KORRY YULIDHA HAPSARI
Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for S-1 Degree
The Language and Arts Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG BANDAR LAMPUNG
IMPLEMENTING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING VOCABULARY AT THE FIRST GRADE OF SMAN 1 NATAR
Korry Yulidha Hapsari
Vocabulary is one of the problems confronted in English language learners. Because of the limited vocabulary, the learners cannot communicate to others clearly. Then it is important for the students to learn vocabulary through Clustering Technique that can help them to enrich their vocabulary by developing the core words given. The objectives of this research are to determine whether there is significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement through Clustering Technique, to investigate what is the most interesting topic, and to investigate the problems faced by the students who are taught vocabulary through Clustering Technique.
This research was conducted at the first grade of SMAN 1 Natar. The reseacher took class X1 as try out and class X2 as experimental class. The experimental research with one way anova design was applied in this research. In collecting the data, pre test, treatments, post test, daily tests and questionnaire were administered. Then, the T-Test was used to determine the significant value.
The result of the research proves that Clustering Technique has effect on students’ vocabulary achievement. It can be seen from the mean score of the students in pre test and post test. In pre test, the mean score is 44.05 and it becomes 73.61 in post test. It means that there is an increase of 29.56 points. The result of t-test shows that t-ratio is higher than t-table (39.134> 2.042) with the level of significant is p < 0.05 and significant two tail is p=0.000. It can be said that Clustering Technique is approriate to be used to increase students’ achievement of vocabulary, especially noun, verb, adjective, and adverb.
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Lesson Plan... 90
Appendix 2. The Distribution of The Students’ Answers... 134
Appendix 3. Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Try Out Test... 136
Appendix 4. Reliability Table of the Try Out Test... 137
Appendix 5. Reliability of the Try Out Test Formula... 138
Appendix 6. Result of Students’ Score of Pre Test... 140
Appendix 7. Result of Students’ Score of Post Test... 141
Appendix 8. Students’ Gain between Pre Test and Post Test... 142
Appendix 9. Analysis of Pre Test Mean Score... 143
Appendix 10. Analysis of Post Test Mean Score... 144
Appendix 11. Increase of the Students’ Vocabulary Achievement... 145
Appendix 12. Normality Test of Pre Test and Post Test... 146
Appendix 13. Result of The Students’ Vocabulary Achievement In Every Topic... 147
Appendix 14. Normality Test of The Test in Every Topic... 148
Appendix 15. Hypothesis Testing... 149
Appendix 16. T-Table that is Used to Prove Whether the Data will be Significant or Not... 151
This chapter describes background of the problem, formulation of the problems, objectives of the research, uses of the research, and scope of the research. In order to avoid misunderstanding, definition of terms are provided in the last part of this
1.1 Background of the Problem
Vocabulary plays an important role in success or failure in learning a language because language itself consists of vocabulary to build the language. Therefore learning language cannot be separated from learning vocabulary. With a limited
vocabulary anyone can also has a limited understanding in terms of speaking, reading, listening, and writing. It is true that it might be impossible to learn a
language without mastering vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of the problems confronted in English language learners. Because of the limited vocabulary, the learners cannot communicate to others clearly. Sometimes it is difficult to group
the idea transmitted to them. In learning English as a foreign language at school, the acquisition of a large number of vocabularies can help students reading,
work easier and more rewarding, and also many tests that they take in school
include vocabulary questions. The more vocabularies they know in English, the better their chance to do well in an English test.
Vocabulary is complicated to be learnt. There are some aspects that should be learnt in mastering vocabulary: they are meaning of the word, form of the words and use of the words, pronunciation of the words and spelling of the words.
Besides that in SMA Negeri 1 Natar, there were still many students that had poor achievement in vocabulary, which result in their poor performance in their
English language skill. They did not know the meaning of many words in sentences or a text and also forms of the words. In expressing the idea both in
written and oral forms, they had difficulty. It was proved when the researcher asked the students to read a text and answer the question based on the text; they still opened dictionary to know most of the words in the text. And also when the
writer asked some questions to the students they asked the writer to translate the meaning into first language. In oral form, they produced bad spelling and
pronunciation. In the middle of teaching learning process, sometime the students lost concentration and became noisy. Those problems can be made as justification that the students did not master the vocabulary. One may have difficulty to master
vocabulary because the learners lost interest. The learners might lose interest and feel bored when they learn vocabulary by memorizing without training in learning
To make the students interested in learning English vocabulary and to be able to communicate in English, it is the teacher’s task to create and determine technique
Indriani (2007) states that the students’ learning depends upon the effectiveness of
the teacher’s technique.
Technique is a way that is used by the teacher in teaching learning process. There
are many ways that can be used to develop students’ vocabulary. Vocabulary can be taught by using many different techniques, for example game, translation, text, picture, etc (Napa, 1991). That is the little sneaky tricks we all know and use to
get the job done in the classroom. Teachers have systems of rewards or
punishments for students who comply, exceed and left behind. If a classroom is
becoming distracted a teacher may use the technique of guessing word to try to rope them in again. Then other factor is activity in the teaching learning process. Students’ learning activity means any activity done by the students during the
teaching learning process. By doing many activities they can gain the knowledge, comprehensions and aspect of behavior to develop their skill that may be
meaningful for their social life.
The teacher should be creative to find a good media to help the students enrich
their vocabulary; so they can learn easily and actively. There are many techniques that can be used to learn vocabulary; one of them is Clustering Technique.
Clustering Technique is listing word in the form of bubble diagram and the list of word is developed from a word which is connected to the relation words. In this case, Clustering Technique is expected to be a way to encourage students’
vocabulary and combine the new words they find and remaining words they have.
Lampung, Sitorus’ research shows that there is improvement from the students’
average score in pre test (54.27) to the post test (76.86), that is 22.59 points or increase about 41.6 %. Moreover, this technique was able to trigger students’
background knowledge to help them memorize, recall and use the new vocabulary based on the situation they face.
Considering these, the researcher conducted Clustering Technique in teaching
vocabulary. Clustering technique enable the students to make connection between new words and remaining words they have and they try to develop the core word
with other related words. By looking at the vocabulary from the new viewpoint provided by the organizing nature of clustering technique, the learners can deepen
their understanding and improve access to the vocabulary (Nation, 1990:100).
Through clustering technique the students are expected to be able to memorize and reproduces the words they have learnt easier than by memorizing through list
of words and they can be more interested in learning vocabulary so that their vocabulary skill can increase. In clustering technique, the students hold the main
role on teaching learning process, the teacher just lead the students. The students are actively involved in the teaching learning process. Clustering technique uses
context clues that makes the students easier in learning vocabularies. Moreover, by using clustering technique, the student can also learn about the meaning of the words, the part of the speech of the words and try to use them in sentences orally.
The researcher hopes this technique could help the students of SMA N 1 Natar that have poor achievement in vocabulary that impact to their poor performance in English language skills. Because poor mastery of English vocabulary causes them
1.2 Formulation of the Problem
Based on the background stated above, the problems were formulated as follow:
1. Is there any significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement through
Clustering Technique at the first grade students of SMA N 1 Natar?
2. What is the most interesting topic for teaching learning vocabulary through Clustering Technique at the first grade students of SMA N 1 Natar?
3. What are the problems faced by the students during the teaching learning process?
1.3 Objectives of the Research
The objective of this research is:
1. to find out whether there is significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement through Clustering Technique at the first grade students of SMA N 1 Natar?
2. to find out what topic is most topic for teaching learning vocabulary through Clustering Technique at the first grade students of SMA N 1 Natar.
3. to find out the student’s problem during the teaching learning process.
1.4 Uses of the Research
2. Theoretically, as a confirmation and a clarification of the previous theories
about teaching vocabulary through Clustering Technique.
1.5 Scope of the Research
This research dealt with technique which is called Clustering Technique. The researcher used quantitative design to answer the research question number 1 and
2. The research question number 3 was answered by using qualitative design. The research was conducted at class X 1, the first year of SMA Negeri 1 Natar, at the second semester of 2012/2013 academic year, which consists of 39 students. The
topics of the teaching learning are real objects, occupations and sports. This research focused on the content words, which are noun (the name of the thing),
verb (the name of action), adjective (the name of qualities of the thing), and adverb (the way of the action done or modifies the verb). This research was carried out for about 3 weeks. Each meeting consists of 90 minutes and used 1
pre test, 3 treatments, 1 post test and 1 questionnaire to find out what is the best topic and the students’ problem during the teaching learning process.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Some terms are defined in order to give basic understanding of the related variables and concepts. These are stated below:
1. Vocabulary is all the words that someone knows and learns. The words that are typically used when talking about particular subject or a list of words with the
2. Teaching is showing and helping someone learn how to do something
providing with knowledge, causing to know, or to understand (Douglas, 1987:7)
3. Macdonald and Macdonald (1996:34) say that clustering technique is a type of
free associated listing. It begins with a core word, a word that acts as a mental stimulus to make the writer come up with related terms that branch out from the center term.
4. Content word is the list of words that involves nouns, verbs, adjective, and adverbs.
5. Noun is the name of the thing, it can be functioned as the subject of the sentence or the object of the sentence.
6. Verb is the name of the action or movement that is done by someone or something.
7. Adjective is the quality of the things that can function to explain the noun or modify nouns.
8. Adverb is the way how the action is done by someone (human) or something
(other alive creatures).
9. Core word is a word that is used as a mental stimulus to make the reader come up to the related terms.
II. FRAME OF THEORIES
This chapter discusses about concept of vocabulary, concept of teaching vocabulary, concept of learning vocabulary, concept of noun, concept of verb, concept of adjective, concept of adverb, concept of clustering technique,
procedures of teaching using clustering technique, advantages and disadvantages of teaching using clustering technique, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis.
2.1 Concept of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is considered as the most important part in learning a language. With a limited vocabulary anyone can also has a limited understanding in terms of
speaking, reading, listening, and writing. It is true that it might be impossible to learn a language without mastering vocabulary. Napa (1991:6) says that
vocabulary is one of the language components and that no language exists without words. Through this statement it can be inferred that the more words we learn, the more ideas we could have, so we can communicate the ideas more effectively.
Through vocabulary, people can exchange their thought and ideas.
According to Hughes (2003:179) vocabulary supports language skills such as
foreign language like English. It means that vocabulary knowledge is a basic
knowledge for learners to learn the four English skills that learners have to comprehend and use well both in written and spoken language.
Troike (1976:19) also states that acquiring an adequate vocabulary is the most obviously important need in learning a second language, so by mastering a great amount of vocabulary, it can be easy for the students to learn foreign language.
Furthermore, Hornby (1995:1331) mentions that vocabulary is the total number of words in a language known to a person or used in a particular book, subject,
Dealing with the idea above, teaching and learning vocabulary is important
because when we teach certain language skills to the learners, we teach our
students’ vocabulary at the same time too. Therefore it is important for the teacher
to create some ways in teaching and learning vocabulary. In this case, the teachers
do not only present the material but also make the teaching and learning process alive and enjoyable in order to make the students understand the lesson easily. By
mastering a great number of vocabularies it is hope that the students to learn a foreign language and use it for communication.
Referring to the explanation above, the teacher needs an appropriate technique to
achieve the success in teaching vocabulary. The teacher must be able to choose the words correctly because vocabulary is important to be learnt. It also makes the
According to Fries (1974:38) vocabulary is the essential area of language
learning. Therefore, students must learn vocabulary well so they are able to master the language. By mastering a great number of vocabularies, the students can learn
foreign language easier. There are some types of vocabulary in English, Fries (1974:45) classifies English words into four groups namely:
1. Content words represent:
a. Noun, the name of objectives or things. According to Frank (1972:6) based on the meaning, noun can be classified into five types, proper noun (Independence
Day, American, Jakarta, Mr. Kevin Jones), concrete nouns (owl, cab and box),
abstract noun (happiness, beauty), countable noun (plates, bowls), uncountable
noun (salt, dust), and collective noun (group, class, crew). Here are the examples of those above types.
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia.
I saw an owl on the roof of your house. Her happiness can make me smile. My mom asked me to wash some plates.
The next group will present about Korean Wave.
b. Verbs, the name of action done by someone or by things. Frank (1972:47)
mentions that verbs can be classified into five types. Those are the predicative or linking verb (be, seem, look), transitive verbs (see, eat), intransitive verbs (sleep,
walk), reflective verbs (express oneself, wash oneself), auxiliary verbs (be, am, is),
and finite and infinite verbs, e.g:
I see Anna every Sunday in the garden.
She sleeps in the class. Brandon is the best dancer.
c. Adjective, the name of qualities of the things. Frank (1972:109) categorizes the types of adjectives into : determiners (the, a, an), demonstrative adjectives (this, that), possessive adjectives (your, my, the boy’s), numeral adjective (three, sixty,
second, eleventh), adjective of indefinite quantity (some, few), relative and
interrogative adjective (whose, which), descriptive adjectives ( a Catholic Church,
a French Dish), participle adjective (an interesting game, a bored student), and
adjective compounds (a never-to-be-forgotten plot, a good-looking guy, absent-minded, a wall-to-wall carpet). Here are the examples of above types:
He makes a cake for Icha’s birthday. She wants to make her parents proud.
Super Mario is an interesting game.
Rina will conduct her research at the second grade of SMA N 1 Natar
My mom cooks a French Dish for dinner.
d. Adverbs, the way of action done. Frank (1972:148) summarizes the category of the adverbs into five, adverbs of manner (loudly, freely),adverbs of place (inside,
there), adverbs of time (next month, last week), adverbs of frequency (often,
seldom) and adverbs of degree (completely, very) e.g:
We seldom go to the beach.
My brother is very afraid of dog.
2. Function Words are those words, that are used as a means of expressing relation
of grammar or structure, such as conjunctions ( but, and, however), e.g:
I love him so much, but he hurts me. (conjunction)
Taufiq and Rina went to the beach.(conjunction)
3. Substitute words are those that represented individual thing or specific action as substitutes for whole from classes of words (anyone, anybody, somebody,
We have to be friendly to everyone.
She will give a chocolate to someone special.
4. Distributed words are those distributed in use according to grammatical matter as presence or absence of negative such as any, either, too or yet.
You are forbidden going to the beach and neither am I. Budi cannot answer the test and I don’t either.
Based on the statements above, the researcher considers that vocabulary is words that have meaning each and can be used to transfer the message from the
speaker/writer for the listener/reader in the communication network and vice versa
both in oral and written communication.
Vocabulary is important in case it could help the students to enjoy their classes.
have fewer vocabularies. When they read a certain text, they can easily get the
information from it since they can understand every word in the text. On the others hand, those who lack of vocabulary can face a lot of problems. Mastery of
vocabulary can be useful for the process of achieving language- teaching
objectives. That is the mastery of language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing).
If we want to communicate with others in certain language, we must master the language they belong to especially to know enough vocabulary of those language.
Zhihong (2000) says that words are the basic unit of language from supports it. Without vocabulary, one cannot communicate to effectively or express idea. He
also states that having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier. Furthermore, Nation (2003) learners see vocabulary as a very important part of language learning and often use it to measure their progress or lack of progress. By taking an informed,
balanced and systematic approach to vocabulary teaching, teachers can help learners achieve better results and feel happy about their progress.
According to the statement above, it can be concluded that vocabulary is vital in learning the language. One cannot communicate effectively if they lack of
vocabulary. The more vocabulary he/she gains, the more skillful the language he/she can perform. As stated by Burton (1982:98) the large number of
vocabulary help us to express our ideas precisely and vividly. So, the quality of the student’s language depends on the number of vocabulary they have.
and sports are included in this group, especially nouns (water, fisherman, ship,
etc), action words ( teach, kick, etc) and adjectives (beautiful, shallow, deep, etc). Besides, content words are able to be associated well in the classroom. While
other types of words, such as function word, substitute word, distribute word cannot be associated well since they are limited in meaning.
2.2 Concept of Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary is an important key in learning language. Allen and Vallette ( 1977: 147) states that the application of better way of teaching vocabulary can be
meaningful and useful, and the students can find it easier to understand the words which are taught and they can also increase them well. Therefore teaching
vocabulary shall be taken into account and the strategy used must be considered too.
Nation (1986:18) states the teaching of vocabulary is the most teachers take for
granted today that the meaning of the words must be taught in the context from a list of unrelated words. It is true that in mastering vocabulary means having ability in understanding the meaning and the ways of using them in context.
According to Bismoko (1976:64) the vocabulary that would be taught to beginners should meet these reasons:
1. Must be frequently used by native English speaker.
2. Must include structural words.
4. They include the words which are most useful in explaining the meaning of
5. They include the words which are useful because other words can benefit
These ideas are relevant to Nation (1974:18) who says that when a teacher teaches
a word, she or he has to teach three things:
a. Teach the shape, or form of the word; pronunciation
The teacher can do this activity by spelling the letters of the words loudly and
the students repeat it. It can be applied for teaching how to pronounce those words correctly, the teachers be the first then the students followed.
b. Teach the meaning of the word
The teacher can use the sentences that have relation to the word both the meaning and the uses, so that the students can guess the meaning of vocabulary
those are taught. For the example, the teacher gives the clue with its function.
c. Teach the use of words
The teacher may provide the sentences that using the target words, then the students can identify the function or the uses of the word based on its position
or domain in the sentences.
Nowadays, teaching vocabulary shall be done contextually. The English teacher shall recognize what vocabulary can be presented related to the teaching process.
that is to motivate and to increase students’ vocabulary achievement. In this view
by using suitable media in teaching vocabulary, it enables students to learn well.
Based on the view above, in the process of teaching vocabulary, the English
teacher shall be able to find and use appropriate technique that at least covers the three things above. In this research, the researcher used writing vocabulary element to teach the words, such as sea, policeman, teacher, computer, etcetera.
2.3 Concept of Learning Vocabulary
Learning a language means learning thousands of vocabulary items. The essential
part of the language learning is the lexicon or vocabulary of the language
(Finnochiaro, 1964: 68). This theory emphasizes that there is no language learning without vocabulary learning. Vocabulary must be learned correctly when one
learns language, if not he learns nothing.
Everyone has his or her own way of learning vocabulary. For some people,
random word lists seem to be the most appropriate, usually with a translation into the mother tongue. Some learners can find it effective to use vocabulary exercise
in order to acquire new vocabulary, while others vocabulary cards and regularly test themselves to check whether new items have been learnt. All of these methods are effective in their own right and with suit different individual in
Based on the statement above, there are strategies that the learners can use to cope
1. Definitional methods include anything where a student is given a word and a
definition. The student may be given a list or words and have to look them up in a dictionary, or the teacher may simply give an oral definition for new
vocabulary words, without discussing the meaning beyond the definition.
2. Contextual methods of vocabulary instruction ask students to create a meaning for a word based on the rest of sentence paragraph. This instructional
method also teaches students how to use a new vocabulary word in the right context by writing original sentences using the new word.
3. Organizational or semantic framework instruction is where the students learn relationship between and among similar words. This type of instruction
includes the use concept maps, semantic maps, and other graphic organizers.
4. Mnemonic instructional methods make use of visual images as a way to help students learn and remember new terminology. Instead of memorizing abstract
definitions, students are encouraged to picture something that helps them associate a word with a meaning.
5. Structural methods of vocabulary instruction shows students how to look at the parts of the word for clues about what the word means. They are taught to look at root words, suffixes, affixes, and prefixes.
All of the ways above can be used in teaching-learning vocabulary process, but in this research the researcher used the definitional method and organizational
method for learning relationship between and among similar words, for example,
the use of concept maps and semantic maps. The researcher used those two
methods because the researcher assumes that by this learning method, the students
will be much easier to memorize the vocabulary and also they can understand more about the meaning if they meet the words in the context.
2.4. Concept of Noun
Noun is the name of thing, something or subject. According to Frank (1972:6), based on the meaning, noun can be classified into five types:
Proper noun (Mr. Kevin Jones, Independence Day, Jakarta, Irish Man) Concrete nouns (owl, cab and box)
Abstract noun (happiness, beauty)
Countable noun (plates, bowls) Uncountable noun (salt, dust)
Collective noun (group, class, crew)
Based on the explanation above, noun can refer to all of things either the abstract
or concrete thing those are in our environmental. Related to the previous theory, the researcher assumes that abstract nouns are the things that cannot be touched and cannot be seen (ex. vision, mind, possibility, feeling). While concrete nouns
are the things those can be touched and seen (cab, table, mirror, plate, etc.)
2.5 Concept of Verb
The predicative or linking verb (be, seem, look)
Transitive verbs (see, eat) Intransitive verbs (sleep, walk)
Reflective verbs (express oneself, wash oneself) Auxiliary verbs (be, am, is)
Finite and infinite verbs
2. 6 Concept of Adjective
It is the name of qualities of the things. Adjective also can function to describe
word (noun). Generally, adjective can be classified into four types;
Attributive adjectives, adjectives that modify noun (ex: beautiful flower, “beautiful”precedes “flower”)
Predicative adjectives, adjectives that are linked via copula or other mechanism to the noun or pronoun that they modify (ex: she is worry, “worry” modifies “she” and connected by “is”)
Absolute adjectives, adjectives that modify subject of a sentence, noun, or pronoun they are closest to (ex: the girl, does not know whoever goes to
canteen, busy with her paper)
Nominal adjectives, adjectives that act almost nouns (ex: driving with the old, “the old” is nominal adjective means “that which is old”)
Frank (1972: 109) categorizes the types of adjectives into:
Numeral adjective (three, sixty, second, eleventh)
Adjective of indefinite quantity (some, few)
Relative and interrogative adjective (whose, which)
Descriptive adjectives ( a Catholic Church, a French Dish) Participle adjective (an interesting game, a bored student)
Adjective compounds (a never-to-be-forgotten plot, a good-looking guy,
absent-minded, a wall-to-wall carpet)
2. 7 Concept of Adverb
Generally, it is the way of the action done or modifies the verbs. Besides, adverb also can modify an adjective (quite good) and modify another adverb
According to Frank (1972: 148) summarizes the category of the adverbs into five:
adverbs of manner (loudly, freely) Adverbs of place (inside, there)
Adverbs of time (next month, last week) Adverbs of frequency (often, seldom) Adverbs of degree (completely, very)
2.8 Concept of Clustering Technique
Macdonald and Macdonald (1996:34) say that Clustering Technique is a type of
center term. On the term leads to another and another to create a complex network
of diverse ideas, all related back in the same way to core stimulus word.
Clustering Technique actually a pre-writing technique used in developing an idea
in paragraph writing. Clustering is a type of free-associated listing. According to Nation (1990:97) Cluster is words grouped around a central point when new words are met, they can be fitted into the most suitable place in the cluster, and
this always provides good opportunity for revising related words. Therefore Clustering Technique is the technique that can be used to improve access to the
vocabulary which means that the aim of this technique is at increasing the
association that learners make with words by being encouraged to think of words
of related meaning and make it in kind of bubble diagram.
Moreover, Nation (1990:99) gives example of clustering as we can see in the figure below. The topic is Real Object.
Figure 1. The Example of Cluster
The figure above explains that the words around the central word have relation
with the central word. For example the central word in that figure is heat, the questions linked to the new vocabulary in the center of the graphic organizer to help the student relate the term to existing knowledge are: What is the unit of sea?
The answer: water is the unit of sea, and then what is the other relation word of sea? The answer: fish, fisherman and deep. Every sea has fish inside and
fisherman usually comes to sea to go fishing.
Beside that Sinaga (2007) states that in clustering technique students have chance
to show their ability to develop a certain knowledge given, connect it with other connected words and put in form of cluster. By using Clustering Technique the
students are actively involve in making a connection between context clues given and existing vocabulary they have in their mind and then they have to make the whole words in a kind of bubble diagram which showing the connection new word and remain words. According to Sinaga’s research in 2007 shows that Clustering Technique can improve the result of students’ achievement from the
mean 40,63 to 67,25 (27%) while Verbal presentation technique can only improve students’ achievement from the mean 41.50 to 60 (19%).
Supported by Sitorus (2009) Clustering Technique is a technique where we asked the students to develop linking words based on the target word and put the word in a kind of bubble diagram. Clustering Technique can create connections from known vocabulary to new vocabulary as well as active learners’ experimental by
According to the explanations above it can be put forth that clustering is a
technique for developing the target words into new words related to them and put them into bubble diagram. Clustering Technique seems to be important to find out
the new words, so that they can recall and remind the vocabulary that they have learnt. By implementing clustering technique in learning the vocabulary, students can develop their vocabulary by clustering them with the linking word.
2.9 Procedures of Teaching Using Clustering Technique
Teaching English vocabulary through Clustering Technique can be done by
having the following general procedures:
1. the teacher greets the students
2. The teacher introduces the topic by giving triggering questions to the
For example: real objects, occupations, and sports
3. The teacher gives the list of the words to the students.
Forest River Flower Season
Mountain Star Dog Teacher
4. Then, the teacher shows an example how to make a clustering by writing
target word in the whiteboard and develop it into complete clustering.
For example: Sea
Then the teacher asks the students to mention the words related to the real object mention above.
5. The teacher divides the class into eight groups.
6. The teacher gives different target words to each group and asks them to make their own clustering on the paper given.
7. After having their own clustering students are asked to come to the front of the class and write their own clustering on the whiteboard.
8. After that, the teacher checks the spelling of the words and asks them to
mention the meaning of the words orally.
9. The teacher gives example of sentences using some of the target words of
those clusters written on the blackboard.
a. Sea is a beautiful panorama.
b. The fisherman goes to sea to get fishes.
c. There are many birds flying on the ship.
10. The teacher asks the students to make sentences orally based on the rest of target words of the clustering written on the blackboard.
11. The teacher gives chance to address question about the topic they have
learnt that day.
12. The teacher closes the meeting.
2.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Teaching Vocabulary Using Clustering Technique
1. The Advantages of Clustering Technique
- Students are able to relate the new vocabulary to other terms and concepts
- Students are able to connect new word to what they already know before.
- Clustering Technique provides a chance of maintaining a high level of interest and motivation of students in learning process.
- Clustering Technique can help the students to organize the students mind.
- Clustering Technique is able to help the students to expand or develop the vocabulary.
2. The Disadvantages of Clustering Technique
- It can be time consuming because of the complex steps of activities.
- The class might be noisy because dialogue or discussion happens during learning for all groups in class.
- The class needs more control because teacher do not teach directly or just monitor. Actually, the teacher position is changed by leader of each group.
- Students may find difficulties in expressing the stimulus word or linking because their vocabulary is still limited.
- Not all students could think fast and express the words that have connection
from the main word.
2.11 Theoretical Assumption
Vocabulary is the focus of language. It is in words that sounds and meaning
interlock to allow us to communicate with one another, and it is a word that we arrange together to make sentences, conversations, and discourse of all kinds.
Teaching vocabulary is important. The objective of teaching vocabulary is more than memorizing the list of words. The students have to understand the meaning of the word, how to pronounce them and how to use them in sentences in daily
Through clustering technique, the students can give high attention to learn a new
vocabulary because they are actively involved in making a cluster of the words so that it can enrich their vocabulary. Therefore, clustering technique may be an
effective and interesting technique in teaching vocabulary. So that it can help the students in learning vocabulary and the student’s vocabulary skill are expected to be increased.
Regarding the theories and assumption above, the researcher would like to
formulate hypothesis as follow:
1. There is significant increase of students’ score after being taught using
Clustering Technique at SMA Negeri 1 Natar.
III. RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter discusses about the design of the research, subject of the research, research procedure, analyzing the data, research instrument (validity, and reliability of the instrument, level of difficulty, discrimination power), data
analysis, scoring system and hypothesis testing.
3.1 Research Design
This research was intended to find out the most interesting topic from three topics given and to know the students’ problem during the teaching learning process
using Clustering Technique. Therefore, Quasi Experiment was employed to
answer the quantitative data and questionnaire was used to collect the qualitative one. In conducting the research, the researcher used One Way Repeated Measures
Anova Design by giving different materials in every treatment and every test. The researcher used two different classes, one class where the students got one time pre-test, three times treatment, one time post-test and one more class for try out.
In the treatments, the students got three different topics. Each topic was evaluated to know the most effective topic for utterance production in teaching vocabulary.
determined by comparing the mean of score in every post –test. The research
design is described as follows:
T1 X T2
T1 : pretest T2 : post test
X : treatments
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 20)
To see the students’ basic vocabulary ability, pre-test was administered before the
treatment using Clustering Technique. Then the treatment of Clustering
Technique in teaching vocabulary. To analyze how the improvement of their vocabulary achievement through Clustering Technique and to know the effective topic for utterance production, the post-test was administered afterward.
3.2 Subject of the Research
The research was conducted at the first year of SMA N 1 Natar at the second
semester of 2012/2013. From nine classes available, the researcher used class X-2 that consisted of 39 students as the experimental class and class X-1 as the try out class by using purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique on
purpose. Means researchers determine their own samples to be taken because there are certain consideration. So, samples are not taken randomly, but
3.3 Data Collecting Technique
The data of the research was the students’ vocabulary achievement in form of
multiple choice test before and after the treatments and matching test in every
treatments. The instrument of the research was multiple choice tests, where the researcher gave pretest and posttest in order to evaluate, to measure the
vocabulary achievement. In collecting the data, this research used the following
1. Administrating the Pre-test
The pre-test was administered to the students before the treatment implemented. Pre-test was conducted to know the students’ basic vocabulary ability before the students being taught by using clustering
technique. Meanwhile, before administering pre-test, the researcher explained the material that would be tested. The test was in the
multiple-choice form with four options (A, B, C, and D) and the sum of items was 30 items. The time allocation was 50 minutes. The result of the pretest was compared with the post test result to find out their achievement. The
scoring system was the load of each correct answer was thirty. Therefore, if one participant answers all the items correctly, she got 100 points (30/3
X 10 ).
2. Administering the Post-test
vocabulary achievement after having the treatment. The questions or the items
in post test were the same as the pretest. However, the researcher changed the questions number and the distracters than those in pretest. This test had the
same difficulty as pretest.
The researcher administered questionnaire to collect the data that deals with students opinion, attitudes on the teaching learning process through Clustering technique. The written form instrument was arranged and spread to the
students. The students filled the questionnaire. They were provided a set of questions or statements and was asked to answer the questionnaire freely. The
items was about their motivation in learning English, response of learning vocabulary through Clustering technique, and difficulties in learning vocabulary through Clustering technique. The researcher also provides the
reason for the students to give for in order to get more valid data.
3.4 Research Procedure
This research was conducted based on the following procedures:
1. Determining the subject
The researcher took two classes of the first grade students at SMA Negeri 1
2. Preparing the try-out test and conducting it
The try out test was administered at the first meeting. The researcher used objective vocabulary test in form of multiple choice test that consisted of 50
multiple choice items in 90 minutes. 20 items of 50 items provided was eliminated based on the result of the try-out-test by considering its difficulty index and its discrimination power. Those multiple choice items was analyzed
and revised to find out the good items to be used in pre test and post test. When the items had been analyzed whether it was good or not for the pre test and post
test, it was divided into three parts for three pre tests and post tests.
The aim of try out test was to find out the quality of the items of the test used
in the research, such as, validity, reliability, level of difficulty, and discrimination power of the test.
3. Selecting the Materials
The researcher chose the appropriate materials based on the syllabus. There was three meetings by using different materials related to
4. Conducting Pre-test
The pre test was administered in order to measure the students’ mastery of
vocabulary before being taught through clustering technique. The pre test was in form of multiple choices with 30 items. The questions and the
administered for 50 minutes in the experimental class. So that, the
researcher was able to compare the result with the post test result later.
In this research, the treatment was done in three meetings with 90 minutes in every meeting. The chosen class was taught by using clustering
technique. The procedure of implementation of clustering technique in teaching vocabulary predicate as follows:
While Activities Post Activities
6. Administering Post-test
Post-test was conducted after the treatment. Post-test was administered in order to know the progress of vocabulary skill after using clustering
technique. Based on the design of this research that is one way repeated measures anova, post-test was conducted in three times, after each meeting
or after each treatment. The post test was administered to the experimental class. The result of the test was compared with the pre test to find out whether there was different score or increase from the pre test and the post
test result. It was in objective test in form of multiple choices that consists of 30 items. The questions and the answers of this test were same with the
7. Analyzing Data
After conducting the final test, the researcher analyzed the data. After collecting the data, the students’ worksheet was analyzed subjectively by
both researcher and teacher. Then, The researcher analyzed the mean of every test by compared from the two raters based on the test. The mean of pre-test and post-test was used to know the improvement of students’
vocabulary skill through Clustering Technique. Meanwhile, the mean of every tests in every treatments were used to know which one is the
effective topic for utterance production.
3.5 Instrument of the Research
The instrument for collecting data was test in form of multiple choice test that
consists of try out, pre test and post test. Try out test was given to know how the quality of the test which was used as the instrument of the research. Pre test was given in order to know the students’ vocabulary before the treatments. Post test
was given in order to know the students’ vocabulary achievement after the
treatments. The total number of the pre test and post test was 30 items with four
alternative options (A, B, C, D) for each item. The try out was administered about 90 minutes, and pre test was administered about 50 minutes.
3.6 Analysis of Research Instrument
In order to get the good quality of the test, the researcher used the result of the try
Validity and Reliability
Setiyadi (2006: 29) states that in order to make the research valid and reliable quantitative research focuses on collected data. Therefore, as this research based
on quantitative research, some considerations are also going to be taken as follows:
1. Validity of the Test
Validity refers to appropriateness, meaningfulness, and useful of the inferences a researcher makes Fraenkel and Wallen (1993). It means that validity refers to the
extent to which an instrument gave us the information that we want. Meanwhile, Setiyadi (2006: 24) mentions that the test should reflect all the areas to be assessed in suitable proportions and represent a balanced sample. Other source
says that validity is a matter of relevance; it means that the test measures what is claimed to measure. To measure whether the test has good validity, it has to be
analyzed from content and construct validity.
a. Content Validity
Content validity is the extended to which a test measures representative sample of the subject matter contents, the focus of the content validity is adequacy of the
sample and simply on the appearance of the test (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:251). It means that the test should be correct and represent the materials that had been taught such as vocabulary of occupation. To get the content validity, the material
for Senior High School. Beside that, the writer also made a table of specification
to judge the content validity already good or not.
Table 1. Specification that was used to judge the content validity
Aspect Spread of Item Sum
(Adopted and developed from Nation, 2001: 27)
b. Construct Validity
Construct validity is concerned with whether the test is actually in line with the theory of what it means to know the language (Shohamy, 1985:74). It means
that whether the test is in line with the school curriculum. In this research, the researcher used the vocabulary that was supposed to be comprehended by the first grade students of Senior High School. The materials was about real
objects, occupations, and sports.
Table 2. Specification of used to judge the construct validity
Spread of Item Percentage
2. Reliability of the Test
Reliability refers to the extent to which the test is consistent in its scores,
and it given an indication of how accurate the test score are. Heaton (1991)states that reliability is a necessary characteristic of any good test:
for it to be valid at all, a test first be reliable as a measuring instrument. To find the reliability of this test the writer used Split Half Method, which
has two steps, they are :
First, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, we should find the coefficient correlation between Odd and Even Number of the items.
∑ 2 (∑ 2)
r : Coefficient of reliability between odd and even number. Σx : Total Square of x (total score of odd number).
Σy : Total square of y (total score of even number). Σxy : Total score of odd and even number items. ∑x2
: total score of odd number items ∑y2
2. Second, after we got the coefficient Correlation between Odd and even
Number, we continue to put them into the Reliability Formula. The reliability Formula is below:
2 × �
r11: reliability coefficient
�: coefficient between odd and even number
The criteria of reliability
0.00 – 0.20 : very low 0.21 – 0.39 : low. 0.40 – 0.59 : average. 0.60 – 0.79 : high
0.80 – 1.00 : very high (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:246)
3. Difficulty Level.
In determining the level of difficulty of the test, the writer used the following formula:
LD = U +L
LD : Level of Difficulty.
The criteria are :
< 30 : difficult.
0.30 – 0.70 : average.
> 70 : easy. (Shohamy, 1985: 79)
4. Discrimination Power.
To estimate the discrimination power of the tests, the writer used the following
Upper – Lower DP =
DP : Discrimination power.
Upper : The number of upper group students who answer correctly.
Lower : The number of lower group students who answer correctly.
N : The total number of the students. (Shohamy, 1985: 82)
The criteria are :
0.00 – 0.20 : poor.
0.21 – 0.40 : satisfactory.
0.41 – 0.70 : good.
0.71 – 1.00 : excellent.
3.7 Data analysis
Data analysis is a process for organizing the data in order to get the explanation form. After collecting the data, the researcher calculated the student’s
1. Scoring pre test and post test.
In scoring the students’ test result, researcher used Arikunto’s formula. The ideal
higher score is 100. The scores of pretest and posttest were calculated by using formula as follows:
X%c = 100 N
X% c = percentage of correct score
R = the total of the right answer
N = the total items (Lyman, 1971:95)
2. Tabulating the result of the test and calculating the mean of the pre test and post
To compute the average score or mean of the pre test and post test, the writer used a very simple formula as follows:
M = ∑ N In which:
∑ : Total student’s score
N : Total number of the students.
The average is total student’s score divided by total number of the students.
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:55)
3. Drawing conclusion from the tabulated result of the pretest and post test
administrated. The data was analyzed by using statistical computerization
Repeated Measures t-test of SPSS 17 for Windows i.e. t = 1− 2 �
to test whether
the difference between pretest and post test is significant or not, in which the significance is determined by p < 0.05 (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 114). Whereas:
SD = standard deviation
n = number of students (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:116)
Since, the data was gained from one group and the research was intended to find out whether there is a significant difference of the students’ English vocabulary
3.8 Data Treatment
Repeated Measures t-test for hypothesis testing has three basic assumptions, namely:
The data is interval or ratio
The data is taken from random sample in a population
The data is distributed normally.
(Setiyadi, 2006: 168-169)
Therefore, the researcher employed these following procedures:
1. Random test
Run test is used to make sure whether the data random or not. The researcher uses
SPSS version 17.0 to help her. In this case, the researcher uses the mean as the cut point run t-test. The hypothesis for the random test is formulated as follows:
H0 : The data are random
H1 : The data are not random
In this research, the criteria for the hypothesis are:
H0 is accepted if Sig. > α. In this case, the researcher uses the level of significance 0.05.
2. Normality test
H0 : The distribution of the data is normal
H1 : The distribution of the data is not normal In this research, the criteria for the hypothesis are:
H0 is accepted if significant value exceeds level of significance at 0.05 (Sig. > α). Meanwhile, H0 is rejected if significant value does not exceed
level of significance at 0.05.
3.9. Testing the Hypothesis.
Hypothesis testing is intended to see whether the hypothesis that is proposed in
this research is accepted or not. To test the hypothesis, repeated measures T-test was conducted at the significant level of 0.05 (P<0.05). The hypotheses are:
There is no significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement
after being taught through Clustering Technique.
There is no difference among the students’ achievement of each topic.
There is significant difference of the students’ vocabulary achievement
after being taught through Clustering Technique.
There is difference among the students’ achievement of each topic.
The criteria are:
1. If the t-value is lower than T-ratio: H0 is accepted there is no significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement after being taught through
If the f-value is lower than F-table: Ho is accepted there is no difference among the students’ achievement of each topic.
2. If the t-value is higher than T-ratio: H1 is accepted there is significant increse on students’ achievement after being taught through Clustering
V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter discusses about the conclusions and suggestions based on the results and discussions of this research.
Having conducted the research and analyzed all data in implementing Clustering Technique in teaching vocabulary at the first year of SMA Negeri 1 Natar, the conclusions can be drawn as follows:
1. There is a significant increase on students’ vocabulary achievement of real object, sport, and occupation after being taught through Clustering Technique. It can be
seen from the result of pre test and post test that there is an improvement from the students’ average score in pre test (44.05) to the post test (73.61). It means
that the improvement is 29.56. The result of t-test shows that t-ratio is higher than t-table (39.134> 2.042) with the level of significant is p < 0.05 and significant two tail is p=0.000. In the mastery of noun, the students’s score increased 10.8 %, verb’s score increased 12 %, adjective 3 %, and adverb 3.1
%. It can be said that clustering technique can increase students’ achievement
2. Based on the students’ achievement in every topic, it is found that the mean
score of the students’ achievement in the topic of Real Object was 84.61. In the topic of Sport, the mean score was 68.97 while in the topic of Occupation, the
mean score was 89.23. So, from the highest score, it can be concluded that the best topic in implementing Clustering Technique in teaching vocabulary is occupation and it can be seen that there is a difference of students score in
daily test of every treatments in vocabulary achievement with the coefficient significant about 0.000 (p = 0. 016, p < 0. 05) by using comparative study (One
Way Anova). The output of Anova showed that the FValue was higher than Ftable (FValue = 25.737, Ftable = 1.658330, FValue > FTable).
3. Based on the result of pre test and post test and also the data gained from the questionnaire, it is found that the students still faced some difficulties in
learning process of vocabulary through Clustering Technique. In understanding
the meaning of the words and comprehending the English material they still did not understand of the meaning of the words they asked because they were
unfamiliar and did not know the English translation of the words they did not understand. They had difficulty in finding the certain part of speech, such as noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. They also could not differ among the noun,
verb, adjective and its spelling.
1. Suggestions to the teacher
a. The teacher who has directly involved to the teaching-learning process is suggested to improve the implementation of his/her techniques in teaching
vocabulary. In this research, the researcher had successfully increased the student’s score in vocabulary through Clustering Technique at the first
grade students of SMAN 1 Natar. Due to its ability in increasing the
students’ vocabulary achievement, the teacher can use Clustering Technique
as an alternative way to teach vocabulary in every level of students. b. The teacher is expected to be able to motivate the students in order to be
excited in learning English. For example, teacher should create the material as
interesting as possible by using kind of media, or she/he may give reward to
students for their participation. The use of interesting material can keep the
students interested in learning. When it learns, it will help the students to keep
their concentration in the subject.
c. In this research, the researcher gave one core word to one group. The group was about 10. It means the researcher gave 10 core words. If every word
should be developed into 8 words, the researcher should taught and
explained those 80 words. The time was 90 minutes only. In order to avoid the time consuming, the teacher should be able to manage the time while
using Clustering Technique because it needs adequate time. The teacher should not teach too many materials at the same time. So, the time
2. Suggestions to other researchers
a. In this research, the researcher conducted Clustering Technique in teaching vocabulary at the first grade students of Senior High School to investigate
the effects of the technique in their vocabulary achievement. Other researchers can conduct this technique on different level of students. It can be at the second level or the third level of Senior High School or it can be
applied at Junior High School.
b. The researcher applied Clustering Technique in teaching vocabulary dealing
with Real Object, Occupation, and Sport. Other researcher could apply Clustering Technique in other kind of vocabulary knowledge, for example dealing with daily activity, since Clustering Technique can help the students
Allen, E. D., & Vallette, R. 1997. Classroom Techniques: Foreign Language and English as a Second Language. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Arikunto, Suharsimi, 1989. Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT Rineka
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1992. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Dikdaktik
Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Bismoko, J. 1976. An Introductory Reader to Method of Teaching English in Indonesia. Yogyakarta. IKIP Sanata Dharma.
Burton, S.H. 1982. Mastering in Education. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Dollaghan, Christine. 2013. 9 Smart Ways to Help Build Your
(Retrieved on November 5th2013).
Finnochiaro, Marry. 1964. English as Second Language; From Theory and Practice. New York: Simon and Scuster.
Fries, C. C. 1973. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language. New York: The University of Michigan Press.
Fraenkel, J. R and Wallen, N. E. 1993. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: San Fransisco State University.
Garrow, Frank F. 1972. The Learning Game, Strategies For Secondary Teacher. Merril Publishing Company: Ohio Charles E.
Hatch, Evelyn and Hossein, Farhady. 1982. Research Design and Statistics for Applied Linguistics. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publisher, Inc.
Heaton, J. B. 1991. Writing English Language Test. New York: Longman Inc. Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary Current English. New
87 Lyman, B.H. 1971. Test Scores and What They Mean. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Macdonald, Andrew and Macdonald, Gina. 1996. Mastering Writing Essential.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
Napa, Pieter A. 1991. Vocabulary Development Skills. Yogyakarta. Kanisius Wilkins. New York, Cambridge University Press.
Renata, Rosie. 2011. The Comparative Study Between Total Physical Response
and Community Language Learning on Students’ Vocabulary
Achievement. Lampung: Lampung University Press.
Rodgers T. S. 1969. On Measuring Vocabulary Difficulty: An Analysis of Item Variables in Learning Russian-English Vocabulary Pairs. IRAL 7;327-343.
Scott, J. A. 2007. Components of Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Building Word Schemas. Paper Presented at the International Reading Association Annual Conference. Toronto: Canada Press.
Setiyadi, Ag. B. 2006. Metode Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
Shohamy, E. 1985. A Practical Handbook in Language Testing for The Second Language Teacher. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University
Sinaga, Yohanes. 2007. Comparative Study between Clustering and Verbal
Presentation towards Students’ Achievement. Bandar Lampung:
Unpublished Script. Lampung University.
Sitorus, Herti. 2009. Increasing Students’ Vocabulary Knowledge through
Clustering Technique at Second Year of SMP 22 Bandar Lampung. Bandar Lampung: Unpublished Script. Lampung University.