Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Journal of Educational Management:Vol10.Issue6.1996:

10 

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Inte rnatio nal Jo urnal o f Educ atio nal Manage me nt 1 0 / 6 [1996] 3 2 –4 1 © MCB Unive rsity Pre ss [ISSN 0951-354X]

LMS: the managerial climate and its ef fects on the

interpersonal climate of the school

John Leo Doyle

Re se arc h Asso c iate , Hughe s Hall, Unive rsity o f Cambridge , UK

S. Wells

Sidne y Susse x Co lle ge , Unive rsity o f Cambridge , Cambridge , UK

Reports that the introduction of local management of schools (LMS) was one of the main features of the Educa-tion Reform Act (1988). Considers the effects of LMS on four London schools in contrasting socio-economic areas, in order to evaluate the impact of LMS on the ethos of the four schools, and its effects on staff attitude, therefore enabling an exami-nation to be of the success of LMS as an agent of change.

Introduction

T h e con ce p t of loca l m a n a gem en t of sch ools (LMS) w a s a cr it ica l p a r t of t h e E d u ca t ion Refor m Act (E RA) of 1988. Toget h er w it h t h e N a t ion a l Cu r r icu lu m a n d op en en r olm en t it h a s a lt er ed t h e ver y p ow er st r u ct u r e of t h e ed u ca t ion sy st em . Un lik e t h e 1944 E d u ca t ion Act , it h a s n ot b een t h e r esu lt of a len gt h y, t h or ou gh a n d sen sit ive ser ies of con su lt a -t ion s. T h e 1988 Ac-t w a s essen -t ia lly im p osed on t h e ed u ca t ion sy st em by cen t r a l gover n m en t , w it h on ly lip ser v ice given t o n e got ia -t ion s w i-t h in -t er es-t ed p a r -t ies.

T h e 1988 Act w a s in essen ce a p olit ica l p a ck a ge w h ich op en ed u p t h e b ou n d a r ies of sch oolin g a n d b r ou gh t ext er n a l in fl u en ces in t o t h e wor k in gs of sch ool m a n a gem en t , sh ift in g t h e b a la n ce of p ow er aw ay fr om ed u -ca t ion p r ofession a ls. T h e a im s of t h is a r t icle w ill b e t o exa m in e h ow t h e in t r od u ct ion of LMS h a s in fl u en ced r ela t ion s b et w een st a ff, d iscover t h e im p a ct of LMS on sch ool st r u c-t u r e a n d a ssess c-t h e su ccess of LMS a s a n a gen t of ch a n ge.

T h e 1988 Act con t in u ed t h e t r en d in 1980s ed u ca t ion p olicy of giv in g m or e p ow er t o p a r en t s a n d gover n or s. T h is st em m ed fr om t h e gover n m en t ’s v iew t h a t t h e ed u ca t ion est a blish m en t (t h e p r ofession a ls w h o wor k ed in h igh er ed u ca t ion a n d sch ools, a n d a d m in -ist r a t or s in loca l a u t h or it ies), h a d b ecom e a selfser v in g gr ou p w h ich w a s m or e con -cer n ed w it h it s ow n in t er est s a n d p ow er a t t h e exp en se of t h ose w h o u sed t h e ser v ice.

T h e gover n m en t felt esp ecia lly t h a t sch ools, w it h a gu a r a n t eed sou r ce of fi n a n cia l su p p or t a n d clien t ele, w er e n o lon ger m ot iva t ed t o p u t t h e in t er est s of p a r en t s a n d p u p ils fi r st . H en ce t h e in t r od u ct ion , v ia t h e E RA a n d LMS, of m a r k et for ces a n d bu sin ess m et h od s t o in cr ea se com p et it ion a n d a ccou n t a b ilit y in or d er t o r a ise st a n d a r d s.

T h e in t r od u ct ion of E RA a n d , in p a r t icu la r, LMS w a s essen t ia lly t o u n d er m in e t h e p ower of loca l ed u ca t ion a u t h or it ies (LE As) w it h a v iew t o t h eir even t u a l d em ise; a n d t o r ed u ce t h e p ower of t ea ch er s by m a k in g t h em a gr ou p m or e a ccou n t a ble t o p a r en t s. Clea r ly if t h e LE As h eld r ed u ced p ower s, t h en som e m ech a n ism wou ld b e r eq u ir ed t o en su r e sch ools wer e im p lem en t in g gover n m en t p olicy. T h is d ifficu lt y w a s solved by giv in g gover n or s t h e p ower a n d r esp on sib ilit y t o

en su r e t h a t p olicies su ch a s t h e N a t ion a l Cu r r icu lu m a r e im p lem en t ed a n d a d h er ed t o.

T h is sh ift in loca l p ow er fr om LE As t o p a r -en t s a n d gover n or s w a s a lso com b in ed w it h a som ew h a t con t r a d ict or y con cen t r a t ion of p ow er w it h in cen t r a l gover n m en t . P olicy for m a t ion h a s clea r ly b een p la ced w it h in t h e r em it of t h e Secr et a r y of St a t e for E d u ca t ion ; p r od u cin g a t wo-t ier sy st em , w it h som e m on i-t or in g p ow er s a i-t i-t h e loca l level in i-t h e h a n d s of p a r en t s a n d t ot a l p ow er over a ll a sp ect s of ed u ca t ion cen t r a lized in Wh it eh a ll.

T h e n a t u r e of t h ese ch a n ges w en t b eyon d fi n a n cia l m a t t er s a n d ca lled for n ew

a p p r oa ch es t o sch ool m a n a gem en t a s a w h ole. T h er efor e, t o st u dy t h e effect s of LMS on t h e sch ool on e n eed s t o v iew t h e sch ool a s a n or ga n iza t ion . Lit t le a t t en t ion h a s b een given t o t h e p r im a r y sch ool a s a n or ga n iza t ion .

Wh a t con st it u t es a n or ga n iza t ion ca n n ot b e d efi n ed sim p ly sin ce t h er e a r e a va r iet y of or ga n iza t ion a l t y p es a n d a n u m b er of m et a p h or s u sed t o d escr ib e t h em [1]. An or ga n iza t ion h a s b een seen a s a m a ch in e w h ich focu ses on a sp ect s of bu r ea u cr a cy a n d h ier a r ch y [2], or a p olit ica l sy st em w h ich em p h a sizes t h e u se of p ow er a n d a lloca t ion of r esou r ces[3]. LMS in volved sh ift s in p ow er a n d r esp on sib ilit y w h ich , in t u r n , a ffect ed t h e m a n a gem en t of h u m a n a n d m a t er ia l r esou r ces. T h er efor e, w h en con sid er in g sch ools, it is r ea son a ble t o a d op t t h e d efi n i-t ion of a n or ga n iza i-t ion a s a p olii-t ica l sy si-t em .

T h e su b ject s of t h is a r t icle a r e p r im a r y sch ools w h ich , b eca u se of t h e 1988 E RA, h ave exp er ien ced a gr ea t d ea l of ch a n ge. T h e p olit ics of ch a n ge in v a r ia b ly b r in gs t o t h e su r fa ce u n d er ly in g con fl ict s a n d d iffer en ces w it h in t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of a n or ga n i-za t ion . T h er efor e t h e ch a n ges r esu lt in g fr om t h e in t r od u ct ion of LMS, in p a r t icu la r t h e r ed efi n it ion of t ea ch er s in t o m a n a gem en t a n d n on -m a n a gem en t gr ou p s, m ay r esu lt in ch a n ges t o t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool in t er m s of st a ff r ela t ion s a n d p ossible n ew for m s of con fl ict .

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Jo hn Le o Do yle and S. We lls LMS: the manage rial c limate and its e ffe c ts o n the inte rpe rso nal c limate o f the sc ho o l

Inte rnatio nal Jo urnal o f Educ atio nal Manage me nt 1 0 / 6 [1 9 9 6 ] 3 2 –4 2

or ga n iza t ion a l m em b er s. Micr o-p olit ics is a n a sp ect of or ga n iza t ion a l a ct iv it y w h ich r e p r e-sen t s a fa ir ly r ecen t d evelop m en t in t h e st u dy of or ga n iza t ion s, w it h a n a t t em p t by t h eor ist s t o in cr ea se u n d er st a n d in g of t h e r ea lit y of or ga n iza t ion a l life.

T h is is a fa r cr y fr om Web er ’s[2] for m a list ic h ier a r ch ica l bu r ea u cr a cies, sin ce m icr o-p olit ics im o-p lies t h er e is con fl ict w it h in or ga n iza t ion s. It is con cer n ed w it h t h e m ea n s by w h ich in d iv id u a ls a n d gr ou p s in or ga n iza -t ion s seek -t o u se p ow er -t o fu r -t h er -t h eir in t er est s. H en ce, d esp it e a ll p a r t ies in a n or ga n iza t ion h av in g a com m on goa l (su ch a s su ccessfu lly ed u ca t in g ch ild r en ), in d iv id u a ls a n d gr ou p s m ay su b scr ib e t o ot h er goa ls – for exa m p le, p er son a l con cer n s for a u t on om y, st a t u s, p ow er a n d in fl u en ce in d ecision m a k in g a n d p r ofession a l in t er est s r ela t ed t o t h e cu r r icu lu m a n d p ed a gogy.

It ca n b e a r gu ed t h a t ever y d ecision t a k en in a sch ool is a p olit ica l a ct , b eca u se it in -volves t h e exer cise of in fl u en ce a n d a u t h or it y a n d t h e d ist r ibu t ion of r esou r ces. T h r ou gh a n exa m in a t ion of t h e m icr op olit ics of t h e p r i-m a r y sch ool t h ese ch a n ges in t h e p olit ica l p r ocess a n d su b seq u en t in t er p er son a l clim a t e ca n b e a n a ly sed in or d er t o see w h et h er a n y sign ifi ca n t ch a n ges h ave r ea lly t a k en p la ce, su ch a s t h e em er gen ce of t h e u se of bu sin ess m et h od s in sch ools, or if in fa ct LMS is h av in g a q u it e d iffer en t im p a ct on t h e p r im a r y sch ool.

A k ey con cer n of t h is a r t icle is t o exa m in e t h e d e gr ee t o w h ich t h e en t er p r ise cu lt u r e h a s b een est a blish ed in sch ools. T h is cu lt u r e r efer s t o a for m a l, h ier a r ch ica l st r u ct u r ed wor k for ce in w h ich t h er e is a clea r ly d efi n ed m a n a gem en t gr ou p, r esp on sible for set t in g or ga n iza t ion a l goa ls a n d t a k in g d ecision s. T h ose w h o a r e n ot p a r t of t h is gr ou p h ave t h eir wor k t a sk s clea r ly d efi n ed a n d m on i-t or ed .

It w a s clea r ly a n in t en d ed a im of t h e gover n m en t t h a t su ch a cu lt u r e sh ou ld b e est a blish ed , in or d er t o r a ise st a n d a r d s t h r ou gh in cr ea sed efficien cy a n d r ed u ce t h e p ow er of t ea ch er s a n d LE A a d m in ist r a t or s a s p r ofession a l gr ou p s, t h u s r e p la cin g t h e colle-gia t e cu lt u r e com m on in ed u ca t ion w it h a m od el t h a t h a s it s or igin s in in d u st r y a n d com m er ce. H en ce it is im p or t a n t t o est a blish w h et h er t h e in t en d ed cu lt u r e a n d con -seq u en ces h ave b een a ch ieved a n d , if so, w h et h er a n d for w h om t h ese con seq u en ces h ave b een p osit ive.

F in a n cia l d ele ga t ion a t fi r st sigh t r e p r esen t s on e of t h e m ost p r a ct ica l a n d lea st con -t en -t iou s p a r -t s of -t h e Ac-t in -t er m s of p la cin g m or e d ecision s a t sch ool level. A closer exa m -in a t ion r evea ls a fr a m ewor k of m or e r a d ica l ch a n ges – in ev it a bly it w ill r esu lt in t ea ch er s d evelop in g a t t it u d es p r ev iou sly a ssocia t ed w it h a n in d u st r ia l wor k for ce, b eca u se t h e effect s of t im e m a n a gem en t a n d a ssessm en t

of t h eir p er for m a n ce a s wor k er s w ill u n d er -m in e t h eir p r ofession a l et h os.

T h is is b eca u se fi n a n cia l d ele ga t ion h a s a lt er ed t h e b a la n ce of p ow er w it h in t h e ed u -ca t ion sy st em a s w h ole bu t , m or e p er t in en t ly, b eca u se it h a d a lt er ed t h e b a la n ce of p ow er (a n d t h u s r ela t ion sh ip s) w it h in t h e sch ool. Clea r ly t h is r a ises a n u m b er of q u est ion s a n d issu es a b ou t t h e n a t u r e of a sch ool’s or ga n iza t ion a l st r u ct u r e, for exa m p le t h e r ole of h ea d -t ea ch er s a s m a n a ger s, a n d w h a -t -t y p e of cu l-t u r e sh ou ld b e esl-t a blish ed in sch ools.

N ot a ll t h ose wor k in g in ed u ca t ion h ave w elcom ed t h e gover n m en t ’s a t t em p t t o a lt er t h e cu lt u r e of sch ools, a n d t h er e a r e p ow er fu l for ces w h ich a r e su p p or t ive of t h e old cu lt u r e t h e gover n m en t is a t t em p t in g t o r e p la ce. T h is old cu lt u r e st em m ed fr om t h e fa ct t h a t t h e va st m a jor it y of t ea ch er s in t h e p r esen t wor k for ce w er e t r a in ed in t h e Colle ges of E d u ca t ion . T h ese est a blish m en t s (m a n y of w h ich w er e r eligiou s fou n d a t ion s), w er e t y p ifi ed by t h e fa ct t h a t t h ey em p h a sized a n in d iv id u a list ic a p p r oa ch t o t ea ch in g. Tea ch -er s w -er e n ot t r a in ed t o see t h em selves a s p a r t of a t ea m , or a s a d m in ist r a t or s a n d m a n a ger s, bu t a s t ea ch er s in ch a r ge of p u p ils.

It is a n im p or t a n t q u est ion t o con sid er h ow su ccessfu l t h e gover n m en t h a s b een in a lt er in g t h is cu lt u r e, b a sed on a v iew of t ea ch er s a s in d e p en d en t p r ofession a ls a n d r e p la cin g it w it h a n en t er p r ise cu lt u r e. T h e r a d ica l r est r u ct u r in g of t h e p r ocesses by w h ich t ea ch er s a r e p r od u ced , (p la cin g m or e of t h eir t r a in in g w it h in t h e con t ext of sch ools, a n d d ist a n ce lea r n in g); ca n b e seen a s a fu r t h er a t t em p t t o er a d ica t e t h e old cu lt u r e gover n ed by lt h e ed u ca lt ion a l eslt a blish -m en t .

An im p or t a n t con sid er a t ion is w h et h er t h e en t er p r ise cu lt u r e is h av in g t h e effect s t h a t t h e gover n m en t h a d in t en d ed . T h er e is a d a n ger of a lien a t in g t ea ch er s w it h in t h is n ew cu lt u r e. P a r t icu la r ly w it h t h e in t r od u ct ion of a “m a n a gem en t ” gr ou p, it is p ossible t h a t t h ese ch a n gin g r oles h ave h u ge im p lica t ion s for t h e p r ofession a l st a t u s of t ea ch er s.

T h e id ea of a n en t er p r ise cu lt u r e w it h in ed u ca t ion p r ov id in g ch oice is a n illu sion . P op u la r sch ools w ill ch oose t h eir p u p ils, n ot v ice-ver sa , a n d m a n y p a r en t s w ill h ave a r est r ict ed ch oice, p a r t icu la r ly t h ose in in n er cit ies or t h ose w h o h ave ch ild r en w it h sp ecia l n eed s. Clea r ly t h e n ew m a n a gem en t cu lt u r e m u st b e con cer n ed w it h t h e r u n n in g of t h e sch ool; t h e gover n m en t a ssu m p t ion t h a t , in a m a r k et econ om y, bu sin ess en t er p r ise is in t h e ser v ice of t h e con su m er is m ist a k en . In fa ct , t h e con su m er is ver y su b st a n t ia lly in t h e ser v ice of t h e bu sin ess fi r m ; con su m er w a n t s a r e sh a p ed t o t h e p u r p oses a n d n ot a bly t h e fi n a n cia l in t er est s of t h e fi r m .

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Jo hn Le o Do yle and S. We lls LMS: the manage rial c limate and its e ffe c ts o n the inte rpe rso nal c limate o f the sc ho o l

Inte rnatio nal Jo urnal o f Educ atio nal Manage me nt 1 0 / 6 [1 9 9 6 ] 3 2 –4 2

of m a r k et p r in cip les. H ow ever, t h e fi n d in gs of ou r r esea r ch in d ica t e t h a t it is r esu lt in g in con fl ict b et w een m a n a ger s a n d t h e m a n a ged : t h e im p lem en t a t ion of E RA a n d LMS a r e cr ea t in g t en sion s in a wor k for ce essen t ia lly t r a in ed t o v iew t h e ed u ca t ion sy st em a s a collect ive good .

T h e t ea ch er s in t h e st u dy r ea ct ed u n fa vou r a b ly t o m a r k et p r in cip les, w h ich em p h a -size in d iv id u a l r a t h er t h a n collect ive b en efi t , a n d d efi n ed t h eir r ole a s t h a t of a wor k er, a s op p osed t o t h a t of a p r ofession a l.

On e issu e t h a t em er ges fr om t h is is t h e q u est ion of h ea d sh ip st y le, a n d t h e level of con su lt a t ion t h er e sh ou ld b e w it h st a ff. T h ese q u est ion s h ave b ecom e p a r t icu la r ly t op ica l w it h t h e a dven t of LMS, a n d r ecen t con cer n s over b a la n cin g sch ool bu d get s t h r ou gh t h e m ech a n ism of t ea ch er r ed u n d a n cies.

Wh en m em b er s of st a ff a r e d en ied in fl u en ce a n d r esp on sib ilit y t h eir p r ofession a l st a t u s a n d gr ow t h w ill b e a dver sely a ffect ed . If som e m em b er s of a sch ool st a ff a r e n ot in clu d ed in t h is p r ocess, it w ill d en y a ccess t o t h e ver y p eop le w h o a r e in a st r on g p osit ion t o r esp on d a n d im p lem en t ch a n ge effect ively. For LMS t o b e su ccessfu l, a m ovem en t t ow a r d s a m or e colla b or a t ive a p p r oa ch t o d ecision m a k in g is r eq u ir ed .

It is im p or t a n t t o n ot e t h a t , w h ile n ew a p p r oa ch es t o m a n a gem en t a r e seen a s a n ecessa r y effect of d ele ga t ed bu d get s, t h is n ew cu lt u r e m ay w ell h ave r esu lt ed in u n for e-seen con seq u en ces. By cr ea t in g m a n a ger s you in ev it a b ly a lso cr ea t e wor k er s r a t h er t h a n co-p r ofession a ls. T h is h a s m a n y im p li-ca t ion s, n ot lea st for t h e p r ofession a lism of t ea ch er s. Desp it e t a lk of d ele ga t ion a n d n ew m a n a gem en t st y les, it is p ossible t h a t t h e en t er p r ise cu lt u r e exist s on ly for t h e m a n a ge-m en t gr ou p in volved in su ch ge-m a t t er s a s b a l-a n cin g bu d get s l-a n d d ecision m l-a k in g w it h in t h e sch ool.

In or d er t o exa m in e t h e effect LMS is h av in g on t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ools ch osen , t h er e w er e sever a l fa ct or s t o b e con sid er ed . T h ese in clu d e t ea ch er s’ a n d h ea d t ea ch er s’ p er ce p t ion s of t h e in t er p er -son a l clim a t e of t h eir sch ool a n d h ow t h ey t h in k LMS h a s a ffect ed it . Con n ect ed closely w it h t h is is t h e h ea d ’s lea d er sh ip st y le a n d t ea ch er s’ a t t it u d es a b ou t t h eir r ole a n d p r ofession a l st a t u s w it h in t h e sch ool.

Fou r sch ools w er e exa m in ed : t wo in t h e in n er Lon d on Bor ou gh of N ew h a m , a n d t wo in Ch in gfor d , p a r t of t h e ou t er Lon d on Bor ou gh of Wa lt h a m For est . T h ese d iffer en t socio-econ om ic a r ea s w er e select ed for com p a r a t ive r ea son s. T h ese d iffer en t socio-econ om ic a r ea s w er e select ed for com p a r a t ive r ea son s t o a ssess t h e im p a ct of LMS in socia lly d iver se a r ea s. T h e r esea r ch is

d esign ed t o m ea su r e h ea d t ea ch er s’ a n d t ea ch -er s’ a t t it u d es, op in ion s a n d p -er ce p t ion s of t h eir p r esen t sit u a t ion in sch ools, a n d t h eir

u n d er st a n d in g of h ow LMS h a s a ffect ed t h eir sit u a t ion .

In or d er t o m ea su r e t h ese a t t it u d es, closed q u est ion n a ir es w er e u sed . T h e a r ea of sch ool m icr op olit ics is a sen sit ive a n d con t r over sia l on e, a n d q u est ion s con cer n in g a t t it u d es a n d op in ion s a r e lik ely t o t ou ch on sen sit ive a n d d ee p ly h eld v iew s. H ow ever, it is im p or t a n t t o n ot e t h a t on e ca n n ever b e su r e t h a t

r esp on ses a r e t r u e in d ica t ion s of a p er son ’s feelin gs a n d a t t it u d es.

T h e q u est ion n a ir e con sist ed of 50 closed q u est ion s. Closed q u est ion s w er e u sed a s t h ey h ave t h e a dva n t a ge of b ein g ea sier t o p r ocess, a s w ell a s b ein g less t im e-con su m in g for t h e r esp on d en t t o com p let e. As a t t it u d es a n d op in ion s a r e h eld a t va r y in g d e gr ees, t h e su m m a t ed r a t in gs m et h od w a s u sed t o m ea -su r e t h e a t t it u d es of t ea ch er s. T h e -su m m a t ed sy st em u sed w a s Lik er t sca lin g (d evelop ed by Ren sis Lik er t , 1932). T h is sy st em is in essen ce m on ot on ic (or or d er -m a in t a in in g) so t h a t t h e p r ob a b ilit y of a cce p t in g a Lik er t it em st a r t s a t 0 a n d r ises u p t h e a t t it u d e con t in u u m t o 1.

H ow ever, t h e m id d le, n eu t r a l op t ion w a s om it t ed , r esu lt in g in a fou r -p oin t sca le of st r on gly a gr ee, a gr ee, d isa gr ee a n d st r on gly d isa gr ee. T h is w a s d on e b eca u se a cen t r a l p osit ion su ggest s a p osit ion of in d iffer en ce, a n d ver y few p eop le a r e gen u in ely in d iffer -en t ; t h e m or e ca t e gor ies t h er e a r e, t h e m or e m a r gin a l a n sw er s t h er e a r e, a n d t h e m or e lik ely p eop le a r e t o t a k e a less ext r em e op t ion . Alt h ou gh a cce p t in g t h a t t h is loses cer t a in su b t let ies of op in ion , it ser ves t o p r od u ce st r on ger d iffer en ces for com p a r ison , a s w ell a s sim p lify in g d a t a p r ocessin g.

On e h a s a lso t o b e aw a r e of t h e n a t u r e of t h e st a t em en t s on w h ich r esp on d en t s h ave t o a gr ee or d isa gr ee. For exa m p le, it m ay b e ea sier t o a n sw er “st r on gly d isa gr ee” t o a st r on gly n e ga t ive st a t em en t t h a n t o a n sw er “st r on gly a gr ee”. T h u s t h e d e gr ee of d iffer en -t ia -t ion a -t on e en d of a n a -t -t i-t u d e con -t in u u m m ay b e ver y d iffer en t fr om t h a t a t t h e ot h er en d . It wou ld b e im p osin g on e’s ow n va lu e ju d gem en t s on t o t h e q u est ion n a ir e if on e sou gh t t o ch a n ge t h e w eigh t in g:

• st r on gly a gr ee; • a gr ee;

• d isa gr ee;

• st r on gly d isa gr ee;

w h ich is even ly d ist r ibu t ed t o: • st r on gly a gr ee;

• a gr ee; • d isa gr ee;

• st r on gly d isa gr ee.

w h ich a ck n ow led ges t h a t v iew s cou ld b e m ea su r ed a s fu r t h er a p a r t for p a r t icu la r st a t em en t s.

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of ch a n ge. T h e a ssessm en t of t h ese glob a l a im s w a s u n d er t a k en t h r ou gh t h e exa m in a -t ion fi ve va r ia bles:

1 t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le; 2 t h e level of p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision

m a k in g; 3 job sa t isfa ct ion ;

4 t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool; 5 p er ce p t ion s of LMS.

T h ese va r ia bles a r e in t er r ela t ed , a n d t h e r ela t ion sh ip s b et w een t h em a r e exa m in ed in r ela t ion t o t h e r esp on d en t s fr om ea ch of t h e fou r sch ools. P a r t icu la r a r ea s exa m in ed in t h is r esea r ch w h ich r ela t e t o t h e glob a l a im s in clu d e: t h e effect s of LMS on r ela t ion sh ip s b et w een st a ff, t ea ch er a t t it u d es con cer n in g t h eir r ole a n d st a t u s a n d a t t it u d es t ow a r d s LMS.

Description of the schools

Sch ool A is a fa ir ly la r ge ju n ior sch ool w it h a b ou t 250 ch ild r en on r ole. It is loca t ed in a r esid en t ia l a r ea (m a in ly ow n er occu p ied ) in a n ea st Lon d on , p r ed om in a n t ly wor k in g-cla ss, La b ou r con t r olled b or ou gh (N ew h a m ). T h e sch ool h a s a la r ge p r op or t ion of et h n ic m in or it y ch ild r en ; for a b ou t 75 p er cen t E n g-lish is n ot t h e fi r st la n gu a ge.

Sch ool B is a lso sit u a t ed in N ew h a m . T h e sch ool is a la r ge p r im a r y sch ool ca t er in g for a r ou n d 330 ch ild r en . It s ca t ch m en t a r ea com p r ises a la r ge cou n cil est a t e, a s w ell a s p r iva t ely ow n ed h ou ses. T h e ch ild r en com e fr om a w id e va r iet y of r a cia l a n d cu lt u r a l b a ck gr ou n d s. T h e sch ool is p op u la r w it h p a r en t s a n d , a s n u m b er s a r e in cr ea sin g, t h e sch ool h a s b een for ced t o a d d a n ot h er cla ss t o a ccom m od a t e p u p ils.

Sch ool C is sit u a t ed in Ch in gfor d , in t h e ou t er Lon d on b or ou gh of Wa lt h a m For est . It a ccom m od a t es ch ild r en b et w een t h e a ges of fi ve a n d 11, a n d t h e n u m b er on r ole is a p p r oxi-m a t ely 200. T h e sch ool cou ld b e d escr ib ed a s a n “a ll w h it e” sch ool, w it h t h e ch ild r en m a in ly com in g fr om m id d le-cla ss, p r ofes-sion a l fa m ilies, a n d p a r en t a l in volvem en t in a ll sch ool a ct iv it ies is h igh .

Sch ool D is a lso sit u a t ed in Ch in gfor d . It is a fi r st sch ool ca t er in g for a b ou t 250 ch ild r en a ged b et w een fi ve a n d n in e. T h e sch ool is sit u a t ed in a r esid en t ia l a r ea m a d e u p m ost ly of p r iva t ely -ow n ed h ou ses, a lt h ou gh t h er e a r e som e cou n cil h ou ses. T h e ch ild r en com e fr om a m ixt u r e of m id d le-cla ss a n d wor k in g-cla ss fa m ilies.

Response rates

T h e r esp on se r a t es for ea ch sch ool (see Ta ble I) va r ied fr om 40 t o 64 p er cen t , p r od u cin g a good r esp on se r a t e of 53 p er cen t ; b et t er t h a n t h e u su a l 30-40 p er cen t for q u est ion n a ir es.

Resp on ses w er e r eceived fr om h ea d t ea ch er s fr om a ll sch ools exce p t Sch ool A. T h ese a r e in d ica t ed by a n ain t h e d a t a .

Headteacher’s leadership style

T h e fi r st va r ia ble t o b e con sid er ed is t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le. T h is is a p a r t icu la r ly im p or t a n t va r ia ble t o exa m in e in it ia lly, a s it is a n in d ica t or of t h e cu lt u r e of t h e sch ool. It is p ossible t o id en t ify t wo m a in lea d er sh ip st y les p r esen t in a va r iet y of m od els[3]: in t er p er son a l a n d a u t h or it a r ia n , a n d t h ese m ay b e r ela t ed t o t h e cu lt u r a l n a t u r e of t h e sch ool in t h e follow in g w ay.

T h e in t er p er son a l st y le em p h a sizes t h e n eed for t h e h ea d t o b e fr ien d ly a n d a p p r oa ch -a ble t o -a ll st -a ff, -a n d t h u s r el-a t ion sh ip s -a r e in for m a l. Decision m a k in g is d ecen t r a lized a n d t h er e is a p r efer en ce for in d iv id u a l n e got ia t ion s a n d on e-t o-on e con su lt a t ion s in or d er t o ga t h er op in ion s or sou n d ou t id ea s. Com m u n ica t ion is t h er efor e p r im a r ily t h r ou gh in for m a l ch a n n els. T h is st y le is t h er efor e m or e in d ica t ive of a colle gia t e cu l-t u r e w h er e a ll l-t ea ch er s a r e v iew ed eq u a lly a s fellow p r ofession a ls, a n d a s su ch h ave a va lu ed v iew on a ll a sp ect s of t h e sch ool a n d a r ole (a lt h ou gh n ot n ecessa r ily a n eq u a l on e) in d ecision m a k in g.

H ea d t ea ch er s w it h a n a u t h or it a r ia n lea d er sh ip st y le a d op t a m or e for m a l, bu r ea u -cr a t ic v iew of or ga n iza t ion s. On ly p eop le a t a cer t a in level of t h e h ier a r ch y of t h e sch ool a r e in volved in t h e d ecision -m a k in g p r ocess, w it h t h e d ecision s of t h is gr ou p b ein g d is-sem in a t ed t o ot h er s t h r ou gh m eet in gs or m em os. T h er e is r igid a d h er en ce t o t h e for m a l r u les of t h e sch ool, w it h t h e r esp on sib ilit ies of t ea ch er s clea r ly d efi n ed siby r e gu la -t ion s.

Alt h ou gh it cou ld b e a r gu ed t h a t t h er e h ave a lw ay s b een a u t h or it a r ia n h ea d t ea ch er s, t h is lea d er sh ip st y le is n on et h eless in d ica t ive of a ch a n ged cu lt u r e w it h in sch ools. P r ev iou sly, h ea d t ea ch er s m ay h ave b een a u t h or it a r ia n , bu t t h eir st a ff wou ld st ill h ave h a d som e in volvem en t in m ost a sp ect s of t h e sch ool. LMS r eq u ir es m or e a u t h or it a r ia n lea d er sh ip b eca u se it gives t h e h ea d t ea ch er exclu sive

Table I

Re spo nse rate s fo r individual sc ho o ls Number of questionnaires

School distributed returned

A 1 0 4

B 1 1 7

C 8 4

D 1 0 5

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r oles (su ch a s m a n a gin g bu d get s) w h ich d o n ot r eq u ir e colla b or a t ion w it h a ll st a ff. Clea r ly t h en , t h is st y le of lea d er sh ip is m or e in d ica t ive of a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e w it h in t h e sch ool; a s r eq u ir ed by LMS. T h e t er m m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e is u sed h er e a s a m od i-fi ca t ion of t h e t er m en t er p r ise cu lt u r e. T h e en t er p r ise cu lt u r e r efer s t o t h e or ga n iza -t ion a l s-t y le w h ich is p r esen -t in bu sin ess a n d com m er ce; on e of com p et it ion . Ma n a ger ia list cu lt u r e r efer s t o sp ecifi c a sp ect s of t h e en t er -p r ise cu lt u r e, su ch a s t h e est a blish m en t of d ist in ct m a n a gem en t gr ou p s, goa l set t in g a n d p er for m a n ce m on it or in g.

Wh en exa m in in g Ta ble II, it is a p p a r en t t h a t st a ff in sch ools A a n d B (t h e in n er Lon -d on sch ools) t en -d e-d t o v iew t h eir h ea -d t ea ch er a s h av in g a n in t er p er son a l or in for m a l st y le of lea d er sh ip, w h er ea s t h ose in t h e Ch in gfor d sch ools (C a n d D) v iew ed t h eir h ea d t ea ch er ’s st y le a s a u t h or it a r ia n . It is in t er est in g t o n ot e t h a t w h er e a h ea d t ea ch er ’s p er ce p t ion of t h eir lea d er sh ip st y le is ava ila ble, t wo of t h em sh a r ed t h e v iew t h a t t h ey h a d a n a u t h or it a r ia n a p p r oa ch (h ea d s C & D).

H ow ever, t h e h ea d t ea ch er of Sch ool B d iffer ed in h is r esp on se fr om h is st a ff, in d i-ca t in g a n a u t h or it a r ia n st y le r a t h er t h a n in t er p er son a l. It is n ot ed t h a t t h is d iffer en ce m ay b e of sign ifi ca n ce, a n d it w ill d iscu ssed fu r t h er in t h e “a n a ly sis”; t h e lea d er sh ip st y le of t h e h ea d t ea ch er of Sch ool B w ill, t h en , b e t a k en a s in t er p er son a l a s r efl ect ed by t h e scor e (Ta ble II).

T h e r esu lt s t h er efor e in d ica t e t h a t t h e t wo in n er Lon d on sch ools a p p ea r t o h ave a m or e colle gia t e (old ) cu lt u r e, w h ile t h e t wo Ch in g-for d sch ools a p p ea r t o h ave m or e g-for m a l, m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r es (a v iew su p p or t ed by t h e h ea d s).

Participation in decision making

T h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le clea r ly h a s im p lica t ion s for t h e level of p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g by st a ff. On e wou ld exp ect t o fi n d t h a t in sch ools w h er e t h e h ea d -t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip s-t y le w a s a u -t h or i-t a r ia n , st a ff p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g wou ld b e r ela t ively lim it ed .

As Ta ble III in d ica t es, t h is lin k w a s con -fi r m ed , w it h r esp on d en t s in Sch ools C a n d D cla im in g con sid er a b ly low levels of p a r t icip a -t ion . How ever, i-t is a lso wor -t h n o-t in g -t h a -t n o r esp on d en t s cla im ed t o h ave h igh levels of p a r t icip a t ion in t h is a r ea ; w it h r esp on d en t s in sch ools A a n d B h av in g on ly sligh t ly h igh er levels t h a n r esp on d en t s in sch ools C a n d D, a t m od er a t e levels.

Job satisfaction

J ob sa t isfa ct ion is a p a r t icu la r ly sign ifi ca n t in d ica t or of st a ff p er ce p t ion s of t h eir r ole a n d st a t u s. T h is ca n b e seen esp ecia lly w h en levels of job sa t isfa ct ion a r e exa m in ed in r ela t ion t o ot h er va r ia bles.

As Ta ble IV in d ica t es, levels of job sa t isfa c-t ion d id cover a sp r ea d of a c-t c-t ic-t u d es, a lc-t h ou gh t h er e w a s a d efi n it e lea n in g t ow a r d s low job sa t isfa ct ion . Sch ool B h a d t h e h igh est over a ll levels of job sa t isfa ct ion , follow ed by sch ool A w it h a m od er a t e scor e, a n d sch ools C a n d D w h ich b ot h h a d ver y low levels of job sa t isfa c-t ion . In c-t er esc-t in gly, h ea d c-t ea ch er s’ scor es in d ica t ed t h a t t h ey h a d a m on g t h e h igh est levels of job sa t isfa ct ion in t h e sa m p le.

Table II

He adte ac he r’ s le ade rship style

School

Response A B C D

1 4 2 3 5 2 7 2 0

2 4 6 4 1 2 1 1 5

3 4 4 3 5 2 3 2 6

4 3 8 4 6 1 7a 2 2

5 – 2 3a 1 9a

6 – 3 9 – –

7 – 4 2 – –

High possible score (I) 2 0 0 3 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0

Low possible score (A) 6 0 1 0 5 6 0 7 5

Actual score I 1 7 0 I 2 6 1 A 8 8 A 1 0 2

Notes:

Highest possible sc ore per respondent 50 = interper-sonal/ informal

Lowest possible sc ore per respondent 15 = authoritarian I = Interpersonal/ informal

A = Authoritarian

a= Headteac her’ s sc ore

Table III

Le ve l o f partic ipatio n in de c isio n making

School

Response A B C D

1 2 3 3 9 4 8 4 4

2 3 3 3 7 3 9 4 6

3 3 4 2 8 4 6 3 6

4 3 1 2 0 – 4 8

5 – 4 4 – –

6 – 2 8 – –

7 – – – –

High possible score (L) 2 0 0 3 5 0 1 5 0 2 0 0

Low possible score (H) 6 0 1 0 5 4 5 6 0

Actual score M 1 2 1 M 1 9 6 L 1 3 2 L 1 7 4

Notes:

Highest possible sc ore per respondent 50 = low partic ipa-tion in dec ision making

Lowest possible sc ore per respondent 15 = high partic ipa-tion in dec ision making

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H ow ever, t h e m ost in t er est in g fi n d in gs b ecom e a p p a r en t w h en exa m in in g low levels of job sa t isfa ct ion w it h ot h er va r ia bles. Wh en com p a r in g levels of p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g (Ta ble III) a n d job sa t isfa ct ion (Ta ble IV) a r ela t ion sh ip b et w een t h ese t wo va r ia bles b ecom es a p p a r en t .

In sch ools w h er e t h er e is a low level of in volvem en t in d ecision m a k in g (sch ools C a n d D) t h er e is a n eq u a lly low level of job sa t isfa ct ion . T h is r ela t ion sh ip is a lso r efl ect ed t o a d e gr ee in sch ools A a n d B, w h er e m od er a t e levels of in volvem en t in d ecision m a k in g a r e eq u a l t o m od er a t e t o h igh levels of job sa t isfa ct ion .

It is t h er efor e p ossible t o id en t ify a lin k b et w een t h e cu lt u r e of ea ch sch ool a n d t h e level of job sa t isfa ct ion of it s t ea ch in g st a ff. Wh er e a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e is p r om in en t , in d ica t ed by t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le (Ta ble II), a s in sch ools C a n d D, job sa t isfa ct ion a m on g st a ff is ver y low. T h is is in con t r a st t o t h e colle gia t e sch ools (A a n d B), w h ich h ave com p a r a t ively h igh er levels of job sa t isfa ct ion .

Alt h ou gh t h e sa m p le in t h is st u dy is n ot su fficien t ly la r ge t o a sser t a d ir ect ca u sa l r ela t ion sh ip h er e, it d oes n on et h eless in d ica t e t h a t w h er e a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e exist s, t ea ch er a t t it u d es a r e sign ifi ca n t ly m or e n e ga t ive. Clea r ly, a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e a n d low p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g h ave im p lica t ion s for t ea ch er s’ r oles a n d st a t u s; a s w ell a s t h eir effect iven ess a s t ea ch er s, sin ce low m or a le is u n lik ely t o lea d t o im p r oved p er for m a n ce. It m ay w ell b e t h ese t h r ea t s t o p r ofession a lism w h ich a r e

r esu lt in g in a low level of job sa t isfa ct ion for t ea ch er s.

It m ay b e a r gu ed h er e t h a t a lin k b et w een d ecr ea sed levels of p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g a n d t h r ea t en ed p r ofession a lism d oes n ot st a n d , a s t ea ch er s d o n ot n eed for m a l con t r ol w it h in t h e sch ool t o m a in t a in t h eir st a t e of p r ofession a lism . As a u t on om ou s ed u ca t ed p r ofession a ls, it cou ld b e a r gu ed t h a t t h eir v iew s a r e va lu ed a n d t h u s con -su lt ed in a less for m a l w ay. T h is a r gu m en t d oes n ot h old for t wo r ea son s.

F ir st t ea ch er s’ con t r ol over a ll a sp ect s of t h e sch ool a n d t h eir a u t on om y w it h in t h e sch ool a r e b ecom in g in cr ea sin gly lim it ed w it h t h e a dven t of su ch p olicies a s t h e N a t ion a l Cu r r icu lu m a n d t ea ch er a p p r a isa l. T h er efor e t h eir in fl u en ce over a n u m b er of a r ea s h a s a lr ea dy b een d ecr ea sed by le gisla -t ion . Secon d , a m a n a gem en -t cu l-t u r e is less lik ely t o a llow for in for m a l con su lt a t ion s or in fl u en ce, w it h t h e p r ocess of d ecision m a k in g occu r r in g in a m u ch m or e for m a l w ay.

T h er efor e, in t h is con t ext it is clea r t h a t b ein g in con t r ol of m a n y a sp ect s of sch ool life a n d h av in g a n in for m a l b ea r in g on d ecision m a k in g is n ot lik ely t o b e a r ea lit y for m a n y t ea ch er s. An y r esid u a l in fl u en ce ca n n ot b e eq u a t ed w it h m ea n in gfu l p a r t icip a t ion a n d a r ea son a ble level of a u t on om y a n d con t r ol; su r ely t h e d efi n in g a sp ect s of a p r ofession a l. T h e lin k b et w een low job sa t isfa ct ion a n d low p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g, a n d t h e im p lica t ion s for t ea ch er s’ st a t u s a n d p r ofes-sion a lism id en t ifi ed in t h ese fi n d in gs is t h er e-for e a sign ifi ca n t on e.

In d eed , t h e gen er a l h igh level of n e ga t iv it y of t ea ch er s’ a t t it u d es d oes n ot b od e w ell for t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool or for t h e effect of LMS a s a p osit ive a gen t of ch a n ge.

The interpersonal climate of the

school

T h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool is a ffect ed by a ll t h e ot h er va r ia bles id en t ifi ed , sin ce t h ey a ll h ave a b ea r in g on t h e n a t u r e of t h e r ela t ion sh ip s b et w een t ea ch er s. Given t h a t levels of job sa t isfa ct ion a r e low (a s illu s-t r a s-t ed by Ta ble IV) on e wou ld exp ecs-t s-t h a s-t p er ce p t ion s of t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e wou ld follow t h is.

Ta ble V con fi r m s t h is, a lt h ou gh it is n ot a s n e ga t ive a s m ay h ave b een exp ect ed . Aga in , t ea ch er s in sch ool D h a d a n e ga t ive p er ce p -t ion of -t h e in -t er p er son a l clim a -t e, w h ich r efl ect ed t h e low level of job sa t isfa ct ion w it h in t h e sch ool a n d t h e n e ga t ive effect s of a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e. H ow ever, t h is lin k is n ot fi r m ly su p p or t ed by t h e r esu lt s fr om t h e ot h er sch ools. Resp on d en t s in sch ool C (w h ich a lso h a s a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e) h ave Table IV

Le ve l o f jo b satisfac tio n

School

Response A B C D

1 1 7 1 1 2 9 3 0

2 2 4 1 3 1 7a 2 4

3 1 9 1 7 3 5 2 7

4 1 6 9 3 1 2 7

5 – 1 1a 2 5a

6 – 1 2 – –

7 – 2 2 – –

High possible score (L) 1 4 4 2 5 2 1 4 4 1 8 0

Low possible score (H) 3 6 6 3 3 6 4 5

Actual score M 7 6 H 9 5 L 1 1 2 L 1 3 3

Notes:

Highest possible sc ore per respondent 36 = low level of job satisfac tion

Lowest possible sc ore per respondent 9 = high level of job satisfac tion

H = High M = Moderate L = Low

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Jo hn Le o Do yle and S. We lls LMS: the manage rial c limate and its e ffe c ts o n the inte rpe rso nal c limate o f the sc ho o l

Inte rnatio nal Jo urnal o f Educ atio nal Manage me nt 1 0 / 6 [1 9 9 6 ] 3 2 –4 2

a m od er a t e v iew of t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool d esp it e low levels of job

sa t isfa ct ion .

Perceptions of LMS

It w a s im p or t a n t t o exa m in e t ea ch er a t t it u d es con cer n in g LMS in or d er t o a ssess t h e effect s of LMS on t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool, a n d a s a n a gen t of ch a n ge. Given t h e n e ga t iv it y fou n d in t ea ch er a t t it u d es w it h in t h e sa m p le, it wou ld a lso b e p er t in en t t o exa m in e t h em in t er m s of m or e p a r t icu la r a im s issu es su ch a s t h e effect s of LMS on t ea ch er a t t it u d es con cer n in g t h eir r ole a n d st a t u s. As Ta ble VI in d ica t es, t ea ch er s’ p er ce p t ion s con cer n in g LMS a r e ver y clea r. T h e over a ll v iew of LMS is a n e ga t ive on e, w it h t ea ch er s in sch ools B, C a n d D a ll in d i-ca t in g t h is w it h n e ga t ive h igh scor es.

It is a lso a p p a r en t t h a t few r esp on d en t s v iew ed LMS in a p osit ive w ay, exce p t n ot a b ly t h e h ea d t ea ch er s, w h o h a d ver y m u ch m or e p osit ive v iew s of LMS a s w ell a s in t er m s of t h eir job sa t isfa ct ion (p a r t icu la r ly in sch ools C a n d D).

H ow ever, b eca u se a t t it u d es a r e m od er a t e t o n e ga t ive a cr oss t h e fou r sch ools, fu r t h er a n a ly sis is r eq u ir ed t o a scer t a in w h et h er t h ese n e ga t ive a t t it u d es a r e a r esu lt of p a r t ic-u la r a sp ect s of a m a n a ger ia list cic-u lt ic-u r e (m or e a k in t o LMS), su ch a s a u t h or it a r ia n m a n a ge-m en t a n d cen t r a lized d ecision ge-m a k in g; or m or e gen er a l con d it ion s w h ich a r e n ot in h er -en t a sp ect s of t h e n ew m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e.

T h er efor e, in or d er t o est a blish t h e sp ecifi c ca u ses of t h is n e ga t ive p er ce p t ion of LMS, r esp on d en t s w er e a sk ed t o u n d er lin e sp ecifi c st a t em en t s con cer n in g a sp ect s of LMS w h ich w er e eit h er p osit ive or n e ga t ive.

F r om exa m in in g Ta ble VIII it is a p p a r en t t h er e a r e a n u m b er of n e ga t ive st a t em en t s w h ich r eceived a h igh r esp on se, a n d som e p osit ive st a t em en t s w h ich r eceived lit t le or n o a t t en t ion . T h is in d ica t es a h igh d e gr ee of con cer n w it h t h ose a sp ect s of LMS r ela t ed t o st y les of m a n a gem en t w h ich r efl ect a m a n -a ger i-a list cu lt u r e.

T h e st a t em en t “st a ff colla b or a t ion ”, for in st a n ce, w a s ch osen by on ly t wo r esp on d en t s fr om sch ool A, w h ich , a s a lr ea dy st a t ed , h a s a cu lt u r e closer t o a colle gia t e m od el. T h is r esu lt a lso r efl ect s t h e low level of p a r t icip a -t ion in d ecision m a k in g w i-t h in -t h e sch ools, w h ich is m or e lik ely t o b e t h e ca se w h er e t h er e is a n a u t h or it a r ia n h ea d t ea ch er a n d t h u s a cu lt u r e closer t o a m a n a ger ia list et h os.

Closely r ela t ed t o t h is issu e is t h e st a t em en t “em p ow er m en t of t ea ch er s”. T h is p osit ive st a t em en t w a s n ot ch osen by a n y of t h e r esp on d en t s. T h is clea r ly in d ica t es t h a t t h ey d o n ot see LMS, or t h e m a n n er in w h ich it h a s b een im p lem en t ed , a s em p ow er in g t ea ch er s a s a p r ofession a l gr ou p.

Alt h ou gh n e ga t ive p er ce p t ion s of LMS d o cover som e gen er a l con cer n s, su ch a s fu n d -in g, it is t h u s a p p a r en t fr om a n a ly s-in g Ta ble VII t h a t t h e m ost ext r em e r esp on ses (or n on -r esp on ses) a -r e con ce-r n ed w it h a sp ect s of LMS d ir ect ly r ela t ed t o ch a n ges in sch ool cu lt u r e a n d t h e r ole a n d st a t u s of t ea ch er s. Table V

The inte rpe rso nal c limate o f the sc ho o l

School

Response A B C D

1 2 7 5 4 6 0 4 2

2 3 2 4 8 5 7 5 9

3 2 9 4 8 6 7 6 5

4 3 8 4 6 3 8a 7 3

5 – 4 8 – 3 9a

6 – 6 7 – –

7 – 5 1a – –

High possible score

(negative) 3 8 0 6 6 5 3 8 0 4 7 5

Low possible score

(positive) 1 0 0 1 7 5 1 0 0 1 2 5

Actual score P 1 2 6 M3 6 2 M 2 1 8 N 2 7 8

Notes

Highest possible sc ore per respondent 95 = negative perc eption of interpersonal c limate

Lowest possible sc ore per respondent 25 = positive perc eption of interpersonal c limate

P = Positive perc eption of interpersonal c limate M = Moderate perc eption of interpersonal c limate N = Negative perc eption of interpersonal c limate

a= Headteac her’ s sc ore

Table VI

Pe rc e ptio ns o f LMS

School

Response A B C D

1 6 1 4 9 5 7 3 2

2 6 4 4 3 2 2a 4 0

3 3 7 6 2 4 1 5 7

4 5 3 3 7 5 4 6 1

5 – 4 1a 2 6a

6 – 3 3 – –

7 – 2 8 – –

High possible score

(negative) 3 1 6 5 5 3 3 1 6 3 9 5

Low possible score

(positive) 8 4 1 4 7 8 4 1 0 5

Actual score M 2 1 5 N 2 9 3 N 1 7 4 N 2 1 6

Notes

Highest possible sc ore per respondent 79 = negative attitude towards LMS

Lowest possible sc ore per respondent 21 = positive attitude towards LMS

P = Positive M = Moderate N = Negative

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T h is is a ga in ev id en t w h en r e ga r d in g t h e st a t em en t “im p osed ch a n ges t o wor k in g con d it ion s”, w h ich r eceived on e of t h e h igh -est r esp on ses of t h e en t ir e list .

F r om exa m in in g t h e fi n d in gs over a ll, it is a p p a r en t t h er e a r e som e ver y sign ifi ca n t t r en d s t h r ou gh ou t t h e sa m p le. It a p p ea r s t h a t w h er e a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e is p r esen t , a t t it u d es a m on g st a ff a r e gen er a lly m or e n e ga t ive. T h er e d oes a p p ea r t o b e a r ela t ion -sh ip b et w een low p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g (a p r od u ct of a m a n a ger ia l et h os w it h in t h e sch ool) a n d low job sa t isfa ct ion , w it h som e im p lica t ion s for t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool.

T h er e cer t a in ly a p p ea r s t o b e a lin k b et w een LMS a n d t ea ch er a t t it u d es t ow a r d s st a t u s a n d p r ofession a lism , a s in d ica t ed by t h e n a t u r e of t h e st a t em en t s ch osen in Ta ble VII. It is im p or t a n t t o n ot e t h a t on e m u st b e ca u t iou s a b ou t a sser t in g a d ir ect ca u sa l r ela -t ion sh ip b e-t w een a m a n a ger ia l cu l-t u r e a n d t h ese issu es given t h e sca le of t h e st u dy.

Analysis

T h e q u est ion n a ir e h a d a good r esp on se r a t e of 53 p er cen t a n d t h er efor e p r od u ced a w ea lt h of d a t a . It is p ossible t o id en t ify d ist in ct p a t -t er n s w i-t h in -t h ese d a -t a w h ich ca n b e d is-cu ssed in r ela t ion t o t h e fou r sch ools, a n d in t h e w id er con t ext of t h e con t r ibu t ion s m a d e in t h is a r ea by va r iou s com m en t a t or s.

Th e m a in fi n din gs of t h e st u dy wer e a s follow s; a ver y sign ifi ca n t differ en ce exist ed bet ween t h e a t t it u des of h ea d t ea ch er s a n d t h ose of t h e t ea ch in g st a ff in gen er a l. Also t h a t a r ela t ion sh ip exist ed bet ween t h e level of pa r t icipa t ion in decision m a k in g expr essed by t ea ch er s, a n d t h eir levels of job sa t isfa ct ion . It w a s a lso fou n d t h a t , wh er e a m a n a ger ia list

cu lt u r e exist ed w it h in a sch ool, t ea ch er a t t i-t u des wer e m or e n e ga i-t ive. T h er e wer e som e in dica t ion s t h a t n e ga t ive a t t it u des t ow a r ds LMS r ela t ed t o issu es con cer n in g t ea ch er s’ r oles a n d st a t u s.

T h e r esea r ch fou n d t h a t t ea ch er a t t it u d es gen er a lly t en d ed t ow a r d s n e ga t iv it y. T h is w a s p a r t icu la r ly t r u e in r ela t ion t o levels of job sa t isfa ct ion a n d p er ce p t ion s of LMS.

H ow ever, in con t r a st t o t h is w er e t h e a t t it u d es of h ea d t ea ch er s, w h o exh ib it ed sign ifi ca n t ly m or e p osit ive a t t it u d es t h a n t h ose of t h eir st a ff.

All h ea d t ea ch er s cla im ed com p a r a t ively h igh levels of job sa t isfa ct ion , even in sch ools in w h ich job sa t isfa ct ion w a s low (sch ools C

a n d D). P er ce p t ion s of LMS w er e a lso n e ga t ive a m on g t ea ch er s in gen er a l, bu t a ga in h ea d t ea ch er s exp r essed ver y p osit ive a t t it u d es w it h som e of t h e h igh est scor es of t h e sa m p le.

H ow ever, t h e a t t it u d es exp r essed by t ea ch -er s in t h is st u dy su ggest t h a t even seven yea r s a ft er t h e in t r od u ct ion of LMS, t h e m a jor it y of t ea ch er s h ave n ot r ea ch ed a st a ge a t w h ich t h ey p osit ively a cce p t ed LMS. T h is is in d ica t ed n ot on ly in t h e n e ga t ive levels of op in ion exp r essed t ow a r d s LMS in gen er a l, bu t a lso in t h e h igh level of r esp on se t o n e ga t ive st a t em en t s in Ta ble VII. T h ese in clu d e “a d d ed p r essu r es”, “im p osed ch a n ges in wor k in g con d it ion s” a n d “ch a n ges w it h ou t a d d it ion a l r esou r ces”.

Alt h ou gh t h e fi n d in gs of t h is st u dy in d ica t e t h a t t ea ch er s a r e st ill a t t h e ea r ly st a ges in t er m s of t h eir r ea ct ion s t o ch a n ge, t h is d oes n ot a p p ea r t o b e t h e ca se for h ea d t ea ch er s. Wh ile t h er e w a s d a t a on ly ava ila ble for t h r ee h ea d t ea ch er s, it w a s st ill p ossible t o id en t ify a d ist in ct ion b et w een t h eir v iew s a n d t h ose of t h eir st a ff.

J ob sa t isfa ct ion levels for h ea d t ea ch er s w er e a m on g t h e h igh est in t h e st u dy, a s w er e t h eir p er ce p t ion s of LMS. H ea d t ea ch er s’ scor es wer e con sider a bly m or e posit ive t ow a r ds LMS, w it h t h e h ea d t ea ch er s of sch ools C a n d D a ch iev in g scor es of 22 a n d 26 r esp ect ively ; t h e m ost p osit ive scor e p ossible b ein g 21.

T h ese p osit ive v iew s w er e a lso r efl ect ed in st a t em en t s ch osen in Ta ble VII, w it h t h e h ea d t ea ch er s of sch ools C a n d D b ein g t h e on ly r esp on d en t s t o exp r ess en t h u sia sm t ow a r d s LMS. H ea d t ea ch er s w er e a lso t h e on ly r esp on d en t s t o ch oose t h e p osit ive st a t em en t “sch ool a u t on om y ”, a n d a lso ch ose t h e st a t em en t “in cr ea sed com m u n it y lin k s”. F r om exa m in in g t h ese v iew s it wou ld t h er e-for e b e lik ely t h a t t h e h ea d t ea ch er s in t h e sa m p le (a n d cer t a in ly t h ose fr om sch ools C a n d D), h ave r ea ch ed t h e st a ge of

“con st r u ct ive a d a p t a t ion ”: a ct ively en ga ged in t h e r ea lit y of LMS, p la n n in g for t h e ch a n ges it in cu r s a n d feelin g q u it e secu r e w it h in t h is ch a n ge.

Table VII

Ove rall vie ws o f LMS

School A B C D

Enthusiasm (P) – – 2a 5a

Added pressure (N) 1234 35a67 12a 1345a

Staff collaboration (P) 2 – – –

Low morale (N) – 7 134 23

School autonomy (P) – 5a 5a

Imposed changes in working conditions (N) 1234 12345a6 14 1234

Empowerment of teachers (P) – – – –

Scepticism (N) 1 36 – 3

Need for extra training (N) 1234 245a7 1 245a

Increased community links (P) 13 15a7 2a 5a

Change without additional resources (N) 14 5a7 2a3 24

Reduced resources (N) 2 67 – –

Increased resources (P) – – – –

Notes:

(P) = Positive statement (N) = Negative statement

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T h e fa ct t h a t t h is d ist in ct ion of v iew s b et w een h ea d t ea ch er s a n d st a ff exist s, h igh -ligh t s p ossible r ea son s for n e ga t ive a t t it u d es a m on g t ea ch er s. T h ese in clu d e ch a n ged r oles w it h in t h e sch ool (i.e. less p a r t icip a t ion in t h e d ecision -m a k in g p r ocess a n d it s im p lica t ion s for t ea ch er p r ofession a lism ).

T h e im p lica t ion s for t ea ch er s fu lly a cce p t -in g LMS a s a n a gen t of ch a n ge a r e n e ga t ive on es. A b elief in LMS is a lso a b elief in a t r a n sit ion fr om a p r ofession a l, a u t on om ou s gr ou p, t o a m a n a ged wor k for ce w it h lit t le in fl u en ce or in volvem en t in im p or t a n t issu es w it h t h e sch ool. For h ea d t ea ch er s t h ese issu es a r e less lik ely t o b e felt , w it h t h e t r a n sit ion fr om p r ofession a l t o m a n a ger, a n d it s im p lica t ion s of in cr ea sed sch ool a u t on -om y a n d m a n a gem en t r esp on sib ilit y, n ot seen a s a t h r ea t t o t h eir p er son a l or p r ofession a l st a t u s.

An ot h er fi n d in g of t h e r esea r ch w a s a sign ifi ca n t r ela t ion sh ip b et w een low levels of job sa t isfa ct ion a n d ver y low levels of p a r t ici-p a t ion in d ecision m a k in g; t h is w a s illu s-t r a s-t ed p a r s-t icu la r ly in sch ools C a n d D. T h is b en t t ow a r d s low job sa t isfa ct ion r efl ect ed t h e fa ct t h a t n o r esp on d en t s cla im ed t o h ave a h igh level of p a r t icip a t ion in t h e d ecision -m a k in g p r ocess.

T h er efor e it a p p ea r s t h a t low levels of job sa t isfa ct ion com e n ot so m u ch fr om a n in cr ea se in m en ia l t a sk s, bu t fr om b ein g exclu d ed fr om t h e d ecision -m a k in g p r ocess, a n d t h e su b seq u en t feelin g of p ow er lessn ess. Su ch feelin gs of p ow er lessn ess, a n d n e ga t ive a t t it u d es t ow a r d s t h eir wor k , clea r ly h ave m a n y im p lica t ion s for t ea ch er s’ r oles a n d st a t u s. T h e p r ofession a lism of t ea ch er s is clea r ly a n issu e t h a t wou ld b e a ffect ed by a d ecr ea sed r ole in cer t a in a sp ect s of sch ool life.

T h ese issu es of p r ofession a lism a lso r ela t e t o a n ot h er sign ifi ca n t lin k fou n d in t h e st u dy ; t h a t b et w een t h e p r esen ce of a m a n a ger ia list or en t er p r ise cu lt u r e a n d t ea ch er a t t it u d es. As m en t ion ed in t h e in t r od u ct ion , LMS w a s in t r od u ced by t h e gover n m en t in or d er t o in cr ea se efficien cy in sch ools by b r in gin g “m a r k et p r in cip les” in t o t h e ed u ca t ion sy st em ; in clu d in g t h e bu sin ess m et h od s (su ch a s t im e m a n a gem en t ) w h ich a ccom p a n y t h is.

T h is n ew cu lt u r e d iffer s fr om t h e old colle-gia t e cu lt u r e in sch ools, w h ich v iew ed a ll t ea ch er s a s p r ofession a ls, a n d t h e sch ool a s a n or ga n iza t ion in w h ich t ea ch er s a r e r esp on -sible for m a n a gin g t h em selves a n d t h eir cla ssr oom s gu id ed by t h e h ea d t ea ch er. T h e in t r od u ct ion of LMS h a s in ev it a b ly ch a n ged t h is cu lt u r e, cr ea t in g m a n a gem en t a n d n on -m a n a ge-m en t gr ou p s w it h in t h e sch ool.

In t h e sch ools w h er e a m a n a gem en t cu lt u r e w a s in d ica t ed (v ia t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er -sh ip st y le) job sa t isfa ct ion w a s m u ch low er t h a n in sch ools w h ich a p p ea r ed t o r et a in a m or e colle gia t e et h os. It w a s a lso fou n d t h a t

n e ga t ive a t t it u d es cou ld b e seen a s r ela t in g t o a sp ect s of LMS a ssocia t ed w it h t h is m a n a ge-m en t et h os; w it h t ea ch er s r ea ct in g n e ga t ively t o st a t em en t s su ch a s “st a ff colla b or a t ion ” a n d “em p ow er m en t of

t ea ch er s”. H ow ever, a s d iscu ssed ea r lier, t h is w a s n ot t h e ca se for h ea d t ea ch er s.

As m en t ion ed , t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le (Ta ble II) w a s t a k en a s a n in d ica t or of t h e cu lt u r e of t h e sch ool. T h e h ea d t ea ch er s’ ow n p er ce p t ion s of t h eir lea d er sh ip st y le w a s on ly ava ila ble for t h ose of sch ools B, C a n d D. T h e r esp on d en t s of sch ools C a n d D a gr eed w it h t h eir h ea d t ea ch er t h a t t h eir lea d er sh ip st y le w a s a u t h or it a r ia n . How ever, t h e h ea d -t ea ch er of sch ool B saw h im self a s h av in g a n a u t h or it a r ia n lea d er sh ip st y le, w h ile h is st a ff cla im ed t h a t it w a s in t er p er son a l.

T h is d iffer en ce in t h e p er ce p t ion of t h e h ea d t ea ch er ’s lea d er sh ip st y le d r aw s a t t en -t ion -t o som e ver y p er -t in en -t issu es. I-t m ay b e t h a t t h e t er m s “a u t h or it a r ia n ” a n d

“in t er p er son a l” w er e in t er p r et ed d iffer en t ly by t h e h ea d t ea ch er a n d h is st a ff. For t h e h ea d t ea ch er, t h e t er m a u t h or it a r ia n m ay h ave d en ot ed d ecisiven ess a n d st r on g lea d er -sh ip, evok in g p osit ive con n ot a t ion s.

In con t r a st , st a ff in t er p r et a t ion s of “a u t h or it a r ia n ” m ay h ave in clu d ed d ict a t or ia l im a ges of lea d er sh ip a n d u n a p p r oa ch a -b ilit y. T h e h ea d t ea ch er of sch ool B m ay t h er efor e h ave b een p er ceived a s h av in g a n in t er -p er son a l lea d er sh i-p st y le b eca u se h e d id n ot exh ib it t h e n e ga t ive con n ot a t ion s in t er p r et ed a s “a u t h or it a r ia n ”, a n d w a s v iew ed a s h av in g a n “in t er p er son a l” st y le b eca u se of t h e st a ff in t er p r et a t ion of t h is t er m a lso (i.e. a p p r oa ch -a ble, r e-a son -a bly fr ien d ly, et c.).

It m ay b e p ossible t h a t t h e h ea d t ea ch er of sch ool B d id h ave a n a u t h or it a r ia n st y le of lea d er sh ip, bu t w a s a lso a p p r oa ch a ble t o h is st a ff, giv in g t h em t h e im p r ession of in for m a l-it y a n d in t er p er son a l lea d er sh ip, (t h e m a r k of a good m a n a ger p er h a p s). Un for t u n a t ely, t h e q u est ion n a ir e d esign d id n ot a llow for cla r ifi -ca t ion of t h is issu e a n d so on e -ca n on ly sp ecu la t e a b ou t r ea son s for t h is d iffer en ce.

An ot h er d im en sion of t h e fi n d in gs w er e t h e d iffer en ces in t ea ch er a t t it u d es n ot on ly b et w een t h e fou r sch ools, bu t a lso in d iffer en t socio-econ om ic a r ea s. On e m igh t h ave exp ect ed , given t h a t job sa t isfa ct ion t en d ed t o b e low a n d t h a t p er ce p t ion s of LMS w er e gen er a lly n e ga t ive, t h a t t h e m ost ext r em e n e ga t ive a t t it u d es a m on g t ea ch er s wou ld b e con cen t r a t ed in t h e t wo in n er cit y sch ools (sch ools A a n d B).

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Jo hn Le o Do yle and S. We lls LMS: the manage rial c limate and its e ffe c ts o n the inte rpe rso nal c limate o f the sc ho o l

Inte rnatio nal Jo urnal o f Educ atio nal Manage me nt 1 0 / 6 [1 9 9 6 ] 3 2 –4 2

fou n d t h a t n e ga t ive a t t it u d es w er e m or e lik ely t o b e h eld by t ea ch er s in t h e sch ools in Ch in gfor d .

It is p ossible t h a t cer t a in ext er n a l fa ct or s w h ich r ela t e t o t h e fi n d in gs of t h is st u dy ca n exp la in t h is d iffer en ce. As st a t ed , w h er e a m a n a gem en t cu lt u r e w a s in d ica t ed t o b e p r esen t in a sch ool, a t t it u d es w er e gen er a lly m or e n e ga t ive; sch ools C a n d D illu st r a t e t h is.

Sch ools C a n d D a r e sit u a t ed in t h e ou t er Lon d on Bor ou gh of Wa lt h a m For est . Wa lt h a m For est in gen er a l, a n d Ch in gfor d in p a r t icu la r, a r e a r ea s wh ich a r e t r a d it ion a l Con ser va t ive t er r it or y. It wou ld b e p r ob a ble, t h en , t h a t a n a r ea su ch a s t h is wou ld em b r a ce LMS in it s en t ir et y, a n d t h er efor e t h e im p a ct of t h e le gisla t ion wou ld b e fu lly felt .

Con ver sely, t h e Lon d on Bor ou gh of N ewh a m h a s a h ist or y of st r on g La b ou r su p p or t . It is a lso lik ely t h a t t ea ch er s wh o ch oose t o t ea ch in su ch a n a r ea a r e aw a r e of t h is lin k w it h left -w in g p olit ica l v iew s a n d m ay sh a r e t h em . T h er efor e st r on g su p p or t sy st em s m ay exist , su ch a s cer t a in t y p es of p olit ica l a ct iv it y a n d st r on g u n ion lin k s. Hen ce t h e im p a ct of LMS m ay n ot b e so h a r sh ly felt . Th e w id er p olit ica l con t ext of t h e loca l com m u n it y m ay h ave a b ea r in g on a n in d iv id u a l’s a t t it u d es, a s well a s t h e m icr o-p olit ica l con t ext of t h e sch ool.

T h e q u est ion w h ich t h is r esea r ch r a ises is: w h a t a r e t h e im p lica t ion s of n e ga t ive

a t t it u d es for t h e su ccess of LMS a s a n a gen t of ch a n ge? It cou ld b e a r gu ed t h a t LMS w ill in ev it a b ly b e dy sfu n ct ion a l. Alt h ou gh LMS is en for ced by le gisla t ion , it is n ot p ossible t o le gisla t e a ga in st t h e n e ga t ive a t t it u d es (w h ich t h is st u dy in d ica t es) a n d p ossible su bver sion w h ich m ay r esu lt . If LMS is t o b e su ccessfu l (i.e. a ch iev in g it s st a t ed a im of in cr ea sin g efficien cy a n d t h e q u a lit y of ed u ca t ion in t h e st a t e sect or ) t h en su r ely t ea ch er s h ave t o b e r ea son a bly h a p py a n d m ot iva t ed b eca u se t h ey a r e a t t h e for efr on t of t h e ed u ca t ion sy st em .

H ow ever, it cou ld b e a r gu ed t h a t LMS is in n o w ay dy sfu n ct ion a l, a s it s m a in fu n ct ion is t o im p r ove st a n d a r d s a n d efficien cy. Rea d in g st a n d a r d s a n d exa m in a t ion r esu lt s h ave con t in u ed t o im p r ove in t h e la st few yea r s. It m ay b e fu r t h er a r gu ed t h a t d issa t isfa ct ion is n ot a t h r ea t t o efficien cy bu t , on t h e con t r a r y, a r ea ct ion t o it by t h e ed u ca t ion a l est a blish -m en t w h ich h a s for so lon g en joyed a self-in t er est ed m on op oly on ed u ca t ion . T h u s t h e p la cin g of p ow er in t h e h a n d s of con su m er s is b ou n d t o b e u n com for t a ble a t fi r st , bu t t h e in cr ea sed st a n d a r d s r esu lt in g fr om LMS w ill v in d ica t e t h is a ct ion .

T h e fi n d in gs of t h e r esea r ch , w h ile n ot in d ica t in g t h a t LMS is dy sfu n ct ion a l, d o r a ise

som e con cer n s a b ou t t h e d e gr ee of it s su c-cess. T h e level of n e ga t ive a t t it u d es w h ich w er e fou n d a m on g t ea ch er s seven yea r s on fr om t h e im p lem en t a t ion of LMS su ggest a st a t e of lon g-t er m d iscon t en t w it h t h e p olicy, r a t h er t h a n in it ia l n e ga t ive r ea ct ion s t o ch a n ge.

Clea r ly, t h is level of d iscon t en t m en t ca n n ot a id efficien cy in a n or ga n iza t ion , a n d w ill h ave t a n gible n e ga t ive effect s. In d eed it is p ossible t h ese a r e a lr ea dy ev id en t . T h er e a r e con cer n s exp r essed a b ou t t h e n u m b er of t ea ch er s leav in g t h e p r ofession , a n d su b se-q u en t sh or t a ges of t ea ch er s in sp ecia list a r ea s su ch a s scien ce a n d t ech n ology.

T h e r esea r ch id en t ifi ed a n u m b er of r ela -t ion sh ip s con cer n in g LMS a n d i-t s effec-t on t h e in t er p er son a l clim a t e of t h e sch ool. It w a s fou n d t h a t a lt h ou gh n e ga t ive a t t it u d es w er e t o b e fou n d t ow a r d s LMS a m on g t ea ch er s in gen er a l, h ea d t ea ch er s, in com p a r ison , h eld ver y p osit ive v iew s. It w a s a lso fou n d t h a t a lin k exist ed b et w een levels of p a r t icip a t ion in d ecision m a k in g a n d n e ga t ive a t t it u d es a m on g t ea ch er s t ow a r d s job sa t isfa ct ion .

Wh er e a m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e exist ed , t ea ch er a t t it u d es w er e on t h e w h ole m or e n e ga t ive t h a n in sch ools w it h a m or e in for m a l colle gia t e cu lt u r e. Alt h ou gh n ot con clu sive, t h er e w a s som e in d ica t ion t h a t n e ga t ive v iew s of LMS w er e r ela t ed t o sp ecifi c a sp ect s of t h e m a n a ger ia list cu lt u r e. T h e in d ica t ion s fr om t h is st u dy a r e t h a t t h e se p a r a t ion of t ea ch er s in t o m a n a gem en t a n d t ea ch er s h a s n ot ser ved sch ools or t h e r ela t ion sh ip s b et w een t ea ch er s w ell.

References

1 Mor ga n , G., Im a ges of Orga n iz a tion s, Sa ge, Bever ly H ills, CA, 1991.

2 Web er, M., T h e T h eor y of S ocia l a n d E con om ic Orga n iz a tion, F r ee P r ess, N ew Yor k , N Y, 1947. 3 H a n dy, C., Un d ersta n d in g Orga n iz a tion s,

P en gu in , H a r m on d swor t h , 1990.

Further reading

Ba ll, S., T h e M icr o-p olitics of th e S ch ool: T ow a rd s a T h eor y of S ch ool Orga n iz a tion, Met h u en , Lon d on , 1990.

F id ler, B. a n d Bow les, G., E ffectiv e L oca l M a n a gem en t of S ch ools, Lon gm a n , Lon d on , 1989.

Gla t t er, R., T h e S elf-m a n a gin g S ch ool, Op en Un iver sit y P r ess, Milt on Key n es, 1989. H oy le, E ., “E d u ca t ion a l or ga n iza t ion s:

m icr op olit ics”, in H u sen , T. a n d

Figur

Table VIItheir  perceptions of LMS. Headteacher s’

Table VI.

Itheir perceptions of LMS Headteacher s . View in document p.8

Referensi

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