A Web-based Model for TEFL and its Effectiveness in Developing Students’ Learning: A Research and Development Study at Private Junior High Schools in Bandung.

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2.2.1.1. Behavioral Learning Theories and Language Learning ... 26

2.2.2.1. Behaviorioral Learning Theories and E-learning ... 27

2.2.2. Cognitive Learning Theories ... 33

2.2.2.1. Cognitive Theories and Language Learning ... 36

2.2.2.2. Cognitive Learning Theories and E-learning ... 38

2.2.3. Constructivist Theory ... 44

2.2.3.1. Constructivist Theory and E-learning ... 47

2.2.4. Social Learning Theories ... 50

2.2.4.1. Social Theories and Language Learning ... 54

2.2.4.2. Social Theories and E- learning ... 55

2.3. Theory of Language; Language as Communication ... 58

2.4. Principles of Material Development ... 63

2.4.1. Materials Design and Presentation in Web-based Learning Environment ... 65

2.4.2. The Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization ... 67

2.5. Learning Management System ... 70

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Chapter III Research Methodology ... 79

3.1. Research Problems ... 79

3.4.2. Choosing Learning Management System (LMS) and Adapting Teaching and Learning Materials ... 85

3.4.3. Trying Out the Model ... 88

Chapter IV Finding and Discussion ... 98

4.1. The Condition of Teaching and Learning of Junior High School ... 99

4.1.1. Teachers' Understanding of the Teaching and Learning Objectives ... 99

4.1.2. Teaching Method at Junior High School ... 101

4.1.3. English Teaching Materials, Role of the Students and Learning Facilities ... 102

4.2. Development and Presentation of the Web-based Model for TEFL ... 105

4.3. Learning Materials in the Learning Management System (LMS) ... 117

4.3.1. The Preparatory Stage ... 117

4.3.2. The “Uploading” of the Learning Materials into the System ... 117

4.4. The Tryout of Web-based Model for TEFL ... 129

4.4.1. Students’ Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL in the Tryout .. 129

4.4.2. Teachers’ Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL in Tryout ... 137

4.5. The Development of the Final Version of the Model ... 142

4.6. The influence of the Web-based Model for TEFL to the students' achievement ... 142

4.6.1. The Analysis of the Test Score of A School ... 143

4.6.2. The Analysis of the Test Score of B School ... 148

4.6.3. A School Students' Responses towards the Web-based Model ... 153

4.6.4. The Observation at A School ... 161

4.6.5. B School Students' Responses towards the Web-based Model ... 164

4.6.6. Teachers' Responses towards the Web-based Model for TEFL ... 172

Chapter V Conclusion, Recommendation and Limitation of the study ... 177

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iii 5.2. Recommendation and Limitation of the Study ... 180 Bibliography . ... 181 Appendicies ... 199

Appendices

Appendix 1 Questionnaire on the Condition of Teaching and Learning at Junior High Schools

Appendix 2 Interview Guide for Teacher (to find out the teaching condition) Appendix 3 Guideline Observation Sheet for Students

Appendix 4 Guideline Observation Sheet for Teachers

Appendix 5 Questionnaire on the students’ and teacher’s response about the Web-based Model for TEFL (tryout)

Appendix 6 Interview Guide for Students

Appendix 7 Syllabus for Junior High School Class VIII, semester 1

Appendix 8 Scope and Sequence for Junior High School Class VIII, semester 1 Appendix 9 Guideline Observation Sheet for Students

Appendix 10 Guideline Observation Sheet for teachers

Appendix 11 Questionnaire on the students’ and teachers’ response about the Web-based Model for TEFL

Appendix 12 Sample of Online Learning Material for Junior High School Class VIII Appendix 13 Pre-test Score (A school)

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1

Chapter I

Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

There have been problems in the teaching of English as a foreign language. The big class sizes and teachers with poor mastery of English are two obvious factors that contribute to the ongoing problems in ELT in Indonesia (Dardjowidjojo, 2000). Other reasons for the problems include: (1) limited time allocated for teaching English, (2) students do not have limited time to actually learn to speak English in class because the teacher is more concerned with grammar and syntax, (3) the absence of good and authentic learning materials, and (4) the absence of the social uses of English outside the classroom (Musthafa, 2001).

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2 The first website is designed to enrich English teachers with teaching materials to be implemented in class along with the methods. This website offers free downloadable teaching materials. The second and the third provide resources for students to do self study online. In these websites, the students only interact with the materials provided in the web. These websites offer free exercises and leaning materials for students to study in their own time. With the recent programming language, facilities for interaction and tasks which require interaction can be developed so that the students have the opportunity to practice using the language learned. Facilities to communicate with their teacher should also be provided for students to ask questions when they encounter problems.

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3 1989). In this proposed Web-based Model, students have the opportunities to practice communication using the language learned both online and offline. This is expected to enhance both learning process and learning outcomes.

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4 Traditional CALL programs presented a stimulus to which the learner had to provide response. In early CALL programs the stimulus was in the form of text presented on screen, and the only way in which the learner could respond was by entering an answer at the keyboard. Some programs were very imaginative in the way a text was presented, making use of color to highlight grammatical features and movement to illustrate points of syntax. Discrete error analysis and feedback were common features of traditional CALL, and the more sophisticated programs would attempt to analyze the learner's response, pinpoint errors, and branch to help and remedial activities (Gillani, 2003).

More recent approaches to CALL have favored a learner-centered, explorative approach rather than a teacher-centered, drill-based approach to CALL (Cameron, 1998). The explorative approach is characterized by the use of concordance programs in the languages classroom -- an approach described as Data-Driven Learning (DLL) by Tim Johns (Johns & King 1991). The explorative approach is widely used today, including the use of Web concordance and other Web-based CALL activities.

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5 quality of video recordings offered by CD-ROM technology, however, was slow to catch up with that offered by the earlier interactive videodiscs. The Digital Video Disc (DVD) offers much higher quality video recordings (Heinich, et al., 2002). A feature of many multimedia CALL programs is the role-play activity, in which the learner can record his/her own voice and play it back as part of a continuous dialogue with a native speaker. Other multimedia programs make use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software to diagnose learners' errors (Kozma, 2001).

In 1992 the World Wide Web was launched, reaching the general public in 1993. The Web offers enormous potential in language learning and teaching. Barolli et al. (2006) confirm that web-based e-learning system increases study efficiency when there is enough stimulating motivation given to the learners. Huang (2000) indicates that external links to other related websites give students exposure of authentic used of English. One of the benefits of web-based learning is the availability of links to other sites which provide similar information, exercise, explanation, simulation or task (Murphy & Cifuentes, 2001).

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6 overseas students. In this study, it is reported that the students like the exposure to authentic materials, and the collaboration in doing the tasks. The students also claimed that the immediate feedback given in doing the exercise and quiz is really helpful. A study on the use of computers for language teaching in Indonesia was conductedby Yunandami (2007), who focused on the students’ and teachers’ perception on the use of computer in EFL classrooms. Her study concludes that a large number of students enjoyed learning English using computer, although one computer was shared by 3 or 4 students.

Considering the development of CALL, the rapid growth of computer technology, and the development of web-based teaching and learning, this study attempts to design a Web-based Model for the teaching of English as a foreign language (TEFL) to Indonesian Junior High School students. This model uses a Learning Management System (LMS) platform called ‘moodle’ which has appropriate features to optimize the use of ICT Information Communication Technology) in teaching and learning process. This study is also attempts to investigate how of this model contributes to teaching and learning processes.

1.2. Scope of the Study

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7 learning materials, the activities, facilities and media. Based on the observation a web-based Model for TEFL is designed and its effectiveness in developing students’ learning is also examined. This study is a part of the previous study on the development and effectiveness of multimedia in English language learning for Junior High Students conducted by Lengkanawati et al. (2005). In the first year the research dealt with mapping the condition of learning English in junior high schools and developing the prototype of instructional design and storyboard as the springboard to develop the multimedia software. In the second year the research focused on developing materials for the software.

As a follow up, therefore, the present study concentrates on the development of A Web-based Model for TEFL to Junior High School Students, covering reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. This study starts with the exploration of the condition of teaching and learning of junior high school, and followed by identifying the elements of English language teaching and learning namely purpose, material, activity, media and evaluation.

1.3. Research Questions

The problems of the present study are formulated in the following questions.

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8 a. What are the elements of a Web-based Model?

b. How do the elements build the model?

(2) To what extend does the model facilitate teaching and learning process?

1.4. The Purpose of the Study

On the basis of the concerns mention above, the present study aims to a. design a web-based model for TEFL to Junior High School students;

b. examine how the web-based model for TEFL facilitates the learning and teaching to Junior High School.

1.5. Significance of the Study

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9 Students may access and use the model individually either at school or at home to improve their English competency. When accessing and using the model, students are trained to study independently, and explore similar available models in the internet. Meanwhile, English teachers may use the model as supplementary materials in their classes or may blend the model with the classroom teaching activities.

Material developers interested in using the model may develop other teaching materials for other levels or even for other subjects. Decision makers may use the model as a basis for designing e-learning and Learning Management System. Finally, further research may use the model to explore a variety of aspects of teaching and learning.

1.6. Hypothesis

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, one of the purposes of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the web-based model for TEFL in enhancing learning. This purpose calls for an experiment, of which a hypothesis needs to be stated. This study starts with a neutral position; therefore, it chooses the null hypothesis (Ho), stated below:

Ho: there is no significant difference in language achievement between the experimental groups which are treated with a Web-based Model for TEFL Learning model, and the control groups, which are not exposed to the Web-based Model for TEFL model.

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1.7. Research Methodology

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11 collected and analyzed. In the Web-based Model for TEFL development and main field testing stage, the Web-based Model for TEFL is developed and tested for a semester at two schools.

In collecting data, two private Junior High Schools (A school and B school) in Bandung were chosen as the research sites. A school was chosen because this school has a website and its server is compatible for running the LMS software (www.talenta-college.com/elearning). Second, the school has a computer laboratory with the internet connection, and provides a compulsory subject that builds skills for computer technology and information. The other site is B school. This school has Local Area Networks (LAN) which is compatible for running the Web-based Model for TEFL. Its existing Local Area Networks is also possible to connect to the internet. Two classes from A school are used as experimental groups and two classes as control group. One class from B school is used for experimental and one class is used for control group.

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12 were used for finding out the effectiveness of the model. These data collecting will be discussed in detail in chapter 3.

Following Brorg’s (1979) research and development, data obtained from questionnaires, interviews and observational sheets were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively through stages of identification, classification, and descriptive quantification. The pre-test and post-test results were analyzed using inferential statistics for examining differences, i.e. matched and independent t-tests and are going to be discussed in chapter 3.

1.8. Definition of Key Terms

Several key terms are used in explaining, discussing, and reporting the results of the present study. There are five key words used, i.e. a TEFL web-based model, online learning, learning management system, authoring tools, and effectiveness.

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Online learning in this study is defined as interactive learning in which the learning content is a web-based model for TEFL which is placed in a server and is made accessible trough LAN connection or internet connection.

Learning Management System (LMS) in this study is defined as a software used as the platform to place the web-based TEFL. This software automates the administration: it tracks learners, records data from learners and provides records that can be accessed by the teacher and student. This software also manages the learning materials, quizzes, and assignments, and provides report to the learners about the learning feedback and results.

Effectiveness in this study is measured by comparing the test results of the learners in the experimental group and learners in the control group. When the test results of the two groups are found to be significantly different, and the experimental group are better, then the web-based model for TEFL is considered effective. This examination of effectiveness is further enhanced by students’ responses, observation on the use of the web-based model for TEFL and interview.

1.9. Organization of the Dissertation

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14 • Chapter 2 reviews some discussions related to web-based models for TEFL which are available, among others; Essential Elements of Online Courses (Elbaum, et al. 2002); Learning Theories and the Design of E-learning Environments (Gillani. B., 2003) and Virtual Student, a Profile and Guide to Working with Online Learners (Palloff, et al. 1999). This chapter also reviews other related issues about web-based teaching and learning in various journals including online journals. The development of the Web-based Model for TEFL is based on the learning and teaching theories discussed and to be applied for developing the Model.

• Chapter 3 is going to describe and discuss the methodology of the study.

• Chapter 4 is concerned with how the web-based model for TEFL is applied to Junior High School students. The condition of using multimedia, especially computer and internet in teaching and learning English at junior high school is also discussed. This chapter is going to describe the Web-based Model for TEFL and its development and describes approaches in applying the web-based model for TEFL and analytical framework used to examine the effectiveness of the model.

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Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter discusses some important aspects related to research methodology. There are research problems, research design, a phase of teaching using the Web-based Model for TEFL and data collection, research site and participants, questionnaire, interview guide, observational sheet and data analysis.

3.1. Research Problems

The problems of the present study are formulated in the following questions.

(1) What is the construct of a web-based model appropriate for the TEFL to Junior High School students?

a. What are the elements of a Web-based Model?

b. How do the elements build the model?

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3.2. Research Design

As mentioned earlier in chapter I, the design of this study is research and development following Borg, (1979) as the main umbrella for this study. This study attempts to find out the effectiveness of a web-based model which covers the design of the model, the development of the model and try out of the model and measure the effectiveness of the model. Major steps in the research and development cycle as Borg (1979) suggests are used to develop a Web-based Model for TEFL include:

(1) Research and information collecting – This includes reviews of literatures about language learning theories in relation to e-learning and the use of computer as a media for teaching and learning languages. School and classroom observations are also conducted to observe the possibility for implementing the Web-based Model for TEFL. A visibility of running the Web-based Model for TEFL in the Learning Management System is also an important aspect to be considered at this stage. (2) Planning – At this stage, computer skills required by the students and teacher were

defined. Both teachers and students should have the basic knowledge of browsing in the internet. Teachers’ knowledge of browsing, and experience in participating in an online course would be a benefit. The familiarity to the technology and prior experience affects the success of online learning (Eastmond, 1995; Davies et al., 1989).

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81 were written and uploaded at the Learning Management System site (using modified Moodle platform). Evaluation device such as questionnaires and interview guidelines are prepared.

(4) Preliminary field testing – Preliminary field testing was conducted at a private junior high school grade VIII. Two teachers and ten students were involved in this field testing. Data from interviews with the teachers and students, observational notes and questionnaires were collected and analyzed.

(5) Main based Model for TEFL development – the revised version of the Web-based Model for TEFL was developed Web-based on the preliminary field test results. (6) Main field testing – The revised Web-based Model for TEFL was tested with regards

to its effectiveness at two schools with 101 students for a semester. This is an experiment using the quasi-experimental design involving the experimental and control groups. The test scores of the two groups were analyzed using inferential statistics.

3.3. Research Site and Participants

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82 and the students can access the learning materials from home or other places, as long as they can get connected to the internet (see Diagram 3.1). Second, the school has a computer laboratory with the internet connection and provides a compulsory subject that builds skills for computer technology and information. Third, the students in each class are heterogeneous in terms of English ability. Finally, it is a suitable place for language learning using a Web-based Model for TEFL.

Diagram 3.1.

The second site is a private Junior High School in Bandung (School B). This school has Local Area Networks which is compatible for running the Web-based Model for TEFL. Its existing Local Area Networks is also possible to connect to the internet so that the links to resources in the internet are possible. The only disadvantage of this system is that the materials placed in the local server could not be accessed from outside (see Diagram 3. 2).

Schools’ computers

www.talenta-college.com/elearning

Internet

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83 Diagram 3.2.

This study selected students from grade 8 because these students have been introduced to use the computer laboratory for language learning activities in their seventh grade. Moreover the subject on computer technology and information and connection to the internet become a very important basis for the site selection because the subject and the internet connection have made the model try out possible. This ensures the researcher that both the students and teachers were familiar with the use of computer and internet. The success of the learning in the e-learning environment is very much depending on the students’ familiarity and attitude towards the technology (Zoltan et al, 1982, Webster and Hackey, 1997, Sanders et al., 2002, Derouza and Flamming, 2003).

Three English teachers were also appointed to be the subjects of this research, two English teachers from school A and one teacher from school B. They were familiar with the teaching methods and materials and also have the knowledge of multimedia used at junior high school level. They knew the students well, and they were capable of conducting the teaching and learning process both in class and computer room. In other words, the schools were appropriate to conduct the study. The teachers’ readiness in using the technology and the willingness to take training is essential (Shin, 2007).

School’s

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3.4. A phase of teaching using the Web-based Model for TEFL and Data Collection

Before teaching using Web-based Model for TEFL, preparation stages needed to be done. The first stage was getting the access by examining the condition of the schools and observing how web-based model for TEFL can support the teaching and learning process. The second stage was model development consisting of choosing the right Learning Management System (LMS), creating teaching and learning materials followed by piloting the materials and creating digital teaching and learning materials for the experimental groups. The third stage was trying out the model to a limited number of SMP students (10 students who were confident in browsing websites) and data were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation. The last stage was testing and validating the model. The data were collected through interview, observation, questionnaire and test.

3.4.1. Getting the Access

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85 and sequences. The use of the available multimedia for teaching and learning purposes such as LCD, tape and CD players and computer laboratory were observed. The speed, uplink and downlink of the existing computer laboratory connected to the internet were made certain that the teaching and learning activity using the model can be conducted. The capacity of the server at www.talenta-colege.com was ensured and able to accommodate required programs such as web-chat, discussion forum, attendance records, and scoring system. To cross check the finding of the site observation, questionnaire (see Appendix 1) was distributed to the English teachers to be completed and interview (see Appendix 2) was conducted to validate the findings of the observation. In brief, after considering the learning theories above (as discussed in chapter 2), and site observation, the study of Web-based Model for Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) can be carried out.

3.4.2. Choosing Learning Management System (LMS) and adapting teaching and

learning materials

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86 theory or zone 2 of the Web-based Model which is going to be discussed in chapter 4 of this study and social learning theory or zone 3 of the Web-based Model which is also going to be discussed in chapter 4 of this study. In other words, the LMS should have the facilities in accommodating the zones of the model which is going to be discussed in the next chapter. The principles of behaviorist theory adopted in zone 1 were applied in the explanation of grammar, vocabulary and special expressions. For example, in designing the grammar exercises, the explicit outcome of the grammar points were stated clearly so the students could set the expectation and judge themselves whether or not they have achieved the outcome. Feedback was provided so that the students could monitor how they are doing and take corrective action if required (Galavis, 1998).

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87 transfer of the information to memory. Discussion topics could be assigned to the students to be discussed in the forum and web chat. In constructivist and social theory, the arrangement of the learning materials can be presented so that the students have the freedom to control their own learning. For example in the presentation of a topic, the students have the freedom to choose the materials presented in the web, even have the freedom to decide what to do.

In applying the social theory (zone 3 of the model), tasks were assigned to the students. To do the tasks the students are requested to do reading from different sources, collaborate online or offline or the combination with their friends. In other words, students are interacting with the materials, and other students. The LMS should have the facilities to upload students’ work to be discuss with the teacher. The learning is meaningful because they are using the language in the context of doing the tasks. Furthermore, examples were provided in the learning materials so that the students can make sense of the information to do the tasks assigned (Heinich, et al., 2002).

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88 Furthermore, the LMS should have the tools for adding assignment, chat, forum, quiz, lesson and wiki.

After choosing the LMS, a unit or theme of the available materials was selected and converted into digital format, changes were made to cater the perceptual level and knowledge organization of the students as suggested by Gillani (2003). The elements of the content were organized into a logical relationship and presented in the web-based learning environment following Gestalt laws as discussed in chapter 2. Appropriate software such as Macromedia Flash, Hotpotatoes, Microsoft movie maker and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) were prepared to convert a unit of material into digital format.

3.4.3. Trying out the model

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89 log, score students’ work, give feedback and participate in web chat and discussion forum.

Ten students were prepared to participate in the tryout of the model. Training and explanation about the concept of online learning in general were explained such as; what the students’ responsibility are, how learning materials are presented, and explanation about the role of materials in zone 1, 2 and 3 followed by technical training. This training was conducted for a week (2 meetings). In the first meeting, students were equipped with the understanding of the nature and environment of e-learning by demonstrating the tryout model. The second meeting concentrated on the technical matters such as how to access the texts, do the quizzes and assignments, upload assignments and participate in chat and discussion forum.

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90 questionnaire (see Appendix 6). The questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively using Likert Scale and the result was checked with the result of the interview. The data obtained from the tryout were put into consideration when designing the material for the model.

3.4.4. Testing and Validating the Model

Eight units of materials were then adapted into digital format and placed in the server. In adapting the materials, some principles of material development highlighted by Brown (1980), Elbaum (2002), Hadley et al., (2001), Barolli et al. (2006) and Holmes et al. (2006) as discussed earlier in this chapter and chapter 2, put into consideration. In other words, the principles were used to elaborate the syllabus (see Appendix 7) into scope and sequence (see Appendix 8) and learning materials. In converting the materials into digital format to be placed in web-based environments, some websites were identified and used as enrichment in the external links.

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91 using the model. The goal of the learning, the nature of web-based learning environment and technical matters on how to navigate the model were introduced to the experimental group.

The students’ activities in the experimental group were observed, such as which learning materials were accessed, which quizzes were done, and which external links were visited. Students’ interactions and communication, both online and offline were observed (see Appendix 9). The teachers’ activities in handling the experiment class were observed (see Appendix 10).

Similar method applied in the tryout in collecting data, questionnaire was distributed to the students to be completed at the end of the semester (see Appendix 11) and group interview was conducted to cross check the result of the questionnaire (see Appendix 12). The questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively using Likert’s Scale and the result was checked with the result of the interview. Post-tests were conducted at the end of the semester to the control and experimental group. Data from the both groups were analyzed using inferential statistics.

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92 There were 4 data collection techniques developed in this study, i.e. questionnaire, interview guides, observational sheets, and tests.

3.5.1. Questionnaire

Three questionnaires were developed to obtain information from the respondents (Arikunto, 1998). The number of respondents was 101 students and was representative, meaning that all features and characteristics present in the total respondents. The total population of the participants was 202 students. The first questionnaire was intended to support the interview and observation about How the Web-based Model for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to Junior High School support the learning and teaching process (see Appendix 1).

The second questionnaire (see Appendix 11) was developed to find the learners’ response toward the Web-based Model for TEFL. This explores the covering the students’ opinion on (1) learning by using computer and Web-based Model for TEFL; (2) learning activities in the Web-based Model for TEFL;(3) benefits obtained from learning material presented in the Web-based Model for TEFL.

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93 and instructions used in the Web-based Model for TEFL;(3) benefit of the materials and presentation of the Web-based Model for TEFL.

The scoring criteria for each item in the questionnaires were determined by applying Likert Scale with a modification presented in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2. Likert Scale

Answer Value

Strongly Agree (SA) 4

Agree (A) 3

Disagree (D) 2

Strongly Disagree (SD) 1

In determining the validity and the reliability of the questionnaires, a try out was conducted to 99 students. In measuring the validity of this set, Pearson Product Moment formula (Hatch and Lazaraton, 1991; 613) was used as shown in figure 3.1.

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94 r = ___________________________

√(nΣx2 – (Σx) 2) (nΣY2 – (ΣY) 2)

Figure 1. Pearson Product Moment Formula

A guide from Arikunto (1998) and Rosenbaum (2002) was employed with some modification to interpret whether a question was valid or not, as presented in Table 3.3. A good instrument shall not be tendentious or directing the respondents to choose certain answers. If the data represent the fact, regardless how many times it is taken, it will give the same result.

Table 3.3

Coefficient Interval / Score Validity Category

0.00 – 0.199 Poor

0.20 - 0.399 Satisfying

0.40 - 0.599 Good

0.60 - 0.799 Very good

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95

3.5.2. Interview Guide

There were interview guides developed for different purposes. The first interview guide was intended to find the condition of teaching and learning and the use of multimedia at junior high school level. There were eleven questions for English teachers at both schools (see Appendix 2). The second interview was intended to cross check the result of the questionnaire about teachers’ and students’ responses toward the model. There were eleven questions for 30 students and 3 teachers.

3.5.3. Observational Sheet

The observation were done directly to collect data on how the teachers conduct English class using the Web-based Model for TEFL, and how students use the model in their learning activities. On the observation sheets (see Appendix 10), students’ activities, during and after their learning using Web-based model for TEFL were recorded. Incidents, events, developments and other matters related to teaching and learning using the Web-based model for TEFL were also recorded (see Appendix 3).

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3.6. Data Analysis

As mentioned above, the present study examined four types of data; i.e. data from questionnaire, interview, observation and test. Data from questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively to find out about;

• how the Web-based Model for TEFL to Junior High School support the learning and teaching process. This questionnaire consisted of 20 questions covering questions about the goal of teaching, material development, school facilities and method of teaching. The respondents were English teachers of A school and B school

• teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. This questionnaire consisted of 22 questions covering questions about the content, instructions, benefit and navigation the Web-based Model for TEFL.

• students’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. This questionnaire consisted of 25 questions covering questions about Web-based Model in general, activity, benefit and navigation of the Web-based Model for TEFL.

Data from the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to cross check the responses of the questionnaire about;

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97 • teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. There were 4 main

questions mainly dealing with the delivery of the Web-based Model.

• students’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL. There were 7 main questions mainly dealing with the materials presented in the Web-based Model and process of leaning. There were 30 students interviewed.

• teachers’ responses toward the Web-based model for TEFL, • students’ responses toward the Web-based model.

Finally, data in the form of test results of the experimental and control groups were analyzed using inferential statistics to examine whether the two groups perform differently in the tests.

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177

Chapter V

Conclusion, Recommendation and Limitation of the Study

5.1. Conclusion

This section presents conclusions of the present study. These conclusions are directly related to

research problems formulated earlier in Chapter 3, i.e. (1) What are the elements of a

Web-based Model appropriate for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to Junior High School students? (2) To what extend does the model facilitate teaching and learning process?

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178 achievement. Zone 2 (exposure) is influenced by cognitive learning theories. In this zone, students are exposed to authentic materials where the language items in zone 1 are used in the context. Students are given tasks individually, in pair or group tasks. To do the tasks students have to collaborate with their friends and teacher in the chat room and discussion forum. From the exposure and collaboration, students are expected to gain knew knowledge and skills. Murphy and Cifuentes (2001) state that online interaction among students and interaction with the teacher facilitates knowledge construction. Zones 3 (practice) is influenced by social learning theories. In this zone students are give a task to be done. In doing the task, students have to do research online using materials and external links given at zone 2. Students have to interact, communicate and collaborate in finishing the task. The finished tasks have to be published, discussed and analyzed. Gillani (2003) states that social inquiry model has sequence started by presenting puzzlement situation then working in group or in collaboration to deal with the presented puzzlement situation. In short, the Web-based Model was developed based on the above mentioned learning theories. Ertmer and Newby (1993) state that behaviorist, cognitive and social learning theories can be used as a learning taxonomy.

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179 students exposure to real used of English. The Web-based Model for TEFL gives opportunities for students to work collaboratively in doing the tasks. Eijl et al. (2005) confirm that students work collaboratively in e-learning system gain higher marks compared to students work individually. The Web-based Model for TEFL also gives students enjoyment in learning English and give teachers enjoyment in teaching. It also increases student’s motivation. Yunandami (2007) confirmed that students enjoyed learning English with computers even one computer shared with 3 or 4 other students.

In short, the Web-based Model for TEFL, provides learning resources available in the internet which can be linked in many different formats such as interactive self study, discussion forum and chat room, audio and video format. Learning materials can be retrieved by students at anytime. Learning resources can be made available from any location at any time and can encourage more independent and active learning.

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5.2. Recommendations and Limitation of the Study

This section presents some suggestions offered on the basis of findings in the present study. First, the condition of learning English at junior high school and the effectiveness the Web-based Model for TEFL employs a small number of participants in two schools. It is recommended that a further study involve large number of subjects in three or more schools. Second, this study focuses on Learning English. For the future study similar model could be developed for other schools’ subjects. Third, this study tries to cover the four skills; reading, listening, speaking and writing which are too much to be done in a limited time. For further study, the number of skills should be reduced or done in a longer period of time.

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Figur

Table 3.2. Likert Scale
Table 3 2 Likert Scale . View in document p.33
Table 3.3
Table 3 3 . View in document p.34

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