number: 124214090

NGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

2016

INAL

VEOLAR

A

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viii

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x

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly, I want to deliver my gratitude to Jesus Christ for His guidance along my life and everlasting love that He always gives to me. He is the only reason I can go through every path in Sanata Dharma University for more than four years. Only because of His love, I can finally finish my undergraduate thesis.

Secondly, I want to address my gratitude to my Mama and Papa, and also my sister. They are my real life-supporters. Without their loves and supports, I am not really sure I can stand strongly until today.

Thirdly, I am so thankful to my advisor, Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum., for her patience and understanding in guiding me. I thank for every detail correction that she gave to me during the process of writing this undergraduate thesis. I also want to say thanks to my co-advisor, Dr. Fr. Alip, M.Pd., M.A., for every correction that also given to my undergraduate thesis.

Fourthly, I give my sincere thank to Sr. Ancilla, OSF, the principal of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta for letting me conduct my research in that school. Furthermore, I would like to extend my thankfulness to my choir students in SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta for sincerely being my participants during the recording process.

Fifthly, I want to say thanks to all my friends for every support and care that they have given to me. I thank them for coloring my life until today with their own ways that make me feel as a special part in their lives.

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xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... ii

APPROVAL PAGE ... iii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE ... iv

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ... v

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ILMIAH ... vi

MOTTO PAGE ... vii

DEDICATION PAGE ... ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... x

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... xi

LIST OF TABLES ... xiii

ABSTRACT ... xv

ABSTRAK ... xvi

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Problem Formulation ... 4

C. Objectives of the Study ... 4

D. Definition of Terms ... 5

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ... 7

A. Review of Related Studies ... 7

B. Review of Related Theories ... 10

1. Phonology ... 10

a. English Consonant Sound System ... 11

i. Consonants based on the Place of Articulation ... 11

ii. Consonants based on the Manner of Articulation ... 12

iii. Consonants based on the Voicing ... 13

b. Indonesian Consonant Sound System ... 14

i. Indonesian Stop Consonants ... 14

ii. Indonesian Fricative Consonants ... 15

iii. Indonesian Nasal Consonants ... 17

iv. Indonesian Lateral Consonant ... 17

v. Indonesian Flapped Consonant ... 18

vi. Indonesian Approximants Consonants ... 18

c. English and Indonesian Consonant Sound System ... 19

d. Consonant Cluster ... 20

e. Phonotactic Constrain ... 21

2. Second Language Acquisition... 22

a. Description of Second Language Acquisition... 22

b. Errors in Second Language Acquisition ... 23

i. Interlingual and Interference Errors ... 23

ii. Intralingual Errors ... 24

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xii

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ... 26

A. Object of the Study... 26

B. Approach of the Study ... 26

C. Method of the Study ... 27

1. Data Collection... 27

2. Data Analysis ... 29

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ... 32

A. The Distribution of English Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 32

1. English Words with Final Alveolar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 33

a. Stop-Fricatives ... 33

b. Fricatives-Stop ... 34

c. Nasal-Stop ... 34

d. Nasal-Fricatives... 36

e. Lateral-Stop ... 36

2. English Words with Final Velar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster .... 37

3. English Words with Three Consonants as Final Consonant Cluster ... 38

B. Mispronunciations by the Participants ... 39

1. Mispronunciations in English Words with Final Alveolar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 40

a. Stop-Fricatives ... 40

b. Fricatives-Stop ... 41

c. Nasal-Stop ... 42

d. Nasal-Fricatives... 43

e. Lateral-Stop ... 44

2. Mispronunciation in English Word with Final Velar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 46

3. Mispronunciations in English Words with Three Consonants as Final Consonant Cluster ... 46

C. The Errors in the Mispronunciation of Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 49

1. Interlingual and Interference Errors ... 49

2. Intralingual Errors ... 53

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION A. Conclusion ... 55

B. Suggestion ... 57

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 59

APPENDICES ... 61

Appendix 1: The Reading Material ... 61

Appendix 2: Result of Participants’ Pronunciation ... 63

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xiii LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants

(Fromkin et al, 2011:205) ... 13

Table 2.2 The Example of English Words in Presented in Phonetic Symbols ... 14

Table 2.3 The Example of English Words in Presented in Phonetic Symbols ... 19

Table 2.4 The Comparison of English and Indonesian Consonant Sound System (Fromkin et al, 2011:205 and Dardjowidjojo, 2009:50) ... 20

Table 3.1 Phonetic Transcription of the Selected English Words... 28

Table 3.2 Result of Participant’s Pronunciation... 30

Table 3.3 General Summary of Participants’ Pronunciation... 31

Table 4.1 Phonetic Transcription of English Final Stop-Fricatives Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 33

Table 4.2 Phonetic Transcription of English Final Fricatives-Stop Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 34

Table 4.3 Phonetic Transcription of English Final Nasal-Stop Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 35

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xiv

Table 4.5 Phonetic Transcription of English Final Laterals-Stop

Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 37

Table 4.6 Phonetic Transcription of English Final Velar-Alveolar

Consonant Cluster ... 38

Table 4.7 Phonetic Transcription of English Words with Three

Consonants as Final Consonant Clusters ... 39

Table 4.8 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Stop-Fricative Alveolars Consonant Cluster ... 41

Table 4.9 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Fricative-Stop Alveolars Consonant Cluster ... 42

Table 4.10 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Nasal-Stop Alveolars Consonant Cluster ... 43

Table 4.11 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Nasal-Fricative Alveolars Consonant Cluster ... 44

Table 4.12 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Lateral-Fricative Alveolars Consonant Cluster ... 45

Table 4.13 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

Velar-Alveolar Consonant Cluster ... 46

Table 4.14 General Summary of Participants Result of English Final

More Than Two Consonant Clusters ... 49

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xv ABSTRACT

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHADJOSIDHI (2017). Mispronunciation of English Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Clusters by the Students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: English Letters Department, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University.

The role of English as one of the universal languages makes people tend to learn this language. For some Indonesian people, English has been their second language besides Indonesian, their first language. English also has been one of the subjects that is taught in the formal school. The Indonesian students are taught about English since elementary school or even kindergarten until high school. However, the mastery of English, especially for the pronunciation, is often influenced by the first language. One of the examples is the pronunciation of English consonant clusters. English consonant clusters become one of the hardest parts to perform since Indonesian people are not really familiar with various consonant clusters in Indonesian.

There are two problems to lead the discussion in this research. The first is to find out the mispronunciation of final alveolar-alveolar and velar-alveolar consonant clusters that often made by Indonesian native speaker. The second is to analyze the reason behind the mispronunciations.

This research uses audio-records as the instrument to collect the data from the participants. The object of the study is the fifteen students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta that admitted using Indonesian as their first language. The reading material is from the English module Fokus Bahasa Inggris Kelas X of the participants and presented in sentences.

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xvi ABSTRAK

KRIS RAHARDIAN RAHADJOSIDHI (2017). Mispronunciation of English Final Alveolar-Alveolar and Velar-Alveolar Consonant Clusters by the Students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Peran bahasa Inggris sebagai salah satu bahasa universal membuat orang cenderung untuk mempelajarinya. Bagi sebagian orang Indonesia, bahasa Inggris menjadi bahasa kedua selain bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pertama. Bahasa Inggris juga sudah menjadi salah satu pelajaran yang diajarkan di sekolah formal. Pelajar Indonesia diajarkan bahasa Inggris sejak sekolah dasar atau bahkan taman kanak-kanak sampai sekolah menengah atas. Hanya saja, penguasaan bahasa Inggris, terutama dalam hal pengucapan, masih sering dipengaruhi oleh bahasa pertama. Salah satu contohnya adalah pengucapan gugus konsonan bahasa Inggris. Gugus konsonan bahasa Inggris menjadi salah satu hal tersulit untuk dilakukan karena orang-orang Indonesia tidak mengenal berbagai macam gugus konsonan dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Ada dua rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini. Pertama adalah untuk mengetahui kesalahan pengucapan apa saja yang muncul dari pengucapan konsonan alveolar-alveolar dan velar-alveolar sebagai gugus konsonan di akhir kata berbahasa Inggris. Kedua adalah untuk mengetahui alasan dibalik kesalahan pengucapan tersebut.

Penelitian ini menggunakan rekaman audio sebagai instrumen untuk mengumpukan data. Obyek dari penelitian ini adalah lima belas siswi SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta yang mengaku menggunakan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pertama. Materi bacaan diambil dari modul bahasa Inggris milik responden dan disajikan dalam bentuk kalimat-kalimat.

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

English is one of the universal languages taking a really important part in human lives nowadays. English often becomes the way for people to communicate in several countries. It is not only to have the international communication but also regional communication. The role of English as one of the universal languages requires people around the world to learn it.

Jenkins says that from the 15th century English has been taught for people even for those whom English was not their mother tongue (2000:5). This concept also relates to what happens in Indonesia right now. English has affected the perception of how people in Indonesia think about the future with its demands related to the communication. Indonesian people nowadays are aware that by mastering the English skills, they can communicate with foreigners or practice themselves to face the global demand.

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2

language of instruction in the teaching and learning process. The Indonesian students are expected to master the four aspects of English skills, which are reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

Despite the fact that English has been taught to Indonesian people through language-imitation and formal education, the first language still affects the pronunciation of English words by Indonesian people. Some English words have strange characteristics that make Indonesian people hard to pronounce them. Yuliati states that for Indonesian people, consonant clusters are hard to perform because of the different nature between English and Indonesian (2014:514). The pronunciation of consonant clusters still hard to perform even for high school students. In fact, the high school students have experienced the English teaching process more than nine years. Although students have done the language-imitation from their teachers, they still use the Indonesian phonotactic constraints to ease the pronunciation of consonant cluster.

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3

Related to the topic of the study, there will be a comparison about two languages which are English and Indonesian. The comparison is part of the contrastive analysis in finding the answers of the formulated problem. For the example, English and Indonesian sound system share some similarities yet still have different details. Indonesian sound system does not consider interdental consonants as part of Indonesian consonants. English interdental consonants which are [θ] as in thigh [θaI] and [ð] as in the [ðə] do not exist in Indonesian words. Therefore, some Indonesian people can not perform this pronunciation perfectly. On the other hand, English sound system does not allow nasal velar [ŋ] in the initial position of a word while Indonesian does. English native speakers are not accustomed to pronounce Indonesian word ngopi [ŋɔpi:] easily.

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4

B. Problem Formulation

From the background of the study, here is the problem formulation in conducting this study:

1. What kinds of mispronunciations of English final consonant clusters of alveolar-alveolar and velar-alveolar-alveolar consonants are made by the students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta?

2. Why do the mispronunciations occur?

C. Objectives of the Study

There are two major objectives of the study to achieve in conducting this study. First, this study is to find out what kind of mispronunciations of English final alveolar-alveolar and velar-alveolar consonant clusters made by the students of SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta whose first language is Indonesian. This will be the proof of the theory that is used in this study related to the different rules about sound system between English and Indonesian.

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5

D. Definition of Terms

This section explains the terms that are used in this study: consonant cluster, alveolar consonant, velar consonant, and errors.

First is the term of consonant cluster. A consonant cluster is a combination of at least two consonants and it is considered as the peripheral part of the syllable (Yuliati, 2014:513). A consonant cluster may come as the onset that comes before a syllable or the coda that comes after a syllable. A consonant cluster in the onset can be two or maximum three consonants, such as structure and psychology. On the other hand, a consonant cluster in the coda can be minimum two or more consonants, such as trust /trΛst/ and texts /teksts/.

Second is the term of alveolar consonant. An alveolar consonant is a consonant that is produced by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge (Ladefoged, 1993:6). The consonants included as the alveolar consonants are [t], [d], [n], [s], [z], [l], and [r]. These consonants are the same in the place of articulation but some of them are different in the manner of articulation.

Third is the term of velar consonant. Different to the alveolar consonant, a velar consonant is produced by raising the back of the tongue to the velum or soft palate (Ladefoged, 1993:7). The consonants included as the velar consonants are [k], [g], and [ŋ].

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ti [It ] s

t’ n d i

d [dId n]t

tr a e

h [ha: ] tr

d e n r u

t [tз dr: ] n

d n u o r

a [ə ar ʊn ] d

e c n

o [wΛn ] s

d n a l s

i [aIlə dn ]

d n a

l [læ dn ]

s t h g i n

k [ an It ] s

d e k c a tt

a [ətækt]

d n

a [æ dn ]

s t n e r a

p [ ep arə sn ] t

d e s o l

c [ okl ʊz ] d

t s a

f [fæ ts ]

d e li a

f [ eIf l d]

t s a

l [læ ts ]

s e d i s e

b [bIsaId ] z

d n i

k [kΛIn ] d

tl e

b [ tlb ] e

d e s s e r

p [ sp t] re

s d r a w n

i [In ə zw r ] d

d e r e t n u o c n

e [Inkaʊntərd]

t s e h c

ir [rItʃəst]

d e k s

a [æ ks t]

t n a g o r r

a [ærəgə tn ]

e c n i

(48)
(49)
(50)
(51)
(52)

3 3

h ti w s d r o w h s il g n

E two alveolar-alveola rconsonants a s ifna lconsonan tclusters .In

it i d d

a on ,there are ifve Engilsh word stha tconsis to fthree consonant sa sthe ifna l

.s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c

.

1 EngilshWord swtihFina lAlveolar-AlveolarConsonan tClusters

y t n e w t e r a e r e h

T - eo n Engilsh ifna lalveolar-alveola rconsonan tcluster stha t

s i h t n i d e s u e r

a research.

.

a Stop-Frica itves

h ti w d n u o f s d r o w h s il g n E e e r h t e r a e r e h

T s -top f ircaitve salveola rconsonan t

m o r f e n o s i e r e h T . s l a ir e t a m g n i d a e r e h t n i s r e t s u l

c Monkeyand Crocodlie ,one f rom

y n o h J f o y r o t S e h

T ,and one from Momotaro o rLtilte Preaching .Here are the

t a h t s e c n e t n e

s havet hoset hreeEngilshword .s

- Thecrocodliet oldt hemonkeyt oj umpon tisback.( MonkeyandCrocodlie ,p.9)

- Onenigh twhent hepeopleofJ hony’ svillageares leeping,t heDarkLandknights

( . e g a ll i v s i h d e k c a tt

a TheStoryo fJhony ,p.17)

- Besidesthis ,hemadeeverykindo fpreparaitonf o rhisj ourneyt ot hei slandoft he

( .t u o t e s d n a s li v e

d Momotaroo rLtiltePreaching ,p.39)

l a n i F h s il g n E f o n o it p i r c s n a r T c it e n o h P : 1 . 4 e l b a

T Stop-Frica itve sAlveolar

s r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C

h s il g n

E Words Phone itcTranscrip iton

s

ti [Its]

s t h g i n

k [ an Its]

s e d i s e

(53)

4 3

.

b Frica itves-Stop

s d r o w h s il g n E e v i

F found in the reading mate ira lconsis to f ifna lf ircaitve s

d n

a s top consonan tclusters .Three of t hem are found i n The Story o fJhony ,one o f

n i d n u o f s i m e h

t Momotaro o rLtilte Preaching ,and the las ti sfound in Nya i

ti d n e g a

B .Herearet hes entencest ha tconsis toft hose ifveword .s

- A shark came closed to him .He t ired to swim avoiding the shark a sfast sa

a d n a d e li a f e h t u b e l b i s s o

p tlast the shark swallowed him .(The Story o fJhony ,

) 7 1 . p

- …but t hey pressed sitll i nward sand at l as tencountered t he chie fof t he devlis .

(Momotaroo rLtiltePreaching ,p.39)

- Shewast herichestpersoni nt hevillage.( Nya iBagendti ,p.52)

. 4 e l b a

T 2 :Phone itcTranscrip itono fEngilshFina lFrica itves-StopAlveolar s

r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C

s d r o W h s il g n

E Phone itcTranscrip iton

d e s o l

c [ okl ʊzd]

t s a

f [fæst]

t s a

l [læst]

d e s s e r

p [ epr st]

t s e h c

ir [rItʃəst]

.

c Nasal-Stop

o t g n ir r e f e

R the reading mateiral ,there are six word sconsisitng o fEngilsh

l a s a n l a n

if - ps to alveola r consonan t clusters . O en word is from Monkey and

e li d o c o r

(54)

5 3

g n i h c a e r P e lt ti

L andonei sfromNya iBagendti .Hereare t hesentencest ha thave t he

l a s a n h ti w g n i d n e s d r o w x i

s - ps to alveola rconsonan tcluster .s

- So,t hecrocodliet urnedaroundandswambackt ot hebankoft he irve .r( Monkey

e li d o c o r C d n

a ,p.9)

- Once upon a itme ,there wa sa village in South Dream Island .(The Story o f

y n o h

J ,p.17)

- Onenigh twhent hepeopleofJ hony’ svillageares leeping,t heDarkLandknight s

( . e g a ll i v s i h d e k c a tt

a TheStoryo fJhony ,p.17)

- Jhonyandhi sparent silvedi na ifshermenvillage.( TheStoryo fJhony ,p.17)

- Besides t his ,he made every kind o fpreparaiton fo rhis j ourney t o t he i sland o f

( .t u o t e s d n a s li v e d e h

t Momotaroo rLti ltePreaching ,p.39)

- Nya iBagendi twa sveryarrogant. (Nya iBagendti ,p.52)

. 4 e l b a

T 3 :Phone itcTranscrip itono fEngilshFina lNasal-StopAlveolar s

r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C

s d r o W h s il g n

E Phone itcTranscrip iton

d n u o r

a [ə ar ʊnd]

d n a l s

i [aIlənd]

d n a

l [lænd]

d n

a [ænd]

d n i

k [kΛInd]

t n a g o r r

(55)

6 3

.

d Nasal-Frica itves

s d r o w h s il g n E o w t e r a e r e h

T ending wtih nasal-f ircaitve salveola rconsonan t

g n i d a e r e h t n i s r e t s u l

c mate iral .Thef ris tonei si nTheStoryo fJhonyandt hel as tone

n i s

i Nya iBagendti .Here are t he sentence sconsisted of the t wo Engilsh word sand

i w o ll o f e h t n i n o it p ir c s n a rt c it e n o h p e h

t ngt able.

- Once upon a itme ,there wa sa village in South Dream Island .(The Story o f

y n o h

J ,p.17)

- Sincethen ,peoplenamedt hel akea sStiuBagendi.t( Nya iBagendti ,p.52)

. 4 e l b a

T 4 :Phone itcTranscrip itono fEngilshFina lNasal-Frica itvesAlveolar s

r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C

s d r o W h s il g n

E Phone itcTranscrip iton

e c n

o [wΛns]

e c n i

s [sIns]

.

e Laterals-Stop

s d r o w h s il g n E e v if e r a e r e h

T ending wtih laterals- ps to consonan tcluste rin

i d a e r e h

t ngmate iral .Twooft hemi si nMonkeyandCrocodlie ,onei si nTheStoryo f

y n o h

J andt woi si nMomotaroo rLtiltePreaching .Herearet hes entencest ha tconsis t

.s d r o w h s il g n E e v if e s o h t f o

- Thecrocodlietoldthemonkeyt oj umpon ti sback( MonkeyandCrocodlie ,p.9)

(56)

7 3

- A shark came closed to him .He t ired to swim avoiding the shark a sfas ta s

e h t u b e l b i s s o

p falied and at l ast t he shark swallowed him .(The Story o fJhony ,

) 7 1 . p

- Momotaro !Wha thave you there hanging a tyou rbetl? (Momotaro o rLtilte

g n i h c a e r

P ,p.39)

- …but t hey pressed sitll i nward sand at l as tencountered the chie fof t he devlis .

(Momotaroo rLtiltePreaching ,p.39)

. 4 e l b a

T 5 :PhoneitcTranscrip itono fEngilshFina lLaterals-StopAlveolar s

r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C

h s il g n

E Words Phone itcTranscrip iton

d l o

t [ ot ʊld]

tr a e

h [ha:rt]

d e li a

f [feIld]

tl e

b [ eb tl]

d e r e t n u o c n

e [Inkaʊntərd]

.

2 EngilshWord swtihFina lVe -lar AlveolarConsonan tCluster

r a l e v f o s t s i s n o c t a h t d r o w e n o y l n o s i e r e h t , y l s u o i v e r p d e n o it n e m s

A

-r a l e v f o t s i s n o c t a h t s d r o w r e h t o e r a e r e h t , y ll a u t c A . s t n a n o s n o c r a l o e v l

a -alveola r

o t s t n a n o s n o c e e r h t h ti w d e n i b m o c e r a y e h t t u b s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o

c form consonan t

s il g n E e h T . s r e t s u l

c h word i sfound i n The Story o fJhony .The Engilsh word end s

o t r a l o e v l a p o t s d n a r a l e v p o t s f o n o it a n i b m o c e h t h ti

(57)

8 3

n i e c n e t n e s e h t s i e r e

H The Story o fJhony tha tconsist so fvelar-alveola rconsonan t

. n o it p ir c s n a rt c it e n o h p e h t f o e l b a t e h t h ti w d e w o ll o f n o it i s o p l a n if e h t n i s r e t s u l c

- Onenigh twhent hepeopleo fJhony’ svillagearesleeping,t heDarkLandknight s

d e k c a tt

a hi svillage.( TheStoryo fJhony ,p.17 )

. 4 e l b a

T 6 :Phone itcTranscrip itono fEngilshFina lVelar-AlveolarConsonan t r

e t s u l C

s d r o W h s il g n

E Phone itcTranscrip iton

d e k c a tt

a [ətækt]

.

3 EngilshWord sEndwtihThreeConsonant sa sFina lConsonan tCluster

e e r h t f o t s i s n o c t a h t s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c l a n if s e s u o s l a h c r a e s e r s i h T

s d r o w h s il g n E e v if e r a e r e h T . s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c m r o f o t s t n a n o s n o

c ending wtih

r a l o e v l a r e h ti e e s u s d r o w e s e h T . s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c s a s t n a n o s n o c e e r h

t -alveola ro r

r a l e

v -alveola rconsonant sast he ifna lconsonan tcluster .Thet wooft hemaref oundi n

e li d o c o r C d n a y e k n o

M ,onei sf oundi nTheStoryo fJhony ,onei sf oundi nMomotaro

g n i h c a e r P e lt ti L d n

a ,and t he l ast i sfoundi nNya iBagendti .Here are t he sentence s

n E e h t f o t s i s n o c t a h

t gilshword .s

- Because Ididn t’b irngmyhear twtihme.(MonkeyandCrocodlie ,p.9)

- So,t hecrocodlieturnedaroundands wambackt ot hebankoft he irve .r( Monkey

) 9 . p , e li d o c o r C d n a

(58)

9 3

- …but t hey pressed stli linwards and at l as tencountered t he chie fof t he devlis .

) 9 3 . p , g n i h c a e r P e lt ti L r o o r a t o m o M (

- …Nya iBagendtii mmediatelyaskedhert ogo.( Nya iBagendti ,p.52)

. 4 e l b a

T 7 :PhoneitcTranscrip itono fEngilshWord swtihThreeConsonant sa s r

e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C l a n i F

s d r o W h s il g n

E TrPanhsocnreipitciton Consonants t’

n d i

d [dIdnt] s -top nasal-stopalveolar d

e n r u

t [t3:rnd] lateral-nasal-stopalveolar s

t n e r a

p [ rp əae n s] t nasal- ps -to f ircaitvealveolar s

d r a w n

i [In əw r z] d lateral-nasal-f ircaitvealveolar d

e k s

a [æs t] k f ircaitve alveolar-stopvelar-stopalveolar

.

B Mispronuncia iton sbyt hePar itcipants

e r e h t , s tl u s e r ’ s t n a p i c it r a p e h t f o y r a m m u s l a r e n e g e h t n o d e s a

B w ere 2 89

s n o it a i c n u n o r p s i

m o fthe 405 pronunciaiton s(27 word sx 15 paritcipants) were

d e c n u o n o r

p by t he paritcipants .Some of t he paritcipant shad pronounced t he word s

p a w s r o r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c e h t n i t n a n o s n o c t s a l e h t g n it ti m o y b y lt c e r r o c n

i ping t he

o t t n a n o s n o

c maket hepronunciaitoneasier .To easet hedataanalysi ,st herearesome

t n a n o s n o c e h t f o n o it u b ir t s i d e h t n o d e s a b s n o it a i c n u n o r p s i m e h t t u o b a s n o it a n a l p x e

(59)
(60)

1 4

p o t S l a n i F h s il g n E f o t l u s e R s t n a p i c it r a P f o y r a m m u S l a r e n e G : 8 . 4 e l b a

T

-r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C s r a l o e v l A e v it a c i r F

s d r o W h s il g n

E C I C

s

ti 1 4 1

s t h g i n

k 6 9

s e d i s e

b 0 1 5

.

b Frica itves-Stop

There w ere only nine mispronunciaiton soccu rin Engilsh word sfast [fæ ts ]

d n

a last [læ ts ] .There w ere only ifve mispronunciaiton so f pronouncing fast [fæ ts ]

g n i c n u o n o r p n i r u o f d n

a last [læ ts ] .The paritcipant scould pronounce those word s

n i s r e i s a

e ce there wa sno voiced consonant tha tform consonan tclusters .Those

r u c c o s n o it a i c n u n o r p s i

m r ed because the paritcipant s omitted the stop alveola r

t n a n o s n o

c [t] tha tca mea tferf ircaitve[s].

e r e h

T were fou r correc t pronunciaiton s fo r the word pressed [prest ]

d e c n u o n o r

p by P4 ,P5 ,P12 ,and P14 .There wa sone paritcipan tmispronounced t he

.] t s [ f o d a e t s n i ] d s [ s a t i g n i c n u o n o r p y b r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c

e r e h t , d n a h r e h t o e h t n

O w as no paritcipan tpronounced the word closed

[ okl ʊz ] d correclty .There w ere three correc tpronunciaiton sfo rthe word richest

r

[ Itʃəst] pronounced byP2andP6 .The phenomenont ha toccurr aed w ssimliar t ot he

e h t n i s r u c c o t a h t n o n e m o n e h

p s -top f ircaitve sconsonant .The paritcipant schanged

d e c i o v e h

t consonant i ntovoiceles sconsonant .Thechange swerevoiced f ircaitve[z]

e v it a c ir f s s e l e c i o v o t n

i [s] and voiced stop [d] into voiceles s stop [t]. Thi s

r u c c o n e tf o n o n e m o n e h

(61)

2 4

.s d r o

w Thi smispronunciaiton referstot he statemen tbyDardjowidjojo ( 2009 )abou t

) 8 3 : 9 0 0 2 ( n o it i s o p l a n if e h t n i s e m o c t i n e h w t n a n o s n o c d e c i o v f o n o it c u d e r e h

t .

m e h t f o e m o

S mispronouncedtheconsonan tcluste rbyomtiitngt hel as tconsonanti n

s a h c u s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c e h

t [ sp ]. re

e v it a c i r F l a n i F h s il g n E f o t l u s e R s t n a p i c it r a P f o y r a m m u S l a r e n e G : 9 . 4 e l b a

T

-r e t s u l C t n a n o s n o C s r a l o e v l A p o t S

s d r o W h s il g n

E C I C

d e s o l

c 0 1 5

t s a

f 1 0 5

t s a

l 1 1 4

d e s s e r

p 4 1 1

t s e h c

ir 3 1 2

.

c Nasal-Stop

e m a s e h t e d a m s t n a p i c it r a p e h t , y lt s o

M mispronunciaiton sof pronouncing

l a s a

n - ps to alveola rconsonan tcluster .From the summary of the paritcipant sresutl ,

e r e h

t were only two correc t pronunciaitons . The paritcipant s omitted the las t

. r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c e h t f o t n a n o s n o

c Frislty,t herewa snocorrec tpronunciaitonf ort he

s d r o

w around [ə ar ʊn ] ,d land [læ dn ] ,and kind [kΛIn ]d .Al lparitcipant somtit ed the

p o t

s [d] consonan to fthe consonan tcluster .Thi sshowe d tha tthe reduciton o fthe

r a l o e v l a p o t s d e c i o

v [d] also beca me deleiton by the paritcipants .Therefore ,the

s a h c u s e m o c e b s n o it a i c n u n o r

p [ə ar ʊn] ,[læn] ,and[kΛIn].

e r e h t , y l d n o c e

S wa sonlyonecorrec tpronunciaiton pronounced byP6f or t he

d r o

(62)
(63)
(64)
(65)
(66)
(67)

8 4

r a l o e v l a e v it a c ir f e h

t [s] a s the las t consonan t in the consonan t cluste .r Two

, 3 1 P d n a 0 1 P , s t n a p i c it r a

p even omitted two l as tconsonant swhich are stop alveola r

[t] andf ircaitvealveola r[s].

tr u o

F hly , fo r the word inwards [In ə dw r z] , there wa s only one correc t

n o it a i c n u n o r p s i m d e r a e p p a t s o m e h T . 5 P y b e n o d n o it a i c n u n o r

p was t he change o f

r a l o e v l a p o t s d e c i o

v [d] in the mid posi iton o fthe consonan tcluster into voiceles s

r a l o e v l a p o t

s [t] .There were seven mispronunciaiton swtih the changing o fthe

t s a l e h t g n it ti m o y b r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c e h t d e c n u o n o r p s i m s t n a p i c it r a p x i S . t n a n o s n o c

t n a n o s n o c r a l o e v l a e v it a c ir

f [s] .There wa sone paritcipant ,P2 ,who omittedt he stop

t n a n o s n o c r a l o e v l

a [d] a sthe mid consonan to fthe consonan tcluste rso tha tthe

c e b n o it a i c n u n o r

p a [me In ə sw r ].

d r o w e h t r o f , y l h tf i

F asked [æ ks t] ,there wa sonly one correc tpronunciaiton

. 5 P y b e d a

m There w ere eigh tparitcipant smispronounced t he wordby omtiitng t he

r a l o e v l a p o t

s [t] a sthe las tconsonan tin the consonan tcluste rand swapping the

ir

f caitve alveola r [s] and stop vela r [k] . Therefore , the mos t common

n o it a i c n u n o r p s i

m si [æ sk ].I naddiiton,t here werealso ifveparitcipant swhoomtiitng

n o c e h t f o s t n a n o s n o c o w t t s a l e h

t sonant cluste rwhich are stop vela r[k] and stop

r a l o e v l

(68)
(69)

0 5

lt s o

M y ,the error sin mispronunciaiton o f ifna lalveolar-alveola rand velar

s t n a p i c it r a p e h t y b s r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c r a l o e v l

a were affected by the phonotacitc s

t n i a rt s n o

c fo theIndonesianconsonan tclusters. Theparitcipant shad tendencytoomi t

a n o s n o c t s a l e h

t nti nt heconsonan tcluste .rI toccurr edsincetheparitcipants ew reno t

h ti w r a il i m a

f thet woo rmorealveola randvela rconsonantst ha tform ifna lconsonan t

. s r e t s u l

c Refer irng to the data ,the omission occurred in the consonan tcluster so f

p o t

s -f ircaitve salveolar ,f ircaitves- ps to alveolar ,nasal- ps to alveolar ,velar-alveolar ,

r a l e v e e r h t f o n o it a n i b m o c e h t d n

a -alveola rconsonants .Fo rexample in the word

t’ n d i

d [dId ], nt fou treen paritcipant spronounced i twrong by omtiitng the voicel ess

a l o e v l

a rconsonan t[t] ast hel as tconsonanti nt heconsonan tcluste .r

r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o c e h t n i t n a n o s n o c t s a l e s o h w s d r o w e h t f o t s il e h t s i e r e H

.s t n a p i c it r a p e h t y b d e tt i m o n e tf o

. 4 e l b a

T 1 :5 EngilshWord swtiht heOmissiono fLas tConsonanti nt he t

n a n o s n o

C Cluster

s d r o W h s il g n

E Phone itcTranscrip itono fMispronuncia itons s

t h g i n

k [ an It]

s e d i s e

b [bIsaIt]

d e s s e r

p [ epr s]

t s e h c

ir [rItʃəs]

d n u o r

a [ə ar ʊn]

d n a

l [læn]

d n i

k [kΛIn]

d n a l s

i [aIlən]

d n

a [æn]

t n a g o r r

a [ærəgən]

d e k c a tt

a [ətæk]

t’ n d i

d [dIdn]

d e n r u

t [t3:rn]

s d r a w n

(70)
(71)
(72)
(73)

4 5

h c i h w d r o

w w sa upon [əpan] .The t hree paritcipant smispronounced t he word upon

(74)
(75)
(76)
(77)

8 5

e b n a c e s a h p s i h T . m e t s y s d n u o s h c e e p s h s il g n E n i a tr e c e h t f o n o it a i c n u n o r p h s il g n E

E g n i c n u o n o r p n i e c it c a r p s u o u n it n o c e h t h g u o r h t e n o

d ngilshwords .Thet eacher scan

s t n e d u t s r i e h t e v i

g morechancest or eadandtospeaki nEngilshandgivet heposiitve

(78)
(79)

0 6

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61 APPENDIX 1

Read these sentences carefully!

1. The crocodile told the monkey to jump on its back (Monkey and Crocodile, p.9)

2. Because I didn’t bring my heart with me. (Monkey and Crocodile, p.9)

3. So, the crocodile turned around and swam back to the bank of the river. (Monkey

and Crocodile, p.9)

4. Once upon a time, there was a village in South Dream Island. (The Story of

Jhony, p.17)

5. One night when the people of Jhony’s village are sleeping, the Dark Land knights

attacked his village. (The Story of Jhony, p.17)

6. Jhony and his parents lived in a fishermen village. (The Story of Jhony, p.17)

7. A shark came closed to him. He tried to swim avoiding the shark as fast as

possible but he failed and at last the shark swallowed him. (The Story of Jhony,

p.17)

8. Besides this, he made every kind of preparation for his journey to the island of the

devils and set out. (Momotaro or Little Preaching, p.39)

9. Momotaro! What have you there hanging at your belt? (Momotaro or Little

Preaching, p.39)

10.…but they pressed still inwards and at last encountered the chief of the devils.

(Momotaro or Little Preaching, p.39)

11.She was the richest person in the village. (Nyai Bagendit, p.52)

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62

13.Nyai Bagendit was very arrogant. (Nyai Bagendit, p.52)

(82)

63

APPENDIX 2

Result of Participants’ Pronunciation

P1

Participant’s Name : Anggi

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [tolt] -

2 its [Is] -

3 didn’t [dIdn] -

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [t3:rn] -

6 around [əroʊn] -

7 once [wΛns]

8 island [aIslən] -

9 land [læn] -

10 knights [naI] -

11 attacked [ətek] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [perəns] -

14 closed [kloʊst] -

15 fast [fes] -

16 failed [feIləd] -

17 last [læst]

18 besides [bIsaIts] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [pres] -

22 inwards [Inwort] -

23 encountered [enkored] -

24 richest [rItʃəs] -

25 asked [Λks] -

26 arrogant [ærəgΛn] -

(83)

64

P2

Participant’s name : Bella

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [tolt] -

2 its [Its]

3 didn’t [dIdn] -

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [tз:rn] -

6 around [əroʊn] -

7 once [wΛns]

8 island [aIslən] -

9 land [læn] -

10 knights [naIts]

11 attacked [ətæk] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [perəns] -

14 closed [klost] -

15 fast [fæst]

16 failed [felt] -

17 last [las] -

18 besides [bIsaIt] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [presət] -

22 inwards [Inwərs] -

23 encountered [enkaʊntrət] -

24 richest [rItʃəst]

25 asked [æks] -

26 arrogant [ærəgΛn] -

(84)

65

P3

Participant’s name : Betty

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [toʊlt] -

2 its [Its]

3 didn’t [dIdnt]

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [tз:rnt] -

6 around [əraʊn] -

7 once [wΛns]

8 island [aIslen] -

9 land [len] -

10 knights [naIt] -

11 attacked [ətækd] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [pearənts]

14 closed [kloʊst] -

15 fast [fæst]

16 failed [feIlt] -

17 last [lest]

18 besides [bIsaIt] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [pres] -

22 inwards [Inwərt] -

23 encountered [InkaʊntIrt] -

24 richest [rIsəs] -

25 asked [aks] -

26 arrogant [ərogen] -

(85)

66

P4

Participant’s name : Alda

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [toʊlt] -

2 its [Its]

3 didn’t [dIdn] -

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [tз:rn] -

6 around [əraʊn] -

7 once [wΛnʃʃʃʃ] -

8 island [aIlən] -

9 land [læn] -

10 knights [naIts] √ -

11 attacked [əteIk] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [pearəns] -

14 closed [kloʊst] -

15 fast [fæst]

16 failed [feIlt] -

17 last [læst]

18 besides [bIsaIts] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [prIst]

22 inwards [Inwərts] -

23 encountered [InkaʊntrId] -

24 richest [rItʃ] -

25 asked [æsk] -

26 arrogant [ærəgən] -

(86)

67

P5

Participant’s name : Elma

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [toʊlt] -

2 its [Its]

3 didn’t [dIdn] -

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [tз:rn] -

6 around [əraʊn] -

7 once [wΛns]

8 island [aIlən] -

9 land [læn] -

10 knights [naIts]

11 attacked [ətæk] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [pearəns] -

14 closed [kloʊst] -

15 fast [fæst]

16 failed [feIlt] -

17 last [last]

18 besides [bIsaIts] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [prest]

22 inwards [Inwərdz]

23 encountered [Inkaʊntərt] -

24 richest [rItʃəst]

25 asked [æskt]

26 arrogant [ærəgən] -

(87)

68

P6

Participant’s name : Kenisa

No English Words Phonetic Transcription C IC

1 told [toʊlt] -

2 its [Its]

3 didn’t [dIdn] -

4 heart [ha:rt]

5 turned [tз:rn] -

6 around [əraʊn] -

7 once [wΛnʃʃʃʃ] -

8 island [aIlənd]

9 land [laIn] -

10 knights [knaIts]

11 attacked [ətækIŋ] -

12 and [æn] -

13 parents [pearən] -

14 closed [kloʊst] -

15 fast [fæst]

16 failed [feIlt] -

17 last [last]

18 besides [bIsaIt] -

19 kind [kΛIn] -

20 belt [belt]

21 pressed [presət] -

22 inwards [Inwərt] -

23 encountered [enkaʊntərd]

24 richest [rItʃIzt]

25 asked [æks] -

26 arrogant [ærəgən] -

Figur

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Referensi

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