126.96.36.199. Behavioral Learning Theories and Language Learning ... 26
188.8.131.52. Behaviorioral Learning Theories and E-learning ... 27
2.2.2. Cognitive Learning Theories ... 33
184.108.40.206. Cognitive Theories and Language Learning ... 36
220.127.116.11. Cognitive Learning Theories and E-learning ... 38
2.2.3. Constructivist Theory ... 44
18.104.22.168. Constructivist Theory and E-learning ... 47
2.2.4. Social Learning Theories ... 50
22.214.171.124. Social Theories and Language Learning ... 54
126.96.36.199. Social Theories and E- learning ... 55
2.3. Theory of Language; Language as Communication ... 58
2.4. Principles of Material Development ... 63
2.4.1. Materials Design and Presentation in Web-based Learning Environment ... 65
2.4.2. The Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization ... 67
2.5. Learning Management System ... 70
Chapter III Research Methodology ... 79
3.1. Research Problems ... 79
3.4.2. Choosing Learning Management System (LMS) and Adapting Teaching and Learning Materials ... 85
3.4.3. Trying Out the Model ... 88
Chapter IV Finding and Discussion ... 98
4.1. The Condition of Teaching and Learning of Junior High School ... 99
4.1.1. Teachers' Understanding of the Teaching and Learning Objectives ... 99
4.1.2. Teaching Method at Junior High School ... 101
4.1.3. English Teaching Materials, Role of the Students and Learning Facilities ... 102
4.2. Development and Presentation of the Web-based Model for TEFL ... 105
4.3. Learning Materials in the Learning Management System (LMS) ... 117
4.3.1. The Preparatory Stage ... 117
4.3.2. The “Uploading” of the Learning Materials into the System ... 117
4.4. The Tryout of Web-based Model for TEFL ... 129
4.4.1. Students’ Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL in the Tryout .. 129
4.4.2. Teachers’ Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL in Tryout ... 137
4.5. The Development of the Final Version of the Model ... 142
4.6. The influence of the Web-based Model for TEFL to the students' achievement ... 142
4.6.1. The Analysis of the Test Score of A School ... 143
4.6.2. The Analysis of the Test Score of B School ... 148
4.6.3. A School Students' Responses towards the Web-based Model ... 153
4.6.4. The Observation at A School ... 161
4.6.5. B School Students' Responses towards the Web-based Model ... 164
4.6.6. Teachers' Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL ... 172
Chapter V Conclusion, Recommendation and Limitation of the study ... 177
iii 5.2. Recommendation and Limitation of the Study ... 180 Bibliography . ... 181 Appendicies ... 199
Appendix 1 Questionnaire on the Condition of Teaching and Learning at Junior High Schools
Appendix 2 Interview Guide for Teacher (to find out the teaching condition) Appendix 3 Guideline Observation Sheet for Students
Appendix 4 Guideline Observation Sheet for Teachers
Appendix 5 Questionnaire on the students’ and teacher’s response about the Web-based Model for TEFL (tryout)
Appendix 6 Interview Guide for Students
Appendix 7 Syllabus for Junior High School Class VIII, semester 1
Appendix 8 Scope and Sequence for Junior High School Class VIII, semester 1 Appendix 9 Guideline Observation Sheet for Students
Appendix 10 Guideline Observation Sheet for teachers
Appendix 11 Questionnaire on the students’ and teachers’ response about the Web-based Model for TEFL
Appendix 12 Sample of Online Learning Material for Junior High School Class VIII Appendix 13 Pre-test Score (A school)
1.1. Background of the Study
There have been problems in the teaching of English as a foreign language. The big class sizes and teachers with poor mastery of English are two obvious factors that contribute to the ongoing problems in ELT in Indonesia (Dardjowidjojo, 2000). Other reasons for the problems include: (1) limited time allocated for teaching English, (2) students do not have limited time to actually learn to speak English in class because the teacher is more concerned with grammar and syntax, (3) the absence of good and authentic learning materials, and (4) the absence of the social uses of English outside the classroom (Musthafa, 2001).
2 The first website is designed to enrich English teachers with teaching materials to be implemented in class along with the methods. This website offers free downloadable teaching materials. The second and the third provide resources for students to do self study online. In these websites, the students only interact with the materials provided in the web. These websites offer free exercises and leaning materials for students to study in their own time. With the recent programming language, facilities for interaction and tasks which require interaction can be developed so that the students have the opportunity to practice using the language learned. Facilities to communicate with their teacher should also be provided for students to ask questions when they encounter problems.
3 1989). In this proposed Web-based Model, students have the opportunities to practice communication using the language learned both online and offline. This is expected to enhance both learning process and learning outcomes.
4 Traditional CALL programs presented a stimulus to which the learner had to provide response. In early CALL programs the stimulus was in the form of text presented on screen, and the only way in which the learner could respond was by entering an answer at the keyboard. Some programs were very imaginative in the way a text was presented, making use of color to highlight grammatical features and movement to illustrate points of syntax. Discrete error analysis and feedback were common features of traditional CALL, and the more sophisticated programs would attempt to analyze the learner's response, pinpoint errors, and branch to help and remedial activities (Gillani, 2003).
More recent approaches to CALL have favored a learner-centered, explorative approach rather than a teacher-centered, drill-based approach to CALL (Cameron, 1998). The explorative approach is characterized by the use of concordance programs in the languages classroom -- an approach described as Data-Driven Learning (DLL) by Tim Johns (Johns & King 1991). The explorative approach is widely used today, including the use of Web concordance and other Web-based CALL activities.
5 quality of video recordings offered by CD-ROM technology, however, was slow to catch up with that offered by the earlier interactive videodiscs. The Digital Video Disc (DVD) offers much higher quality video recordings (Heinich, et al., 2002). A feature of many multimedia CALL programs is the role-play activity, in which the learner can record his/her own voice and play it back as part of a continuous dialogue with a native speaker. Other multimedia programs make use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software to diagnose learners' errors (Kozma, 2001).
In 1992 the World Wide Web was launched, reaching the general public in 1993. The Web offers enormous potential in language learning and teaching. Barolli et al. (2006) confirm that web-based e-learning system increases study efficiency when there is enough stimulating motivation given to the learners. Huang (2000) indicates that external links to other related websites give students exposure of authentic used of English. One of the benefits of web-based learning is the availability of links to other sites which provide similar information, exercise, explanation, simulation or task (Murphy & Cifuentes, 2001).
6 overseas students. In this study, it is reported that the students like the exposure to authentic materials, and the collaboration in doing the tasks. The students also claimed that the immediate feedback given in doing the exercise and quiz is really helpful. A study on the use of computers for language teaching in Indonesia was conductedby Yunandami (2007), who focused on the students’ and teachers’ perception on the use of computer in EFL classrooms. Her study concludes that a large number of students enjoyed learning English using computer, although one computer was shared by 3 or 4 students.
Considering the development of CALL, the rapid growth of computer technology, and the development of web-based teaching and learning, this study attempts to design a Web-based Model for the teaching of English as a foreign language (TEFL) to Indonesian Junior High School students. This model uses a Learning Management System (LMS) platform called ‘moodle’ which has appropriate features to optimize the use of ICT Information Communication Technology) in teaching and learning process. This study is also attempts to investigate how of this model contributes to teaching and learning processes.
1.2. Scope of the Study
7 learning materials, the activities, facilities and media. Based on the observation a web-based Model for TEFL is designed and its effectiveness in developing students’ learning is also examined. This study is a part of the previous study on the development and effectiveness of multimedia in English language learning for Junior High Students conducted by Lengkanawati et al. (2005). In the first year the research dealt with mapping the condition of learning English in junior high schools and developing the prototype of instructional design and storyboard as the springboard to develop the multimedia software. In the second year the research focused on developing materials for the software.
As a follow up, therefore, the present study concentrates on the development of A Web-based Model for TEFL to Junior High School Students, covering reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. This study starts with the exploration of the condition of teaching and learning of junior high school, and followed by identifying the elements of English language teaching and learning namely purpose, material, activity, media and evaluation.
1.3. Research Questions
The problems of the present study are formulated in the following questions.
8 a. What are the elements of a Web-based Model?
b. How do the elements build the model?
(2) To what extend does the model facilitate teaching and learning process?
1.4. The Purpose of the Study
On the basis of the concerns mention above, the present study aims to a. design a web-based model for TEFL to Junior High School students;
b. examine how the web-based model for TEFL facilitates the learning and teaching to Junior High School.
1.5. Significance of the Study
9 Students may access and use the model individually either at school or at home to improve their English competency. When accessing and using the model, students are trained to study independently, and explore similar available models in the internet. Meanwhile, English teachers may use the model as supplementary materials in their classes or may blend the model with the classroom teaching activities.
Material developers interested in using the model may develop other teaching materials for other levels or even for other subjects. Decision makers may use the model as a basis for designing e-learning and Learning Management System. Finally, further research may use the model to explore a variety of aspects of teaching and learning.
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, one of the purposes of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the web-based model for TEFL in enhancing learning. This purpose calls for an experiment, of which a hypothesis needs to be stated. This study starts with a neutral position; therefore, it chooses the null hypothesis (Ho), stated below:
Ho: there is no significant difference in language achievement between the experimental groups which are treated with a Web-based Model for TEFL Learning model, and the control groups, which are not exposed to the Web-based Model for TEFL model.
1.7. Research Methodology
11 collected and analyzed. In the Web-based Model for TEFL development and main field testing stage, the Web-based Model for TEFL is developed and tested for a semester at two schools.
In collecting data, two private Junior High Schools (A school and B school) in Bandung were chosen as the research sites. A school was chosen because this school has a website and its server is compatible for running the LMS software (www.talenta-college.com/elearning). Second, the school has a computer laboratory with the internet connection, and provides a compulsory subject that builds skills for computer technology and information. The other site is B school. This school has Local Area Networks (LAN) which is compatible for running the Web-based Model for TEFL. Its existing Local Area Networks is also possible to connect to the internet. Two classes from A school are used as experimental groups and two classes as control group. One class from B school is used for experimental and one class is used for control group.
12 were used for finding out the effectiveness of the model. These data collecting will be discussed in detail in chapter 3.
Following Brorg’s (1979) research and development, data obtained from questionnaires, interviews and observational sheets were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively through stages of identification, classification, and descriptive quantification. The pre-test and post-test results were analyzed using inferential statistics for examining differences, i.e. matched and independent t-tests and are going to be discussed in chapter 3.
1.8. Definition of Key Terms
Several key terms are used in explaining, discussing, and reporting the results of the present study. There are five key words used, i.e. a TEFL web-based model, online learning, learning management system, authoring tools, and effectiveness.
Online learning in this study is defined as interactive learning in which the learning content is a web-based model for TEFL which is placed in a server and is made accessible trough LAN connection or internet connection.
Learning Management System (LMS) in this study is defined as a software used as the platform to place the web-based TEFL. This software automates the administration: it tracks learners, records data from learners and provides records that can be accessed by the teacher and student. This software also manages the learning materials, quizzes, and assignments, and provides report to the learners about the learning feedback and results.
Effectiveness in this study is measured by comparing the test results of the learners in the experimental group and learners in the control group. When the test results of the two groups are found to be significantly different, and the experimental group are better, then the web-based model for TEFL is considered effective. This examination of effectiveness is further enhanced by students’ responses, observation on the use of the web-based model for TEFL and interview.
1.9. Organization of the Dissertation
14 • Chapter 2 reviews some discussions related to web-based models for TEFL which are available, among others; Essential Elements of Online Courses (Elbaum, et al. 2002); Learning Theories and the Design of E-learning Environments (Gillani. B., 2003) and Virtual Student, a Profile and Guide to Working with Online Learners (Palloff, et al. 1999). This chapter also reviews other related issues about web-based teaching and learning in various journals including online journals. The development of the Web-based Model for TEFL is based on the learning and teaching theories discussed and to be applied for developing the Model.
• Chapter 3 is going to describe and discuss the methodology of the study.
• Chapter 4 is concerned with how the web-based model for TEFL is applied to Junior High School students. The condition of using multimedia, especially computer and internet in teaching and learning English at junior high school is also discussed. This chapter is going to describe the Web-based Model for TEFL and its development and describes approaches in applying the web-based model for TEFL and analytical framework used to examine the effectiveness of the model.
This chapter discusses some important aspects related to research methodology. There are research problems, research design, a phase of teaching using the Web-based Model for TEFL and data collection, research site and participants, questionnaire, interview guide, observational sheet and data analysis.
3.1. Research Problems
The problems of the present study are formulated in the following questions.
(1) What is the construct of a web-based model appropriate for the TEFL to Junior High School students?
a. What are the elements of a Web-based Model?
b. How do the elements build the model?
3.2. Research Design
As mentioned earlier in chapter I, the design of this study is research and development following Borg, (1979) as the main umbrella for this study. This study attempts to find out the effectiveness of a web-based model which covers the design of the model, the development of the model and try out of the model and measure the effectiveness of the model. Major steps in the research and development cycle as Borg (1979) suggests are used to develop a Web-based Model for TEFL include:
(1) Research and information collecting – This includes reviews of literatures about language learning theories in relation to e-learning and the use of computer as a media for teaching and learning languages. School and classroom observations are also conducted to observe the possibility for implementing the Web-based Model for TEFL. A visibility of running the Web-based Model for TEFL in the Learning Management System is also an important aspect to be considered at this stage. (2) Planning – At this stage, computer skills required by the students and teacher were
defined. Both teachers and students should have the basic knowledge of browsing in the internet. Teachers’ knowledge of browsing, and experience in participating in an online course would be a benefit. The familiarity to the technology and prior experience affects the success of online learning (Eastmond, 1995; Davies et al., 1989).
81 were written and uploaded at the Learning Management System site (using modified Moodle platform). Evaluation device such as questionnaires and interview guidelines are prepared.
(4) Preliminary field testing – Preliminary field testing was conducted at a private junior high school grade VIII. Two teachers and ten students were involved in this field testing. Data from interviews with the teachers and students, observational notes and questionnaires were collected and analyzed.
(5) Main based Model for TEFL development – the revised version of the Web-based Model for TEFL was developed Web-based on the preliminary field test results. (6) Main field testing – The revised Web-based Model for TEFL was tested with regards
to its effectiveness at two schools with 101 students for a semester. This is an experiment using the quasi-experimental design involving the experimental and control groups. The test scores of the two groups were analyzed using inferential statistics.
3.3. Research Site and Participants
82 and the students can access the learning materials from home or other places, as long as they can get connected to the internet (see Diagram 3.1). Second, the school has a computer laboratory with the internet connection and provides a compulsory subject that builds skills for computer technology and information. Third, the students in each class are heterogeneous in terms of English ability. Finally, it is a suitable place for language learning using a Web-based Model for TEFL.
The second site is a private Junior High School in Bandung (School B). This school has Local Area Networks which is compatible for running the Web-based Model for TEFL. Its existing Local Area Networks is also possible to connect to the internet so that the links to resources in the internet are possible. The only disadvantage of this system is that the materials placed in the local server could not be accessed from outside (see Diagram 3. 2).
83 Diagram 3.2.
This study selected students from grade 8 because these students have been introduced to use the computer laboratory for language learning activities in their seventh grade. Moreover the subject on computer technology and information and connection to the internet become a very important basis for the site selection because the subject and the internet connection have made the model try out possible. This ensures the researcher that both the students and teachers were familiar with the use of computer and internet. The success of the learning in the e-learning environment is very much depending on the students’ familiarity and attitude towards the technology (Zoltan et al, 1982, Webster and Hackey, 1997, Sanders et al., 2002, Derouza and Flamming, 2003).
Three English teachers were also appointed to be the subjects of this research, two English teachers from school A and one teacher from school B. They were familiar with the teaching methods and materials and also have the knowledge of multimedia used at junior high school level. They knew the students well, and they were capable of conducting the teaching and learning process both in class and computer room. In other words, the schools were appropriate to conduct the study. The teachers’ readiness in using the technology and the willingness to take training is essential (Shin, 2007).
3.4. A phase of teaching using the Web-based Model for TEFL and Data Collection
Before teaching using Web-based Model for TEFL, preparation stages needed to be done. The first stage was getting the access by examining the condition of the schools and observing how web-based model for TEFL can support the teaching and learning process. The second stage was model development consisting of choosing the right Learning Management System (LMS), creating teaching and learning materials followed by piloting the materials and creating digital teaching and learning materials for the experimental groups. The third stage was trying out the model to a limited number of SMP students (10 students who were confident in browsing websites) and data were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation. The last stage was testing and validating the model. The data were collected through interview, observation, questionnaire and test.
3.4.1. Getting the Access
85 and sequences. The use of the available multimedia for teaching and learning purposes such as LCD, tape and CD players and computer laboratory were observed. The speed, uplink and downlink of the existing computer laboratory connected to the internet were made certain that the teaching and learning activity using the model can be conducted. The capacity of the server at www.talenta-colege.com was ensured and able to accommodate required programs such as web-chat, discussion forum, attendance records, and scoring system. To cross check the finding of the site observation, questionnaire (see Appendix 1) was distributed to the English teachers to be completed and interview (see Appendix 2) was conducted to validate the findings of the observation. In brief, after considering the learning theories above (as discussed in chapter 2), and site observation, the study of Web-based Model for Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) can be carried out.
3.4.2. Choosing Learning Management System (LMS) and adapting teaching and
86 theory or zone 2 of the Web-based Model which is going to be discussed in chapter 4 of this study and social learning theory or zone 3 of the Web-based Model which is also going to be discussed in chapter 4 of this study. In other words, the LMS should have the facilities in accommodating the zones of the model which is going to be discussed in the next chapter. The principles of behaviorist theory adopted in zone 1 were applied in the explanation of grammar, vocabulary and special expressions. For example, in designing the grammar exercises, the explicit outcome of the grammar points were stated clearly so the students could set the expectation and judge themselves whether or not they have achieved the outcome. Feedback was provided so that the students could monitor how they are doing and take corrective action if required (Galavis, 1998).
87 transfer of the information to memory. Discussion topics could be assigned to the students to be discussed in the forum and web chat. In constructivist and social theory, the arrangement of the learning materials can be presented so that the students have the freedom to control their own learning. For example in the presentation of a topic, the students have the freedom to choose the materials presented in the web, even have the freedom to decide what to do.
In applying the social theory (zone 3 of the model), tasks were assigned to the students. To do the tasks the students are requested to do reading from different sources, collaborate online or offline or the combination with their friends. In other words, students are interacting with the materials, and other students. The LMS should have the facilities to upload students’ work to be discuss with the teacher. The learning is meaningful because they are using the language in the context of doing the tasks. Furthermore, examples were provided in the learning materials so that the students can make sense of the information to do the tasks assigned (Heinich, et al., 2002).
88 Furthermore, the LMS should have the tools for adding assignment, chat, forum, quiz, lesson and wiki.
After choosing the LMS, a unit or theme of the available materials was selected and converted into digital format, changes were made to cater the perceptual level and knowledge organization of the students as suggested by Gillani (2003). The elements of the content were organized into a logical relationship and presented in the web-based learning environment following Gestalt laws as discussed in chapter 2. Appropriate software such as Macromedia Flash, Hotpotatoes, Microsoft movie maker and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) were prepared to convert a unit of material into digital format.
3.4.3. Trying out the model
89 log, score students’ work, give feedback and participate in web chat and discussion forum.
Ten students were prepared to participate in the tryout of the model. Training and explanation about the concept of online learning in general were explained such as; what the students’ responsibility are, how learning materials are presented, and explanation about the role of materials in zone 1, 2 and 3 followed by technical training. This training was conducted for a week (2 meetings). In the first meeting, students were equipped with the understanding of the nature and environment of e-learning by demonstrating the tryout model. The second meeting concentrated on the technical matters such as how to access the texts, do the quizzes and assignments, upload assignments and participate in chat and discussion forum.
90 questionnaire (see Appendix 6). The questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively using Likert Scale and the result was checked with the result of the interview. The data obtained from the tryout were put into consideration when designing the material for the model.
3.4.4. Testing and Validating the Model
Eight units of materials were then adapted into digital format and placed in the server. In adapting the materials, some principles of material development highlighted by Brown (1980), Elbaum (2002), Hadley et al., (2001), Barolli et al. (2006) and Holmes et al. (2006) as discussed earlier in this chapter and chapter 2, put into consideration. In other words, the principles were used to elaborate the syllabus (see Appendix 7) into scope and sequence (see Appendix 8) and learning materials. In converting the materials into digital format to be placed in web-based environments, some websites were identified and used as enrichment in the external links.
91 using the model. The goal of the learning, the nature of web-based learning environment and technical matters on how to navigate the model were introduced to the experimental group.
The students’ activities in the experimental group were observed, such as which learning materials were accessed, which quizzes were done, and which external links were visited. Students’ interactions and communication, both online and offline were observed (see Appendix 9). The teachers’ activities in handling the experiment class were observed (see Appendix 10).
Similar method applied in the tryout in collecting data, questionnaire was distributed to the students to be completed at the end of the semester (see Appendix 11) and group interview was conducted to cross check the result of the questionnaire (see Appendix 12). The questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively using Likert’s Scale and the result was checked with the result of the interview. Post-tests were conducted at the end of the semester to the control and experimental group. Data from the both groups were analyzed using inferential statistics.
92 There were 4 data collection techniques developed in this study, i.e. questionnaire, interview guides, observational sheets, and tests.
Three questionnaires were developed to obtain information from the respondents (Arikunto, 1998). The number of respondents was 101 students and was representative, meaning that all features and characteristics present in the total respondents. The total population of the participants was 202 students. The first questionnaire was intended to support the interview and observation about How the Web-based Model for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to Junior High School support the learning and teaching process (see Appendix 1).
The second questionnaire (see Appendix 11) was developed to find the learners’ response toward the Web-based Model for TEFL. This explores the covering the students’ opinion on (1) learning by using computer and Web-based Model for TEFL; (2) learning activities in the Web-based Model for TEFL;(3) benefits obtained from learning material presented in the Web-based Model for TEFL.
93 and instructions used in the Web-based Model for TEFL;(3) benefit of the materials and presentation of the Web-based Model for TEFL.
The scoring criteria for each item in the questionnaires were determined by applying Likert Scale with a modification presented in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Likert Scale
Strongly Agree (SA) 4
Agree (A) 3
Disagree (D) 2
Strongly Disagree (SD) 1
In determining the validity and the reliability of the questionnaires, a try out was conducted to 99 students. In measuring the validity of this set, Pearson Product Moment formula (Hatch and Lazaraton, 1991; 613) was used as shown in figure 3.1.
94 r = ___________________________
√(nΣx2 – (Σx) 2) (nΣY2 – (ΣY) 2)
Figure 1. Pearson Product Moment Formula
A guide from Arikunto (1998) and Rosenbaum (2002) was employed with some modification to interpret whether a question was valid or not, as presented in Table 3.3. A good instrument shall not be tendentious or directing the respondents to choose certain answers. If the data represent the fact, regardless how many times it is taken, it will give the same result.
Coefficient Interval / Score Validity Category
0.00 – 0.199 Poor
0.20 - 0.399 Satisfying
0.40 - 0.599 Good
0.60 - 0.799 Very good
3.5.2. Interview Guide
There were interview guides developed for different purposes. The first interview guide was intended to find the condition of teaching and learning and the use of multimedia at junior high school level. There were eleven questions for English teachers at both schools (see Appendix 2). The second interview was intended to cross check the result of the questionnaire about teachers’ and students’ responses toward the model. There were eleven questions for 30 students and 3 teachers.
3.5.3. Observational Sheet
The observation were done directly to collect data on how the teachers conduct English class using the Web-based Model for TEFL, and how students use the model in their learning activities. On the observation sheets (see Appendix 10), students’ activities, during and after their learning using Web-based model for TEFL were recorded. Incidents, events, developments and other matters related to teaching and learning using the Web-based model for TEFL were also recorded (see Appendix 3).
3.6. Data Analysis
As mentioned above, the present study examined four types of data; i.e. data from questionnaire, interview, observation and test. Data from questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively to find out about;
• how the Web-based Model for TEFL to Junior High School support the learning and teaching process. This questionnaire consisted of 20 questions covering questions about the goal of teaching, material development, school facilities and method of teaching. The respondents were English teachers of A school and B school
• teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. This questionnaire consisted of 22 questions covering questions about the content, instructions, benefit and navigation the Web-based Model for TEFL.
• students’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. This questionnaire consisted of 25 questions covering questions about Web-based Model in general, activity, benefit and navigation of the Web-based Model for TEFL.
Data from the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to cross check the responses of the questionnaire about;
97 • teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. There were 4 main
questions mainly dealing with the delivery of the Web-based Model.
• students’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. There were 7 main questions mainly dealing with the materials presented in the Web-based Model and process of leaning. There were 30 students interviewed.
• teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL, • students’ responses toward the Web-based model.
Finally, data in the form of test results of the experimental and control groups were analyzed using inferential statistics to examine whether the two groups perform differently in the tests.
Conclusion, Recommendation and Limitation of the Study
This section presents conclusions of the present study. These conclusions are directly related to
research problems formulated earlier in Chapter 3, i.e. (1) What are the elements of a
Web-based Model appropriate for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to Junior High School students? (2) To what extend does the model facilitate teaching and learning process?
178 achievement. Zone 2 (exposure) is influenced by cognitive learning theories. In this zone, students are exposed to authentic materials where the language items in zone 1 are used in the context. Students are given tasks individually, in pair or group tasks. To do the tasks students have to collaborate with their friends and teacher in the chat room and discussion forum. From the exposure and collaboration, students are expected to gain knew knowledge and skills. Murphy and Cifuentes (2001) state that online interaction among students and interaction with the teacher facilitates knowledge construction. Zones 3 (practice) is influenced by social learning theories. In this zone students are give a task to be done. In doing the task, students have to do research online using materials and external links given at zone 2. Students have to interact, communicate and collaborate in finishing the task. The finished tasks have to be published, discussed and analyzed. Gillani (2003) states that social inquiry model has sequence started by presenting puzzlement situation then working in group or in collaboration to deal with the presented puzzlement situation. In short, the Web-based Model was developed based on the above mentioned learning theories. Ertmer and Newby (1993) state that behaviorist, cognitive and social learning theories can be used as a learning taxonomy.
179 students exposure to real used of English. The Web-based Model for TEFL gives opportunities for students to work collaboratively in doing the tasks. Eijl et al. (2005) confirm that students work collaboratively in e-learning system gain higher marks compared to students work individually. The Web-based Model for TEFL also gives students enjoyment in learning English and give teachers enjoyment in teaching. It also increases student’s motivation. Yunandami (2007) confirmed that students enjoyed learning English with computers even one computer shared with 3 or 4 other students.
In short, the Web-based Model for TEFL, provides learning resources available in the internet which can be linked in many different formats such as interactive self study, discussion forum and chat room, audio and video format. Learning materials can be retrieved by students at anytime. Learning resources can be made available from any location at any time and can encourage more independent and active learning.
5.2. Recommendations and Limitation of the Study
This section presents some suggestions offered on the basis of findings in the present study. First, the condition of learning English at junior high school and the effectiveness the Web-based Model for TEFL employs a small number of participants in two schools. It is recommended that a further study involve large number of subjects in three or more schools. Second, this study focuses on Learning English. For the future study similar model could be developed for other schools’ subjects. Third, this study tries to cover the four skills; reading, listening, speaking and writing which are too much to be done in a limited time. For further study, the number of skills should be reduced or done in a longer period of time.
Ahmad, K., Corbett, G., Rogers, M. & Sussex, R.. 1985. Computers, Language Learning,
and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ali, M. 2004. e-Learning in Indonesia education system. A paper presented at seminar-workshop on e-Learning: The seventh Programming Cycle of APEID Activities, 30 August – 6 September in Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.
http://gauge.u-akugei.ac.jp/apeid/apeid04/country_papers/indonesia.pdf ( August 18, 2009) Ally, M. 2005. Using learning theories to design instruction for mobile learning devices.
In J. Attwell and C. Savill-Smith (Eds.), Mobile learning anytime everywhere
(pp. 5–8). Proceedings of the Third World Conference on Mobile Learning,
Arikunto, S. 1998. Procedure Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Armstrong, T. 1999. 7 Kinds of smart: Identifying and developing your multiple
intelligences. New York, NY: Penguin Putnam.
Barolli & Akio.K &Arjan.D & Giuseppe. M. 2006. A web-based e-learning system for
increasing study efficiency by stimulating learner’s motivation. Published
online: 14 November 2006, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006 Baskerville, B., and T. Robb. 2005. Using MOODLE for Teaching Business
English in a CALL Environment. PacCALL Journal 1, 1 (Summer): 138-151.
Beecroft, R. S. 1966. Method in classical conditioning. In R. S. Beecroft, Classical
conditioning (pp. 8-26). Goleta, CA: Psychonomic Press.
Borg, W.R. 1979. Educational Research: An Introduction. Prentice Hall Press; 3rd edition
Boud, D., & Feletti, G. 1991. (Ed.). The challenge of problem-based learning. London: Kogan Page.
183 Brauer, G. 2001. Pedagogy of language learning in higher education: An introduction.
Ablex Publishing, Westport, Connecticut.
Brett, P. 1996. Using multimedia: An investigation of learners’ attitudes. Computer
Assisted Language Learning, 9 (2-3), 191-212.
Brett, P. 1998. An intuitive, theoretical and empirical perspective on the effectiveness question for multimedia. In K. Cameron (Ed.), Multimedia CALL: Theory and
practice (pp. 81-93). Exeter, UK: ElmBank Publications.
Brinton, D. M. 2001. The use of media in language teaching. In Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.),
TeachingEnglish as a second or foreign language (pp. 459-475). Boston, MA:
Heinle and Heinle.
Brown, D. 1995. The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to
Program Develepment. USA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Brown, H.D. 1980. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Brown, J. D. 1988. Understanding Rresearch in Second Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bruner, J. 1966. Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: Havard University press.
Burton, J. K., Moore, D. M., & Magliaro, S. G. 2004. Behaviorism and instructional
technology. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational
Communications and Technology (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cameron, K. 1998. Multimedia CALL: Theory and practice. Exeter, UK: Elm Bank Publications.
Campbell, A. P. 2003. February. Weblogs for use with ESL classes. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 2. from
184 Canale, M., & Swain, M. 1980. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to
second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1
Capra, F. 1996. The web of life: a new scientific understanding of living systems. New York: Anchor Books.
Cassidy, S. 2004. Learning Styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419–444.
Chapelle. C.A. 2001. Computer Applications in Second language Acquisition;
Foundation for teaching, testing and research. Cambridge University Press.
Clark, D.F. 1989: Communicative theory ant its influence on materials production. Language Teaching, 22/2, 73-86.
Clark, R.E. 2001. New directions: Evaluating distance-learning technologies. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers.
Connolly, T., & Stansfield, M. 2007. Developing constructivist learning environments to
enhance e-learning. In N. Buzzetto-More, Principles of effective online
teaching (pp. 19-38). Santa Rosa: CA, Informing Science Press.
Cooper, P. A. 1993. Paradigm shifts in designing instruction: From behaviorism to
cognitivism to constructivism. Educational Technology, 33(5), 12–19.
Cuban, L. 2000. Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
Cunningworth, A. 1984: Evaluating and Selecting ELT Materials. Oxford: Heinemann. Davies, P., and Eric Pearse. 2002. Success in English Teaching. Oxford University Press. Daugherty, M., & Funke, B. L. 1998. University faculty and student perceptions of
Web-based instruction. Journal of distance education, 13(1). Retrieved from the
World Wide Web: http://cade.athabascau.ca/vol13.1/daugherty.html (September 15, 2006)
Derouza, E., & Flemming, M. 2003. A comparison of in-class quizzes vs. online quizzes
on student exam performances. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 14,
185 Dardjowidjojo, S. 2000. English teaching in Indonesia. EA Journal, 18 (1), 22-30.
Dougiamas, M. 1998. A Journey into Constructivism. Retrieved February, 2007, from http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html
Downes, S. 2006. An introduction to connective knowledge. Retrieved March, 2008, from http://www.downes.ca/post/33034
Duffy, T. M., & Cunningham, D. J. 1996. Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research
for educational communications and technology (pp. 170–198). New York:
Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Eastmond, D.V. 1995. Alone but together: Adult distance study through computer
conferencing. Newyork: Basic Books.
Egbert, J., & Hanson-Smith, E. 2007. CALL environments: Research, practice, and
critical issues (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Eijl, Albert.P., and Peter.V. 2005. Effects of Collaborative and Individual Learning in a
Blended Learning Environment. Education and Information Technologies
10:1/2, 49–63, 2005. Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., The Netherlands. Elbaum, B., Mclntyre, C & Smith, A. 2002. Essential elements; Prepare, Design, and
Teach Your Online Course. Atwood Publishing.
Ertmer, P., & Newby, T. J. 1993. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing
critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance
Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.
Flavell, J.H.1985. Cognitive development (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Friesen, N. Three Objections to Learning Objects and E-learning Standards in McGreal,
R. (Ed.). 2004 Online Education Using Learning Objects (pp. 59-70) Routledge
Galavis, B. 1998. Computers and the EFL Class: Their Advantages and a Possible Outcome, the Autonomous Learner. English Teaching Forum. Vol. 6, No. 4., Oct – Des 1998.
186 Gardner, H. 1983. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY:
Gardner, H. 2000. Intelligence reframed. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Garrison, D. R. 1999. Will distance disappear in distance studies? A reaction. Journal
of Distance Education, 13(2), 10–13.
Garrison, D., and Anderson, T, and Archer, W. 2000. Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based
Environment : Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and
Higher Education 2(2-3): 87-105.
Garrison, D. and Anderson, T. 2003. E-learning in the 21st century: a framework for
research and practice. London: Routledge Falmer
Gibson, J. 1979. The ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.
Gillani, B. 1998. The web as a delivery medium to enhance instruction. Journal of Educational Media International. (pp 35 (3) 197-202
Gillani, B. 2003. Learning Theories and the Design of E-Learning Environments University Press of America
Goba, S., N. Agasi, G. Saul, and D. Cook. 2004. Online course material interoperability
and tutorial module for Moodle. Technical Report CS04-24-00, University of
Godwin-Jones, B. 2003. Tools for distance education: Toward convergence and
integration. Language Learning & Technology, 7 (3), 18-22. Retrieved March
20, 2006, from http://lt.msu.edu/vol7num3/emerging/
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. 1990. Educational psychology: A realistic approach (4th ed.).White Plains, NY: Longman.
Gorman, R. 1972. Discovering Piaget : a guide for teachers. Columbus, Ohio, Merril. Graham, L. 2008. Gestalt Theory in Interactive Media Design. Journal of Humanities and
187 Gunawan, M. H.,Yunandami, and Anni Kristanti. 2007. Portfolio in EFL Classroom: An
Alternative in KTSP. The 55th TEFLIN International Conference, Jakarta,
December 4-6, 2007: Human Resources Development in English Language Teaching, pp 408-411
Halliday, M.A.K. 1973. Exporations in the Functions of Language. London: Edward Arnold.
Hadley, O. 2001. Teaching language in Context. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Heath SB. 1983. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and
Classrooms. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
Heinich, R., et al. 2002. Instructional Media and Technologies for learning, 7th edition. Merrill Prentice Hall
Heinich, R., et al., 1985. Instructional Media And The New Technologies of Instruction. 2nd ed. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hendryanti, R. 2007. Materials Development of an EFL Reading Courseware for 8th
grade students. Unpublished master’s degree thesis, English Education Program
Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education.
Higgins, J. & Johns, T. 1984. Computers in Language Learning. London: Collins.
Holmes, B., and John Gardner. 2006. E-learning: Concept and practice, London; Thousand Oaks, Calif. : SAGE Publications.
Hooper, S., & Hannafin, M. J. 1991. The effects of group composition on
achievement, interaction, and learning efficiency during computer- based
cooperative instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development,
Horton, W. 1994. The icon book: Visual symbols for computer systems and
documentation. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
188 Hung, D., Looi,, C. K., & Koh, T. S. 2004. Situated cognition and communities of
practice: First-person ‘lived experiences’ vs. third-person perspectives.
Educational Technology & Society, 7(4), 193–200.
Hymes, D. 1972. ‘On Communicative Competence’ In J. B. Pride and J. Holmes (eds). Sociolingguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Iskandar, H., 2003. SchoolNet Operations: A Case of Indonesian Vocational Secondary
Schools. A paper submitted for the Experts’ Group Meeting on Strengthening
ICT in Schools and SchoolNet Project in the ASEAN Setting, Bangkok 7-8 July, 2003.
Janicki, T., & Liegle, J. O. 2001. Development and evaluation of a framework for creating web-based learning modules: A pedagogical and systems approach. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1). Retrieved June, 2008, from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/ jaln/v5n1/pdf/v5n1_janicki.pdf
Johns, T. & King, P. (eds) 1991. Classroom Concordancing. Special Issue of ELR Journal 4, University of Birmingham: Centre for English Language Studies. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. 1996. Cooperation and the use of technology. In D.
H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and
technology (pp. 170–198). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Johnson, S. 1998. Who Moved My Cheese? An Amazing Way to Deal with Change in
Your Work and in Your Life, G P Putnam's Sons, New York, NY.
Jonassen, D. 1991. Evaluating constructivist learning. Educational Technology, 31(9), 28-33.
Jones, C. & Fortescue, S. 1988. Using computers in the language classroom. New York: Longman.
Kalat, J. W. 2007. Introduction to psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth- Thompson Learning.
Kelly, A.V. 2004. The curriculum theory and practice. London SAGE Publications.
189 Kenning, M., J. & Kenning M. M. 1990. CALL Evaluation the Learner’s view. Computer
Assisted Language Learning 4.1
Keobke, K. 1998. Computers and collaboration: Adapting CALL materials to different learning styles. In J. Reid (Ed.), Understanding learning styles in the second
language classroom (pp. 46-51). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Kozma, R. B. 2001. Counterpoint theory of “learning with media.” In R. E. Clark (Ed.),
Learning from media: Arguments, analysis, and evidence (pp. 137-178).
Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc.
Kusmayanti, I. N. 2006. Developing a Prototype Software of Interactive Multimedia activities for Listening Skills: a Case Study at a Public Junior High School in Subang. Unpublished master’s degree thesis, English Education Program Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education.
Laurillard, D. 1993. Rethinking university teaching: A framework for effective use of
educational technology. New York: Routledge.
Lengkanawati, N., Munir, Iwa Lukmana. 2005. Pengembangan dan Keefektifan
Multimedia dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris di SLTP; Excutive Summary
Laporan Penelitian Tahun 2005. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia:
Lightbown, P.M., & Spada, N. 1999. How Languages are Learned (Rev. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Liu, M., & Reed, W. M. 1994. The relationship between the learning strategies and
learning styles in a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 10
Liu, Y. 2007. A comparative study of learning styles between online and traditional
students. Journal of Educational Computing research, 37, 41-63.
190 Matthews, C. 1994. Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning as Cognitive
Science: The choice of Syntactic Frameworks for Language Tutoring. Journal of
Artificial Intelligence in Education 5, 4:533-56.
McDonough, J. and Shaw, C. 1993. Materials and Methods in ELT. Blackwell. McKay, S. 2005. Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University
Mezirow, J. 1991. Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Moll, L.C., & Whitmore, K.F. 1993. Vygotsky in classroom practice: Moving from
individual transmission to social transaction. In E.A. Forman, N. Minick, &
C.A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 19-42). New York: Oxford University Press.
Moran, S., Kornhaber, M., & Gardner, H. 2006. Orchestrating multiple intelligences. Educational Leadership, 64, 22-27.
Mullet, Kevin, and Sano, Darrel. 1995. Designing visual interfaces. Mountain View, CA: SunSoft Press.
Munir and Halimah Badioze Zaman. 2002. Metodologi Pengembangan Multimedia dalam Pendidikan (Studi Kasus Terhadap Proyek: Multimedia in Education For
Literacy (MEL), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia). Mimbar Pendidikan. No. 2,
Tahun XXII, 2002. Bandung: University Press Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
Murday, K., Eiko Ushida and N. Ann Chenoweth. 2008. Learners’ and Teachers’
perspectives on language online, Computer Assited Language Learning Vol.21,
No.2, April 2008, 125-142.
Murphy & Cifuentes 2001. Murphy, K.L. & Cifuentes, L.: Using Web tools,
collaborating, and learning online, Distance Education, 22(2), 2001, pp.
Musthafa, B. 2001. Communicative language teaching in Indonesia: Issues of theoretical
assumptions and challenges in the classroom. Journal of Southeast Asian
191 Newman, D., Grifin, P. & Cole, M. 1989. The construction zone: Working for cognitive
change in schools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Nichols, J., Shaffer, B., & Shockey, K. 2003. Changing the face to face of instruction: is
online or in-class more effective? Journal of Educational Computing research,
Normala Othman & Maimunah Abdul Kadir. 2004. The problems with problem-based
learning in the language classroom. 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on
Problem-based Learning: Pursuit of Excellence in Education, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 15-17 March 2004.
Norman, D. 1988. The design of everyday things. New York: Doubleday.
Nunan, D. Ed. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Nunan, D. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle Publisher .
Nunan, D. 1993. Designing Tasks for Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nuttal, C. 1982. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford: Heinmann International.
Olivia, F. Peter. 1992. Developing The Curriculum USA: Harper Collins Publisher. Ornstein, C. A,. and Francis P. Hunkins. 1998. Curriculum, Foundation, Principles and
Issues. Boston: Allyn Bacon
Paivio, A. 1986. Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Palloff, R., and Pratt, K. 1999. Building learning communities in Cyberspace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
192 Palincsar, A.M., Brown, A.L., & Campione, J.C. 1993. First-grade dialogues for
knowledge acquisition and use. In E. A. Forman, N. Minick, & C.A. Stone
(Eds), Context for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 43-57). New York: Oxford University Press.
Peacock, C. 1990. Classroom Skills in English Teaching, A self-Appraisal Framework. Routledge: 11 New Fetter Lane, London.
Peterson, M. 2000. Directions for development in HypermediaDesign. Computer assisted language learning, 13(3), 253-269.
Phillips, D. C. 2005. Theories of teaching and learning. In A companion to the
philosophy of Education. Blackwell Synergy: Online Journals for Learning,
Research, and Professional Practice. Retrieved March, 2008, from
Piaget, J. 1936, 1963. The origins of intelligence in children. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Plass, L. 1998. Design and Evaluation of the User Interface of Foreign Language Multimedia Software: A Cognitive Approach. Language Learning and
Technology. Vol. 2. No. 1. . [Online] Available at:
http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num1/article2/ (February 2, 2006)
Rabbini, R. 2002. An introduction to Syllabus design and Evaluation. Available at: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Rabbini-Syllabus.html (November 14, 2008) Reiber, L. 1991. Animation, incidental learning and continuing motivation. Journal of
Education Psychology, 83(3), 318-328.
Reiber, L. 1990. Using computer animated graphics in science instruction with children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (1), 135-140.
Rekdale, P. 2008. www.pendidikan.net accessed July 2008.
Richard-Amato, P.A. 1996. Making It Happen: Interaction in the Second Language
193 Richards, J.C., & Rodgers, T.S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. 2006. Communicative language Teaching Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. 2005. Materials Development and Research – Making The Connection. Paper presented at the colloquium on research and materials development at the TESOL Convention. [Online] Available at:
www.professorjackrichards.com/pdfs/materials-development-making-connection.pdf (November 12, 2008)
Richards, J. 2002. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Riley, P. 1996. The blind man and the bubble: researching self-access. In R. Pemberton, S.L. Edward, W.W.F. Or, and H.D. Pierson (Eds.), Taking Control: Autonomy
in Language Learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Rivers, W.M.
1981. Teaching Foreign Language Skills 2nd ed. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Robb, T. 2004. Moodle: A virtual learning environment for the rest of us. Review of Moodle, by Dougiamas, M. In TESL-EJ 8, 2 (September 2004).
Rogoff, B. 1997. Cognition as a collaborative process. In Cognitive, Language, and
Perceptual Development, ed. RS Siegler, D Kuhn, Vol. 2, Handbook of Child
Psychology, ed. W Damon. New York: Wiley. In press
Ryder, R. J., & Graves, M. F. 1997. Using the Internet to enhance students' reading,
writing, and information-gathering skills. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy,
Salisbury, D. 1990. Cognitive psychology and its implications for designing drill and
practice programs for computers. Journal of Computer-Based Education,17(1),
Sanders, D., & Morrisin-Sheltar, A. 2002. Student attitude toward web-enhanced
instruction in an introductory biology course. Journal of Research on
194 Santrock, J. W. 2001. Educational psychology: International edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Savignon, S.J. 2002. Interpreting Communicative Language Teaching. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
Scarcella, R.C., & Oxford, R.L. 1992. The Tapestry of Language Learning: The
Individual in the Communicative Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Schramm, W. 1997. Big Media, Little Media: Tools and Technologies for Instruction. Thousand Oack, CA: Sage.
Schubert, H. W. 1986. Curriculum Perspective, Paradigm, and Possibility. New York: macmillan Publishing Company.
Schwartz, B., & Lacey, H. 1982. Behaviorism, science, and human nature. New York: Norton.
Schwebel, M. ; Raph, J. 1973. Piaget in the classroom. New York, Basic Books. Shin, Hee-J. 2007. EFL Teachers' Perceptions and Perspectives on Internet-Assisted
Language Teaching, CALL-EJ Online Vol. 8, No. 2, January 2007
Siemens, G. 2004 . A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved March 26, 2007 from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
Skinner, B. F. 1974. About behaviorism. New York: Knopf.
Son, J.-B. 1998. Understanding hypertext: A discussion for TEFL. ELT Journal, 53(3), 113-124.
Son, J-B, 2007. Learner Experiences in Web-based language Learning. Computer Assisted language Learning, Vol. 20, No1, February 2007, pp. 21-36
Stern, H.H., 1983. Fundamental Concept of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press.
195 Stoyanova, N., & Kommers, P. 2002. Concept mapping as a medium of shared cognition
in computer-supported collaborative problem- solving. Journal of Interactive
Learning Research, 13(1,2), 111–133.
Summers., J. J., Waigandt, A., & Whittaker, T.A. 2005. A comparison of student achievement and satisfaction in an online versus a traditional face-to-face
statistics class. Innovative Higher Education, 29, 233-250.
Tapscott, D.1998. Growing up digital: The rise of the Net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Thrap and Gallimore, 1992. Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in
social context. Victoria, Australia. Cambridge University Press.
Thornburg, D. 1997. Multimedia encourages new learning styles. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from
http://www.marthalakecov.org/~building/strategies/technology/thornburg.htm Trenholm, and Arthur Jersen. 2004. Interpersonal Communication. California: Wadsworth.
Tyler, W. R. 1949. Basic Principles of curriculum and Instruction. Chicago; The University of Chicago Press.
Vannatta, R. 2007. The Intrepid Explorer: A Model of Effective Technology Use for All
Educators. In Kumpulainen, K. (Ed), Educational Technology: Opportunities
and Challenges. Oulu University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. 1962. Thought and Language (A. Kozillun, Ed. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological
processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & Soubermann, Eds. &
Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wagner, D.A., 2002. ICT and the Poor: Problems and Possibilities. Imfundo/DFID Wokshop. London.
196 Wang, Mei-jung. 2009, Web based projects enhancing English language and generic
skills development for Asian hospitality industry students. Australasian Journal
of Educational Technology (AJET), 2009, 25(5), 611-626.
Warschauer, M., and Healey, D. 1998. Computers and language learning: An overview Language Teaching, 31: 57-71.
http://www.gse.uci.edu/faculty/markw/overview.html. (March, 27, 2008) Warschauer, M. 2000. On-line learning in second language classrooms. In M.
Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and
practice (pp. 41-58). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Warschauer, M., and Meskill, Carla 2000. “Technology and Second Language Learning.” In J. Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language
Education. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Available at:
Warschauer, M. 2003. Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide, The MIT Press, Massachusetts.
Webster, J. & Hackley, P. 1997. Teaching effectiveness in technology-mediated
distance learning. Academy of Management Journal, 40(6), 1-21.
Wells, G. 1987. The learning of literacy. In B. Fillion, C. Hedley & E. DiMaretino, (Eds.), Home and School: Early Language and Reading . Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Wernet, S., Olliges, R., & Delicath, T. 2000. Postcourse evaluations of WebCT (Web
Course Tools) classes by social work students. Research on Social Work
Practice, 10(4), 487-504.
Wertsch J. 1991. Voices of the Mind: A Sociocultural Approach to Mediated Action.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Wertsch J, Bivens J. 1992. The social origins of individual mental functioning:
alternatives and perspectives. Q. Newsl. Lab. Comput. Hum. Cogn. 14:35.44
197 Rivers, M. Wilga. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago: Chicago University
Yorke, M., & Knight, P. 2004. Self-theories: Some implications for teaching and learning
in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 29(1), 25–37.
Yuheti, H., 2002. ICT and Education in Indonesia. Ministry of National Education. Yuheti, H.,2003. Use of ICT in Education in Indonesia. A paper submitted for the
experts’ group meeting for documenting experiences in the use of Education and SchoolNet operation, Bangkok.
Yunandami, 2007. The Students’ and Teachers’ perception on the Use of Computer in
EFL Classrooms, a Case Study at a Senior High School in Cimahi. Unpublished
master’s degree thesis, English Education Program Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education.
Zoltan, E., and Chapanis, A. 1982. What do professional persons think about computers. Behavior and Information Technology, 1, 55-68.
---, Peluncuran JARDIKNAS, Kompas 14/04/07
---, Pengembangan Isi JARDIKNAS, Kompas 14/03/07
---, Penggunaan Moodle sebagai platform e-learning, Kompas 31/07/08 ---, Peresmian Jejaring Pendidikan Nasional, Kompas 27/03/07
---, TV Edukasi, sebagai Sarana Penunjang Pendidikan, Kompas 21/06/2006 Websites