Sektor Peternakan sebagai Sumber Emisi GRK, Pembelajaran dari SNC, dan Potential Improvement Data Aktivitas dan Faktor Emisi untuk Inventarisasi GRK pada 1st BUR

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Sektor Peternakan sebagai Sumber Emisi GRK,

Pembelajaran dari SNC, dan Potential

Improvement Data Aktivitas dan Faktor Emisi

untuk Inventarisasi GRK pada 1

s t

BUR

Dr.Ir. Idat Galih Permana, MSc.

Institut Pertanian Bogor

Pertemuan Tindak Lanjut Pembahasan Inventarisasi

GRK

Sektor Pertanian pada 1

st

BUR - Kementerian

(2)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Emisi GRK dari Sektor Pertanian

(3)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Rice Cultivation (CH

4

)

Cropland Burning (CO

2

, CH

4

,

N

2

O, N

2

O)

Liming (CO

2

)

Urea Fertilizer (CO

2

)

N

2

O Emission from Managed Soil (N

2

O)

Direct N

2

O Soil

Indirect N

2

O Soil

Livestock

Enteric Fermentation (CH

4

)

Manure Management (CH

4

and N

2

O)

(4)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

JENIS TERNAK PENYUMBANG EMISI

GRK

Ternak Ruminansia:

sapi (sapi perah,

sapi potong), kerbau, domba dan kambing

Ternak Non Ruminansia

(Pseudoruminant):

kuda

Ternak Unggas:

ayam (broiler, petelur,

ayam buras), itik, puyuh dll

(5)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

EMISI GRK DARI PETERNAKAN

Enteric Fermentation

(Fermentasi Enterik)

Methan (CH

4

)

Manure Management

(Pengelolaan Kotoran)

Methan (CH

4

)

Direct N

2

O

Indirect N

2

O

CH

4

(6)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Ternak ruminansia (sapi

potong, sapi perah, kerbau,

domba, kambing), kuda, babi

menghasilkan

Methan (CH

4

)

.

Gas yang dihasilkan ternak

ruminansia adalah CO

2

, CH

4

,

H

2

S, H

2

O

Methan dihasilkan dari proses

methanogenesis di dalam

rumen dengan bantuan

bakteri methanogen.

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Methan:

Dihasilkan dari proses

penanganan manure

(manure management)

pada semua jenis ternak

(sapi perah, sapi potong,

kerbau, domba, kambing,

babi, itik, ayam ras, ayam

kampung, ayam petelur)

secara anaerobik

Penanganan secara liquid

(kondisi anaerob) lebih

memungkinkan terjadinya

methanogenesis

dibandingkan penanganan

secara solid.

CH

4

CH

4

(8)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Direct N

2

O

Dihasilkan dari proses kombinasi

nitrifkasi dan detrifkasi N dari

manur selama dalam

penyimpanan.

Proses nitrifkasi adalah

perubahan ammonia menjadi

N-nitrat dalam kondisi oksigen yang

cukup.

Indirect N

2

O

Dihasilkan dari N-volatile seperti

NH

3

atau NO

x.

N organic yang

mudah menjadi volatil adalah urea

dan ureic acid

(9)

FAKTOR EMISI PADA TERNAK

TERGANTUNG DARI BERBAGAI HAL:

Jenis dan Bangsa Ternak

Berat Badan, Umur

Produksi Susu/Kerja

Status reproduksi

Kualitas Pakan

Sistem Pemberian Pakan

Sistem Pemeliharaan

Sistem Pengelolaan

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

METHODOLOGY (SNC)

2006 IPCC Guideline for

National Greenhouse

Gas Inventory

Vol 4 – Agriculture

Chapter 10 –

Emission from

Livestock and

Manure

Management

Dilengkapi Worksheet

(11)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

METHODS

TIER 1: BASIC CHARACTERISATION FOR

LIVESTOCK POPULATION

TIER 2: ENHANCED CHARACTERISATION FOR

LIVESTOCK POPULATIONS

Defnitions for livestock subcategories;

Livestock population by subcategory, with consideration

for estimation of annual population as per Tier 1;

Feed intake estimates for the typical animal in each

subcategory.

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

SOURCE OF DATA (SNC)

Livestock population data from Statistic Centra

Buro (2000-2006)

Livestock Population Stucture of Animal from

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Using IPCC 2006

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

No. Species Type

Calf

Growing

Mature

1. Beef Cattle

18.13

28.99

52.88

2. Dairy Cattle

19.66

20.33

59.71

3. Buffalo

19.66

20.33

53.92

Population Structure of Beef Cattle, Dairy and

Bufalo

(16)

EMISSION FACTORS FOR ENTERIC

FERMENTATION

No

Species Type

Enteric Fermentation

(kg CH

4

/head/year)

1.

Beef Cattle

47

2.

Dairy Cattle

61

3.

Buffalo

55

4.

Sheep

5

5.

Goat

5

6.

Pig

1

(17)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Using IPCC 2006

(18)

EMISSION FACTORS FOR MANURE MANAGEMENT

No

Species Type

Manure Management

(kg CH

4

//head/year)

1.

Beef Cattle

1

2.

Dairy Cattle

31

3.

Buffalo

2

4.

Sheep

0.20

5.

Goat

0.22

6.

Pig

7

7.

Horse

2.19

8.

Local Chicken

0.02

9.

Broiler

0.02

10.

Layer

0.02

(19)

Distribution of Methane Emission by Animal Type (2000)

No. Animal Types Number of

Animal

CH4 emission

by enteric fermentation

(Gg)

CH4 emission

by manure management

(Gg)

Total (Gg)

1. Beef Cattle 8,121,691 381.72 8.12 389.84

2. Dairy Cattle 265,744 16.21 8.24 24.45

3. Buffalo 1,766,248 97.14 3.53 100.68

4. Sheep 7,414,965 37.07 1.48 38.56

5. Goat 12,613,108 63.07 2.77 65.84

6. Pig 5,247,200 5.25 36.73 41.98

7. Horse 412,919 7.43 0.90 8.34

8. Poultry :

Native Chicken 261,132,020 - 5.22 5.22 Broiler 534,810,990 - 10.70 10.70

Layer 69,702,890 - 1.39 1.39

Duck 29,674,120 - 0.59 0.59

(20)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

TOTAL EMISI METHAN DARI

PETERNAKAN

698.6; 97.93%

14.8; 2.07%

(21)

Distribusi Emisi Methan dari Fermentasi Enterik

berdasarkan Jenis Ternak

(22)

10.2%

(23)

DISTRIBUSI EMISI METHAN BERDASARKAN

DARI SEKTOR PERTANIAN BERDASARKAN

SUMBERNYA

15.48%

2.00%

38.7; 38.66%

43.86%

Enteric

Fermeta-tion

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

DEFINITION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM

System

Defnition

Pasture/Range/Paddock

The manure from pasture and range grazing

animals is allowed to lie as deposited, and is not

managed.

Daily spread

Manure is routinely removed from a confnement

facility and is applied to cropland or pasture

within 24 hours of excretion.

Solid storage

The storage of manure, typically for a period of

several months, in unconfned piles or stacks.

Manure is able to be stacked due to the presence

of a sufcient amount of bedding material or loss

of moisture by evaporation.

Dry lot

A paved or unpaved open confnement area

without any signifcant vegetative cover where

accumulating manure may be removed

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

DEFINITION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM

System Defnition

Liquid/Slurry Manure is stored as excreted or with some minimal addition of water in either tanks or earthen ponds outside the animal housing, usually for periods less than one year.

Uncovered anaerobic lagoon

A type of liquid storage system designed and operated to combine waste stabilization and storage. Lagoon supernatant is usually used to remove manure from the associated confnement facilities to the lagoon.

Anaerobic lagoons are designed with varying lengths of storage (up to a year or greater), depending on the climate region, the volatile solids loading rate, and other operational factors. The water from the lagoon may be recycled as fush water or used to irrigate and fertilise felds.

Pit storage below animal confnements

(27)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

DEFINITION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM

System Defnition

Anaerobic digester Animal excreta with or without straw are

collected and anaerobically digested in a large containment vessel or covered lagoon. Digesters are designed and operated for waste

stabilization by the microbial reduction of complex organic compounds to CO2 and CH4, which is captured and fared or used as a fuel

Burned for fuel The dung and urine are excreted on felds. The sun dried dung cakes are burned for fuel.

Cattle and Swine deep

bedding As manure accumulates, bedding is continually added to absorb moisture over a production cycle and possibly for as long as 6 to 12 months. This manure

management system also is known as a

bedded pack manure management system and may be combined with a dry lot or pasture.

Composting - invessel Composting, typically in an enclosed channel, with forced aeration and continuous mixing.

Composting - Static

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

DEFINITION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM

System Defnition Composting - Intensive

windrow Composting in windrows with regular (at least daily) turning for mixing and aeration. Composting - Passive

windrow Composting in windrows with infrequent turning for mixing and aeration. Poultry manure with litter Similar to cattle and swine deep bedding except usually not

combined with a dry lot or pasture. Typically used for all poultry breeder focks and for the production of meat type chickens (broilers) and other fowl.

Poultry manure without litter May be similar to open pits in enclosed animal confnement facilities or may be designed and operated to dry the

manure as it accumulates. The latter is known as a high-rise manure management system and is a form of passive

windrow composting when designed and operated Properly Aerobic treatment The biological oxidation of manure collected as a liquid with

either forced or natural aeration. Natural aeration is limited to aerobic and facultative ponds and wetland systems and is due primarily to photosynthesis. Hence, these systems

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

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Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

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No

Species Type

Emission Factor for Direct

N

2

O

1

Beef Cattle

0.02

2

Dairy Cattle

0.02

3

Bufallo

0.02

4

Sheep

0.02

5

Goat

0.02

6

Swine

0.02

7

Horse

0.02

8

Local Chicken

0.001

9

Broiler

0.001

10

Layer

0.001

11

Duck

0.001

Faktor Emisi untuk Direct N

2

O

(32)

Direct and indirect N

2

O emission from manure

management

Manure Management

System Species Type

Number of Animal

Annual direct

N2O emissions

(kg/year)

Annual indirect

N2O emissions

(kg/year)

Pastura* Beef Cattle** 2,436,507 - -Daily Spread Dairy Cattle 265,744 0 582

Dry Lot

Beef Cattle*** 5,685,184 155,217 14,816 Buffalo 1,766,248 42,792 5,446 Sheep 7,414,965 55,731 7,093 Goats 12,613,108 118,935 15,137 Swine 2,623,600 8,427 1,207 Horses 412,919 10,372 1,485

Poultry With Litter

Broiler 534,810,990 4,555 14,494 Layer 69,702,890 885 2,816

Poultry Without Litter

Native Chicken 261,132,020 2,211 7,738

Duck 29,674,120 424 1,483

(33)

POTENSI PERBAIKAN DALAM

(34)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

POPULASI TERNAK NASIONAL

(2000-2011)

DALAM RIBUAN EKOR

Sumber: Biro Pusat Statistik

Livestock 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 *)

Beef Cattle 11,008 11,137 11,298 10,504 10,533 10,569 10,875 11,515 12,257 12,760 13582 14,824

Dairy Cattle 354 347 358 374 364 361 369 374 458 475 488 597

Buffalo 2,405 2,333 2,403 2,459 2,403 2,128 2,167 2,086 1,931 1,933 2,000 1,305

Sheep 7,427 7,401 7,641 7,811 8,075 8,327 8,980 9,514 9,605 10,199 10,725 11,372

Goats 12,566 12,464 12,549 12,722 12,781 13,409 13,790 14,470 15,147 15,815 16,620 17,483

Swine 5,357 5,369 5,927 6,151 5,980 6,801 6,218 6,711 6,338 6,975 7,477 7,758

Horses 412 422 419 413 397 387 398 401 393 399 419 416

Native

Chicken 259,257 268,039 275,292 277,357 276,989 278,954 291,085 272,251 243,423 249,964 257,544 274,893

Broiler 530,874 621,870 865,075 847,744 778,970 811,189 797,527 891,659 902,052 991,281 986,872

1,041,96 8

Layer 69,366 70,254 78,039 79,206 93,416 84,790 100,202 111,489 107,955 99,768 105,210 110,300

(35)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

POPULASI TERNAK NASIONAL

(36)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Jawa: 42%

Sumatera: 24%

Lainnya: 34%

(37)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

Distribusi Sapi Perah di Indonesia

Jawa : 98%

(38)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

(39)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

(40)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

(41)

STRUKTUR POPULASI

Faktor Emisi (EF) untuk sapi potong, sapi perah

dan kerbau perlu dikoreksi berdasarkan

Struktur Populasi :

Ternak Dewasa = 1.0

Ternak Muda = 0.5

(42)

No Species Type

EF (dewasa) *

(kg/head/year)

(kg/head/year)

EF (muda) **

(kg/head/year)

EF (anak) **

1

Beef Cattle

47

23.5

11.75

2

Dairy Cattle

68

34

17

3

Bufallo

55

27.5

13.75

4

Sheep

5

-

-Faktor Emisi Fermentasi Enterik (terkoreksi)

* IPCC (2006) Table 10.10 & Table 10.11

(43)

No Species Type

EF (dewasa) *

(kg/head/year)

(kg/head/year)

EF (muda) **

(kg/head/year)

EF (anak) **

1

Beef Cattle

1

0.5

0.25

2

Dairy Cattle

31

15.5

7.75

3

Bufallo

2

1.0

0.5

Faktor Emisi Managemen Manur (terkoreksi)

* IPCC (2006) Table 10.10 & Table 10.11

(44)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

PERHITUNGAN POPULASI AYAM

BROILER

Pada perhitungan inventory SNC populasi ayam broiler dan

ayam kampung tidak dikoreksi

Populasi ayama broiler dihitung dengan mempertimbangkan masa

pemeliharaan. Pada umnya ayam broiler dipelihara selama 60 hari

dan ayam kampung dipelihara 120 hari.

Jika pada tahun 2011 produksi Boiler ekor/tahun 1.041.968.000

ekor/th, maka rataan populasi broiler per tahun:

Rataan produksi per tahun = 60 x (1.041.968/365) =

171.822.410 ekor/tahun

(45)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

KOREKSI POPULASI

TERNAK

Impor sapi bakalan dan kerbau masuk

dalam perhitungan populasi sapi (?)

Setiap tahun Indonesia masih mengimport

sapi bakalan sekitar 500 ribu ekor.

Sapi bakalan dipelihara hanya 4 bulan

(46)

Pembahasan Inventarisasi GRK Sektor Pertanian dalam 1st BUR

KEGIATAN MITIGASI

Kegiatan mitigasi dalam peternakan

berupa instalasi Biogas melalui

BATAMAS atau BIRU dapat dihitung.

Perbaikan kualitas pakan, peningkatan

(47)

Figure

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References

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