Student`s responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice to improve student`s speaking skills in critical listening and speaking 1 class.

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Erstentia, Maria Elga. 2016. Students’ Responses to the Implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

The aim of this research was to find out students’ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice in order to improve students’ speaking skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS 1) Class. Students’ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice were considered as important assets for the lecturers to implement better teaching and learning activities.

The researcher formulated two research questions namely what are students’ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice? and what are students’ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice?

The research employed qualitative research. The research design referred to the tradition in a case study. The participants of this research were thirty (30) students and a lecturer from Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class D in the English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University. The researcher conducted research triangulation in order to minimize research bias and to enhance the reliability and validity. In order to obtain more than one source of data, the researcher conducted observation, distributed questionnaire and conducted interviews. The resercher did an observation Class together with a peer-observer. After that, the researcher distributed a questionnaire to the students of CLS 1 Class D. Finally, the researcher conducted a formal interview with the lecturer of CLS 1 Class. The researcher also conducted an informal interview with some students of CLS 1 Class D. The researcher used coding strategy and presented the data in a form of narrative descriptive.

The result of this study showed that students responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice were changed in positive ways. Moreover, the implementation of impromptu speech practice also improved students’ speaking skills. However, there were several suggestions from the students for further implementation of impromptu speech practice in order to improve students’ speaking skills.

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Erstentia, Maria Elga. 2016. Students Responses to the Implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato impromptu atau semerta-merta untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara mahasiswa. Respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta tersebut dianggap sebagai aset penting bagi para dosen untuk mengembangkan kegiatan belajar di dalam kelas.

Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti membuat dua rumusan masalah. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah: Apa respon mahasiswa dalam pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta? Apa saja saran mahasiswa untuk pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta di kemudian hari?

Peneliti menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Desain dari penelitian ini mengikuti tata cara dan tradisi dari penelitian studi kasus. Peserta dalam penelitian ini sebanyak tiga puluh (30) mahasiswa dan seorang dosen dari kelas D mata kuliah Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS 1) Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata Dharma. Peneliti menggunakan strategi triangulasi untuk meminimalisir bias penelitian, meningkatkan keabsahan data dan membuktikan bahwa penelitian ini valid. Untuk mendapatkan data triangulasi, peneliti melakukan pengamatan kelas/observasi, menyebarkan angket, dan melakukan wawancara. Peneliti melakukan pengamatan kelas bersama dengan seorang pengamat yang lain. Setelah melakukan pengamatan, peneliti menyebarkan angket kepada mahasiswa kelas CLS 1 D. Pada tahap akhir, peneliti melakukan wawancara formal dengan dosen kelas D CLS 1. Peneliti juga melakukan wawancara informal dengan beberapa mahasiswa dari kelas D CLS 1. Peneliti menggunakan strategi pengkodean dan menyajikan data dalam bentuk deskripsi narasi.

Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato merta berubah ke arah yang positif. Pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta juga meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara mahasiswa. Mahasiswa juga memberikan beberapa saran untuk pelaksanaan praktek pidato semerta-merta di kemudian hari untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara mahasiswa.

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STUDENTS’

RESPONSES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION

OF IMPROMPTU SPEECH PRACTICE TO IMPROVE

STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS

IN CRITICAL LISTENING

AND SPEAKING 1 CLASS

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Maria Elga Erstentia Student Number: 121214087

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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If you can dream

it, You can do it

Walt Disney

This thesis is dedicated to: Bapak Agustinus Suprayoga, Ibu Elisabeth Sumaryati Mba Chatarina Niken Putri Andiyati Adik Brigita Yo‟ella Beta Shela

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ABSTRACT

Erstentia, Maria Elga. 2016. Students’ Responses to the Implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

The aim of this research was to find out students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice in order to improve students‟ speaking skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS 1) Class. Students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice were considered as important assets for the lecturers to implement better teaching and learning activities.

The researcher formulated two research questions namely what are students’ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice? and what are students’ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice?

The research employed qualitative research. The research design referred to the tradition in a case study. The participants of this research were thirty (30) students and a lecturer from Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class D in the English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University. The researcher conducted research triangulation in order to minimize research bias and to enhance the reliability and validity. In order to obtain more than one source of data, the researcher conducted observation, distributed questionnaire and conducted interviews. The resercher did an observation Class together with a peer-observer. After that, the researcher distributed a questionnaire to the students of CLS 1 Class D. Finally, the researcher conducted a formal interview with the lecturer of CLS 1 Class. The researcher also conducted an informal interview with some students of CLS 1 Class D. The researcher used coding strategy and presented the data in a form of narrative descriptive.

The result of this study showed that students responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice were changed in positive ways. Moreover, the implementation of impromptu speech practice also improved students‟ speaking skills. However, there were several suggestions from the students for further implementation of impromptu speech practice in order to improve students‟ speaking skills.

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viii ABSTRAK

Erstentia, Maria Elga. 2016. Students Responses to the Implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato impromptu atau semerta-merta untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara mahasiswa. Respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta tersebut dianggap sebagai aset penting bagi para dosen untuk mengembangkan kegiatan belajar di dalam kelas.

Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti membuat dua rumusan masalah. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah: Apa respon mahasiswa dalam pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta? Apa saja saran mahasiswa untuk pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta di kemudian hari?

Peneliti menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Desain dari penelitian ini mengikuti tata cara dan tradisi dari penelitian studi kasus. Peserta dalam penelitian ini sebanyak tiga puluh (30) mahasiswa dan seorang dosen dari kelas D mata kuliah Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS 1) Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata Dharma. Peneliti menggunakan strategi triangulasi untuk meminimalisir bias penelitian, meningkatkan keabsahan data dan membuktikan bahwa penelitian ini valid. Untuk mendapatkan data triangulasi, peneliti melakukan pengamatan kelas/observasi, menyebarkan angket, dan melakukan wawancara. Peneliti melakukan pengamatan kelas bersama dengan seorang pengamat yang lain. Setelah melakukan pengamatan, peneliti menyebarkan angket kepada mahasiswa kelas CLS 1 D. Pada tahap akhir, peneliti melakukan wawancara formal dengan dosen kelas D CLS 1. Peneliti juga melakukan wawancara informal dengan beberapa mahasiswa dari kelas D CLS 1. Peneliti menggunakan strategi pengkodean dan menyajikan data dalam bentuk deskripsi narasi.

Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa respon mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta berubah ke arah yang positif. Pelaksanaan praktik pidato semerta-merta juga meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara mahasiswa. Mahasiswa juga memberikan beberapa saran untuk pelaksanaan praktek pidato semerta-merta di kemudian hari untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara mahasiswa.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deepest thanks to the one and only Jesus Christ my Almighty Lord and Mother Mary, who have given an amazing life for me.

It is a genuine pleasure to express my deep sense of thanks to my advisor, Bapak Drs. Pius Nurwidasa Prihatin, M.Ed., Ed.D. His time, his advice, his

meticulous scrutiny and his love have helped me to a very great extent to accomplish this thesis. I also want to apologize for all mistakes I have made during the writing process of this thesis. I really learnt a lot about both thesis writing and life from him. Many thanks will not be enough to him.

I also owe a deep sense of gratitude to Ibu Yuseva Wardhana and Ibu Lhaksmita Anandari for their kindness during the data collection. It is an honor

to have a research in their class. I would also like to thank all the lecturers and staff of the English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University for their love.

I would like to express my sincere thankfulness to my one and only mother and father, Ibu Elisabeth Sumaryati and Bapak Agustinus Suprayoga for their guidance, motivation and support during this hard time. I love them very much. I also want to give my special gratitude to my wonderful sisters, Chatarina

Niken Putri, Brigita Yo’ella Beta Shela, and Cornelia Elviera Denori for the endless love and support. I also want to express my gratitude to Keluarga Nainggolan, who always gives me support and prayers.

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thank him for always being very patient during my hardest time. I love him and I thank God for his presence in my life. He has become my major spirit to finish this thesis as soon as possible.

I will never forget to express my thanks to my very best friends, Anchieta Ave Avillanova, Fransiska Putri Ardany, Yuliani Yuniwati, Veronica

Noviatri Indraswari, Tessa Murena Paramitha, Dwiki Prenandita, Gisella

Gisa Maya, and Hilarius Raditya Priambada Purba for their support,

encouragement and prayers. My gratitude also goes to all PBI students, especially the students in batch 2012 Class C small. I would also like to thank all my seniors and juniors in PBI.

I also want to express my gratitude to all of the staff in Master of Management Sanata Dharma University, the security and office boys of Mrican Sanata Dharma University who always encourage and support me in doing my thesis.

Finally, I would like to give all my gratitude to everyone who always gives me love, care and support whose names cannot be mentioned.

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PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... vi

ABSTRACT ... vii

3. Speech Practices in Communicative Language Teaching 17

4. Speaking Class in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 ... 22

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CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 27

A. Research Method ... 27

B. Research Setting ... 28

C. Research Participants ... 29

D. Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique ... 30

1. Observation ... 30

2. Questionnaire ... 31

3. Interview ... 34

E. Data Analysis Techniques ... 36

1. Data Reduction Strategy ... 36

2. Data Display Strategy ... 38

3. Conclusion Drawing & Verification Strategy ... 39

F. Research Trustworthiness ... 39

G. Research Procedure ... 40

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 44

A. Study Site ... 44

B. Data Analysis ... 45

1. Data Reduction ... 45

2. Data Display ... 50

3. Conclusion Drawing and Verification ... 59

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 65

A. Conclusions ... 65

B. Recommendations ... 67

REFERENCES ... 70

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LIST OF TABLES

Tables: Page

2.1: Three key features of learners‟ speech ……….... 18

2.2: Fluency vs Accuracy ………... 19

2.3: Pre-communicative activities & Communicative Activities ………... 20

3.1: The Observation Schedule ………... 30

3.2: The Description of Questionnaire ………... 33

3.3: Interview Structure Continuum ………... 35

3.4: Code Family (The categories) ……….... 37

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figures: Page

4.1: The Outline Presentation of

Research Question and Coding Category ………... 48

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A: Observation Sheet ………... 74

Appendix B: Questionnaire ………...78

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1 CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the research background, research problems, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits, definition of terms and the significance of the study.

A.Research Background

The topic of this research is about students‟ responses to the implementation

of impromptu speech practice to improve students‟ speaking skills. The researcher explored students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class because the researcher believes that impromptu speech practice is an appropriate activity to improve students‟ speaking skills in a speaking Class. Wilson, Arnold, and Wertheimer (1994) state that impromptu speech can be a demanding test of understanding because it forces someone to put instantly some topics. Moreover, the implementation of impromptu speech practice expects the students to think and speak quickly because the students have to speak spontaneously. Furthermore, Ross (1995) states that an impromptu speech is one that is delivered without advance notice or time for detailed preparation.

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second language teaching. In addition, according to Pash and Sparks-Langer (1991), teachers who reflect on their teaching methods and practices are better teacher than those who do not. The main idea of conducting this research was to reflect the lecturers in The English Department of Sanata Dharma University to develop a learning and teaching material or method in order to reach the goals of learning. Therefore, teachers should develop teaching method continuously. Gebhard (1984) mentions that development requires an ongoing commitment. Gebhard (1984) also adds that development is not only something that teachers do in a teacher education program, but it also requires an ongoing commitment. It means that the development from the teachers or lecturers is needed continuously. Finally, after knowing students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice, the lecturer can develop a design of learning material which is appropriate to the students in order to achieve the goals which were planned.

Actually, lecturers in speaking Class can design many activities in order to improve students‟ speaking skills. Omagio (1989) says that, appropriate teaching strategies are likely to vary, depending on students‟ current level(s) of proficiency

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The English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University implemented “Impromptu Speech” practice in a Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class. Impromptu speech is delivered in a spontaneous way. According to Zarefsky (1996), impromptu is a mode of presentation in which the speaker has little or no time for preparation. Actually, impromptu speech practice is a pre-activity in a classroom activity which pushes the students to talk actively. Gebhard (1996) says that, pre-communicative activities are used for the teacher to isolate specific elements of knowledge or skills that comprise communicative ability, giving students opportunities to practice the pre-communicative activities without having to fully engage in communicative meaning.

Practicing impromptu speech will give opportunity for the students to speak up their mind freely in front of audience. Zarefsky (1996) adds that impromptu speech is one of the potential activities that gives students a sense of freedom to express their thought because students have many chances to explore the knowledge that they had. It directly means that after practicing impromptu speech practice several times, the students will be able to elaborate more topics. Moreover, Grice and Skinner (1993) state that doing speech develops speaker‟s critical thinking.

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Communicative Language Teaching aims broadly to apply the theoretical perspective of the communicative approach by making communicative competence the goal of language teaching and by acknowledging the interdependence of language and communication. (p.121)

Therefore, the lecturers who have a responsibility to teach in any speaking Classes should design a material which includes both forming sentences and practicing communicative skill. The lecturer needs to employ both forming sentences and practicing communicative skill because students are expected to speak spontaneously in their daily conversation. In a real life conversation, the students are not prepared with a note to be presented. Therefore, communicative language teaching as an approach in teaching speaking needs some attractive materials in order to improve students‟ speaking skills. The lecturers in English Language

Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma have applied the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach in every speaking Class. However, students are, above all, communicators who are actively engaged in negotiating meaning – in trying to make them understood and in understanding others – even when their knowledge of the target language is incomplete.

Hopefully, after knowing students‟ responses to the implementation of

impromptu speech practice in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS1) Class, the lecturers can know what actually students‟ responses, students‟ dificulties,

students‟ achievements and students‟ suggestions are. Furthermore, the lecturer

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B.Research Problem

Based on the background of the research, the researcher generated two research questions. The research questions are presented as follows.

1. How do the students respond to the implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice in CLS 1 Class?

2. What are the students‟ suggestions for further implementation of Impromptu Speech Practice in CLS 1 Class?

C.Research Limitation

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D.Research Objectives

Related to the research problems above, there are two objectives to be accomplished in this research. The two research objectives are presented as follows.

1. To find out students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice

2. To obtain students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice in order to improve their speaking skills.

E.Research Benefits

This research provides some benefits for the lecturers of speaking Class especially in the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University, the students of CLS 1 Class, and the future researchers who are interested in implementing the similar research. Hopefully, the findings of the research help those people as described in the following part.

1. Lecturers of Speaking Class especially in the English Education Study

Program of Sanata Dharma University.

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the lecturer whether the implementation of impromptu speech practice has improved students‟ speaking skills or not.

2. Students of CLS 1 Class

This research helps the students of CLS 1 Class to deliver their suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice. In addition, the students finally know their strengths and weaknesses during the implementation of impromptu speech practice. Futhermore, students‟ responses which had been delivered to the lecturers of CLS 1 Class will help the students to reach the goals of speaking skills.

3. Future Researchers

This research is also valuable to encourage future researchers in conducting the further innovations related to the implementation of impromptu speech practice to improve students‟ speaking skills. Future researcher can develop the

research into a classroom action research using the implementation of impromptu speech practice to improve students‟ speaking skills. Moreover, future researchers

who are interested in the similar topic can develop a module for research and development.

F. Definition of Terms

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necessary to define the following terms. The definition of terms is presented as follows.

1. Responses

A response is an answer or a reply of some actions. In other words, response is an action of a situation, occurrence or event. A response, according to Power as cited in Dunkin (1974) is any verbal or non-verbal act design to fulfill the expectations implicit in the questions, commands or requests of others. In this research, students‟ responses refer to any verbal or non-verbal act which was done by the students towards a lesson that was given by the lecturer in the Classroom activity.

2. Impromptu Speech

Impromptu speech is a speech that is delivered without any preparation. According to Zarefsky (1996), impromptu is a mode of presentation which the speaker has little or no time for preparation. An impromptu speech is one that is delivered on the spur of the moment, without advance notice or time for detailed preparation (Grice & Skinner, 1993).

3. Communicative Language Teaching

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Those activity types in CLT can show the ability of the students on the implementation of impromptu speech practice in speaking Class.

4. Critical Listening and Speaking Class

Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class (CLS 1) is one of the courses in English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University. It provides the opportunities to the students to talk and deliver their thoughts freely in front of audience. One of the activities developed in CLS 1 Class is impromptu speech practice. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach which is employed in the Classroom activity. The lecturer facilitates communication in the Classroom activity and has the major responsibility to establish communication situation. Lecturers in CLS 1 Class are mostly monitoring the students‟ performances and taking notes of the students‟ errors.

G. Significance of the Study

The strength of this study leant on the responses from the students who have the main role in learning and teaching process. This study produced detailed information about students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech

practice which hopefully reflect the lecturers to develop more interesting activity and materials in conducting better teaching and learning activities. The lecturer in every Class is expected to find a teaching-learning method which is appropriate to the students‟ needs based on the students‟ responses and suggestions. According

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11 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents several theories related to the issue of this thesis. The researcher divides this chapter into two parts. The first part discusses the theories related to limited scope of the research. Thereafter, the second part presents the several theories as the framework to answer the research questions.

A.Theoretical Description

This theoretical description is concerned with theories that are related to the key words used in this research. This part shows the definition and types of responses, the nature of impromptu speech practice, speech practices in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach, and Critical Listening and Speaking 1 (CLS 1) Class. The theoretical descriptions are presented as follows. 1. Definition and Types of Response

a. Definition of Response

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Response refers to any act or thought related to the satisfaction or reduction of a drive (Braun, 1979). In this research, the drive can be shown on the enthusiasm of the students to do impromptu speech practice. Their responses will determine their satisfaction of the implementation of impromptu speech practice, whether they think that the implementation of impromptu speech practice help them to improve their speaking skills or demotivate them instead. Therefore, the lecturer gives the activity to the students related to the topic discussed and then the students are tested whether they understand or catch the information or not. This response will determine the effectiveness of lecturer‟s teaching method

which is used in the Class. b. Types of responses

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Furthermore, Pavlov (1927) defines that there are two kinds of responses. The first one is unconditioned response and the second one is conditioned response. Unconditioned response is the reflex response evoked by a stimulus without any learning required. For giving the example of this kind of stimulus, Pavlov involved salivary responses in dogs. He attached to a dog‟s salivary gland

a glass funnel that directed the saliva to a container where it could be measured. In this way, Pavlov was able to determine that dry food required more saliva than moist food and that nonfood objects required varying amounts of saliva, depending on how hard it was to spit them out. He also used a bell as a neutral stimulus, since a bell was something that would not normally elicit salivation when presented by it. He paired the bell with meat powder, which when presented to the dogs, it would naturally produce a salivation reflex. For the first time, the dog did not naturally salivate to a bell, but it had been conditioned to do so.

Immediately after being introduced, the neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a reflex or emotional response. This reflex-producing stimulus is known as the unconditioned stimulus. It is called “unconditioned” because it involves no learning. After several pairings of the neutral stimulus (the bell) with the unconditioned response, the dog makes the same response to the neutral stimulus as it does to the unconditioned response. At this point, the response in which the dog has been continued to make is called conditioned response (Huffman, 1997).

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shivering, being startled, or salivating. In the experiment, food was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS): an event that leads to a certain, predictable response without previous training. Food normally causes salivation. A dog does not have to be taught to salivate when it smells meat. This is an unconditional response (UCR): a reaction that occurs normally and automatically when the unconditioned stimulus is presented. Under normal conditions, the sound of a tuning fork will not cause salivation. The dog has to be taught, or conditioned, to associate this sound with food. An ordinarily neutral event that, after training, leads to a response such as salivation is called a conditioned stimulus (CS). The salivation that it causes is a conditioned response (CR). A conditioned response is learned. Controlling an animal‟s or a person‟s responses continuously so that an old response becomes attached to a new stimulus is called Classical conditioning (Kasschau, 1974).

2. The Nature of Impromptu Speech Practice

a. Definition of Impromptu Speech Practice

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impart spontaneity and directness to the delivery, but it can also result in inappropriate statements, unexpressed thoughts, and repetitiveness (Koch, 1988). b. Giving an Impromptu Speech Practice

Impromptu speech practice is a type of speech which is delivered without any preparation. Beare (2009) states Impromptu speeches refer to those time when someone get up in front of people and speak about a topic without preparation, or with very little preparation. In addition, Impromptu speech is a fancy phrase used to indicate speaking for an extended length of time about a topic. Beare (2009) also adds that a speech should have an introduction, a main idea or point, supporting evidence / examples and conclusion.

1. An Introduction

Before giving a speech, the speaker should give an introduction. Dugdale (2006) states that in an introduction, there are some aspects to be spoken. The aspects are welcoming statements and self-introduction. Welcoming statements may be various, for example “good morning, good afternoon, good evening,” or giving a short poem to the audience. After giving a welcoming statements, the speakers can give a brief self-introduction.

2. A Main Idea or Point

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speakers can write down the impression of the assignment or anecdotes about their time spent on it.

3. Supporting Evidence / Examples

In order to provoke or giving strong argument, the speaker of the speech should give a supporting evidence or examples. Beare (2009) says, when a person makes a claim or presents an argument, he needs to present evidence in support of his claim and argument in order to establish the veracity and authenticity of his claim or argument. If there is no evidence, the claim stands quashed. The same is true with a case in law where a case or litigation is quashed, if there is no evidence to support the claim. However, literary evidence is only used in literature, essays and research papers for persuasion and convincing purposes.

4. Conclusion

Conclusion is the summary of the speakers‟ speech. The purpose of the conclusion is to summarize the speakers‟ main points and to prepare the audience

for the end of the speech. The speaker of the speech needs to recapture the essence of the speech: the main points and the purpose the speech (Beare, 2009).

c. Impromptu Speech Practice to Elaborate More Topics

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According to Boundless (2015), when practicing impromptu speech, the speakers generally in control of the content they are presenting, so they can include topics that they want to talk about. Additionally, the speaker of the speech can use personal examples from experience to support what they are saying. Since the speakers are the authority over the topic, they can speak with conviction. The delivery will naturally be more conversational and spontaneous. Since the speaker is not prepared with pages of notes, the students are prepared to speak in daily life without any preparation.

3. Speech Practices in Communicative Language Teaching

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a. Students’ Accuracy and Fluency in Impromptu Speech Practice

The implementation of impromptu speech practice leads the students to speak accurately and fluently. The interplay of cognitive and affective, or emotional, factors during speech production exerts heavy demands on language learners, and this, in turn, can have a direct impact on the quality of students‟ spoken language (Goh & Burns, 2012). According to Bygate (1998) and Skehan (1996), the quality of learners‟ speech depends on three characteristics, namely:

fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Goh and Burns (2012) mention three key features of learner‟s speech as follows.

Table 2.1 Three key features of learners’ speech (Goh & Burns 2012, p.43)

Terms Definition Focus

Fluency Speech where the message is communicated coherently with few pauses and hesitations, thus causing minimal comprehension difficulties for the listeners.

Meaning

Accuracy Speech where the message is communicated using correct grammar. The notion of accuracy can also be expanded to include correct pronunciation according to target language norms.

Form

Complexity Speech where the message is communicated precisely. More advanced grammatical forms are used, such as subordination and clausal embedding, which are appropriate for speech in relation to the social and cultural context, as well as the roles of, and relationships with, interlocutors.

Meaning and form

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Table 2.2: Fluency vs Accuracy (Richards 2005, p.15)

Activities focusing on fluency Activities focusing on accuracy 1. Reflect natural use of language

relationships between the interactants, to the setting, topic, and the linguistic context. The speaker must also produce his/her utterance within severe constraints; he does not know in advance what will be said to him (and hence what his utterance will be a response to); yet, if the conversation is not to flag, he must respond quickly (Johnson 1981). Mechanical practice refers to a controlled practice activity which students can successfully carry out without necessarily understanding the language they are using.

A meaningful speech is a speech that can be understood by the audience. The speaker should have the competency of speaking in front of the audience. According to Hymes (1979), an individual‟s communicative competence is his or

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further highlighted by Johnson (1981) where a competent second language speaker is able to do. A meaningful practice also refers to an activity where language control is still provided and where the students are required to make meaningful choices when carrying out practice (Richards, 2005).

Besides the mechanical and meaningful practice, the students should have a communicative practice in a learning activity. The main idea in communicative language teaching approach is the ability of the students to communicate as much as they can. According to Richards (2005), communicative practice refers to activities where practice in using language within a real communicative context is the focus, where real information is exchanged, and where the language used is not totally predictable.

The distinction between mechanical, meaningful, and communicative activities are similar to that given by Littlewood (1981). Littlewood (1981) mentions the characteristics of pre-communicative and communicative activities. The characteristics are presented as follows.

Table 2.3: Pre-communicative activities & Communicative Activities

Pre-communicative activities Communicative activities Structural Activities

Quasi-communicative activities

Functional communication activities Social interaction activities

c. Information Gap Activity

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gap. As it is stated above about functional communication, the activities require students to use their language resources to overcome an information gap or solve a problem in the society (Richards, 2005).

d. The push for authenticity

Some argued that Classroom activities should as far as possible mirror the real world and use real world or “authentic sources” as the basis for Classroom

learning. Clarke and Silberstein (1977) thus argue:

Classroom activities should parallel the „real world‟ as closely as possible. Since language is a tool of communication, methods and materials should concentrate on the message and not the medium. The purposes of reading should be the same in Class as they are in real life (p.51).

e. Feedback and Evaluation

Successful second language speaking development depends as much on teachers and materials. A teacher should encourage learners to support one another‟s speaking development by giving appropriate materials. Hatch (1978) emphasizes that students will be helped by their interlocutors‟ input and feedback.

Hatch also adds that besides hearing input that is modified for the language ability, interact with competent speakers, students have a chance to hear a more accurate model of language which is being used. Furthermore, besides the language input, learners also need feedback in the form of questions, comments, repetitions, confirmation checks, requests for clarifications and reformulation (Goh & Burns, 2012).

f. Ten Core Assumptions of Current Communicative Language Teaching.

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assumption of current CLT into some points. The presentation of the points is explained as follows.

1. Second language learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in interaction and meaningful communication.

2. Effective Classroom learning tasks and exercises provide opportunities for students to negotiate meaning, expand their language resources, notice how language is used, and take part in meaningful intrapersonal exchange.

3. Meaningful communication results from students processing content that is relevant, purposeful, interesting, and engaging.

4. Learners develop their own routes to language learning, progress at different rates, and have different needs and motivations for language learning.

5. Successful language learning involves the use of effective learning and communication strategies.

6. The role of the teacher in the language Classroom is that of a facilitator, who creates a Classroom climate conducive to language learning and provides opportunities for students to use and practice the language and to reflect on language use and language learning.

7. The Classroom is a community where learners learn together through collaboration and sharing.

4. Speaking Class in Critical Listening and Speaking 1

Some of English Department has a speaking Class. Specifically, the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University has Critical Listening and Speaking (CLS) Class as the advance stage for the students who had passed Basic Speaking 1 and 2. Critical Listening and Speaking Class itself has two stages which are CLS 1 and CLS 2.

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expectations from speeches course are making students to become better organized, guiding students to learn more about preparing a speech, or to help students to think more clearly and critically.

Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class which provides impromptu speech practice is one of the most beneficial courses because it forces the students to perform a speech in front of many people. It can also improve students‟ ability to speak in front of audience because they only have a little time to prepare the main idea of the topic. As Zarefsky (1996) adds, by improving presentation skills, students may become more self-confident and more willing to engage in serious dialogue with others.

In CLS 1 Class, the lecturer is not only giving the students opportunity to practice the impromptu speech practice, but also another type of speech. In order to know the situation in real life conversation, the lecturer provides another materials about doing speech. According to Ross (1996), in order to master speech in public, there are some types of speeches which have to be mastered. Speeches are given every day to inform, to persuade and to entertain.

a. Speech to Inform

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b. Speech to Persuade

The focus of persuasion is not on the source, the message or the receiver, but all of them cooperate to make a persuasive process. According to Grice and Skinner (1993), persuasion is the process by which a communicator influences the values, beliefs, attitudes or behavior of another. A key to understand persuasion is the concept of influence. The lecturer of CLS 1 Class also gives an opportunity to persuade the audience through practicing persuasion speech.

c. Speech to Entertain

Delivering speech can be in both formal and informal situation. One of the purposes of speech is to give entertainment to the audience. According to Ross (1965), the “fun”, after-dinner, or radio-television speeches are the most typical examples of speech to entertain. The lecturer also teaches the students to entertain the audience through practicing entertainment speech.

The implementation of an activity in a Classroom needs to be improved continuously. As it is stated at the previous chapter about the significance of the study, students‟ responses can give an innovation for the lecturers in implementing better teaching and learning activity. Dunkin and Biddle (1974), and Good and Brophy (1987) mention some effective teaching as follows:

1) Ask student, experienced teachers, principals, and college professors to list the characteristics they associate with good teaching,

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3) Observe a variety of Classrooms, rate various teachers on specific traits, and then examine which traits are associated with teachers whose students are among the highly motivated and/or the highly achieving,

4) Identify teachers whose students consistently achieve at a higher level than other students, then carefully observe those successful teachers to see what they do,

5) Train teachers to use various strategies to teach the same lesson, and then determine which approach leads to the greatest student learning.

B. Theoretical Framework

In this thesis, the researcher answered the two formulated research questions. The answer to the two research questions were based on several related theories described in the theoretical description part. In the theoretical framework, the researcher presents the related theories to answer each research question. 1. Question 1: Students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech

practice

The first problem formulation is about students‟ responses to the

implementation of impromptu speech practice. The responses from students are very various. The researcher limits the responses into students‟ actions and students‟ thought as it is stated by McKechnie (1981). Braun (1979) and Aiken

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The researcher also uses the theory of Communicative Language Teaching approach which is stated by Freeman (2011), Richards (2005) and Goh & Burns (2012) in order to know students‟ improvements on the implementation of impromptu speech practice. The theory of speaking in public by Zarefsky (1996) is also added in answering the first research question.

2. Question2: Students‟ suggestion for further implementation of impromptu speech practice.

The second problem formulation is about students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice. In order to answer the second research questions, the researcher uses a theory of teaching speaking and English as a foreign language or second language. The theory from Sprinthall (1987) about educational psychology in a development approach is also used in students‟ suggestion on the implementation of impromptu speech practice. However, since the second research question was about students‟ suggestions, the answers are based on the students‟ ways of thinking on the implementation of impromptu

speech practice.

In addition, students‟ suggestions on the implementation of impromptu

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27 CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter provides the research methodology. It presents the description of research method, research setting, research participants, instruments and data gathering technique, data analysis technique, and research procedure.

A.Research Method

The method used in this research was qualitative research. Qualitative data is a source of well-grounded, rich descriptions and explanations of processes in identifiable local contexts (Miles & Huberman, 1984). Qualitative strategies have suggested just how the expectations are translated into daily activities, procedures, and interactions (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982).

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scope. This research investigated an activity in a Class which is the implementation of impromptu speech practice. Moreover, Cohen & Manion (1989) state that a case study work comes under the heading of evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the implementation of impromptu speech practice.

In gathering the data, the researcher used more than one source of data. Rosman and Rallis (1998) mention that qualitative research uses multiple methods that are interactive and humanistic. The researcher used triangulation strategy by using multiple source of data (survey, interview, and observation) in order to minimize researcher‟s bias (Miles & Huberman, 1984). Furthermore, in order to

convey the idea that establishes a fact, researchers needed more than one source of information (Bogdan & Bicklen, 2003). Creswell (2007) also adds that the involvement of multiple sources of information is suggested in order to grab the complete illustration of the phenomenon being investigated and it is allowed the triangulation as an important aspect in the qualitative study. The strategies and instruments for data collection used by the researcher were survey (distributing questionnaire), interview (formal and informal), and observation as it is suggested by Cohen, Manion, and Morison (2011).

B.Research Setting

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(Class D). The researcher observed the Classroom activity of Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class D (CLS 1 Class D), then distributed questionnaire for the students. After that, the researcher interviewed the lecturer and some students of CLS 1 Class D about students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice and students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice.

C.Research Participants

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D. Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique

In gathering the needed data, the researcher used more than one instrument. The researcher used three instruments in order to get many sources of data. Many sources were better in a study than a single source because multiple sources lead to a fuller understanding of the phenomena which the researcher was studying (Bogdan & Biklen, 2003). The instruments used in this research were observation, questionnaire, and interview.

1. Observation

The researcher conducted an observation in order to analyze students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice. According to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2011), observation is more than just looking. It is looking (often systematically) and noting systematically (always) people, events, behaviors, and settings. According to Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011), observation is a widely used means of data collection and takes many forms. The researcher and peer-observer did the observation on Monday and Thursday at 11.00 a.m. in CLS 1 Class, in K15. Actually, the reswearcher did the observation for four times. The following table is the date of observation.

Table 3.1: The Observation Schedule

No Activity Date Time

1 Observation I Monday, November 2nd, 2015 11.00 a.m. – 12.50 a.m. 2 Observation II Thursday, November 5th, 2015 11.00 a.m. – 12.50 a.m. 3 Observation III Monday, November 9th, 2015 11.00 a.m. – 12.50 a.m. 4 Observation IV

(Together with a peer-observer)

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In this research, the researcher conducted an observation sheet to help the researcher and peer-observer to analyze the students‟ response in the Classroom activity. The observation sheet is provided in appendix A. A peer-observer in Classroom observation was also used in order to improve the objectivity of the research. Observations (Morrison, 1993, p.80) enable the researcher to gather the data on:

- the physical setting (e.g. the physical environment and its organization);

- the human setting (e.g. the organization of people, the characteristics and make up of the groups or individuals being observed, for instance, gender, Class);

- the interactional setting (e.g. the interactions that are taking place, formal, informal, planned, unplanned, verbal, non-verbal, etc.);

- theprogramme setting (e.g. the resources and their organization, pedagogic styles, curricula and their organization).

The researcher developed an observation sheet and divided the observation sheet into three parts. The first part was the observation of physical setting (Classroom condition), human setting (participants) and interactional setting (activity) which used statements and notes. On the second part, the researcher made a time-table of the activity which was used to analyze the activity based on the time provided. On the last part, the researcher made blank descriptive analysis and reflective analysis to be filled by the researcher and the peer-observer (Angrosino, 2007).

2. Questionnaire

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survey research. Survey is a research technique in which data are gathered by asking questions of a group of individuals called respondents (Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 2002). Moreover, Cohen, Manion & Morrison (2011) say that a survey has several characteristics and several claimed attractions; typically it is used to scan a wide field of issues, populations and programs. Survey in education often use test results, self-completion questionnaires and attitude scales (Cohen, Manion & Morisson, 2011). In this research, the researcher used self-completion questionnaires as the main data collection. The researcher distributed questionnaires because questionnaires is a useful instrument for gathering factual information, data on attitudes and preferences, beliefs and predictions, opinions, behavior and experiences – both in past and present time (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011).

The researcher distributed a questionnaire to collect the data from respondents. The questionnaire sheet is provided in appendix B. As Wilson and McLean (1994) say that “the questionnaire is a widely used and useful instrument for collecting survey information, providing structured, often numerical data, ……” (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2000, p.377). The researcher formulated

questions that could obtain students‟ thoughts, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, responses, personality, and behavioral intentions (Johnson & Christensen, 2011).

According to Johnson and Christensen (2011), there are two types of questionnaires, namely open-ended questionnaire and close-ended questionnaire.

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contrast, a closed-ended question requires participants to choose from a limited number of responses that are predetermined by the researcher (p. 169).

Since the researcher analyzed the students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice, the researcher conducts an open-ended questionnaire to get detail data from the respondents.

Table 3.2: The Description of Questionnaire

Aims Types Total

items

Questions

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To know students suggestions and students‟ knowledge, experience and opinion about the implementation of

impromptu speech practice in CLS 1 Class, since the students had experienced impromptu speech practice in the previous semester. After answering the first question, the researcher asked about students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice in a Classroom activity such as the advantages and disadvantages of impromptu speech practice, students‟ strengths and weaknesses, and also students‟ achievements after practicing impromptu speech. The

researcher also provided a question about students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice.

3. Interview

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defines an interview as a process in which a researcher and participant engage in a conversation focused on questions related to a research study. The main purpose of an interview was to obtain students‟ and lecturer‟s responses to the

implementation of impromptu speech practice. According to Merriam (2009), there are many types of interviews. This research conducted a structured interview for the lecturer of CLS 1 Class D, and an unstructured/informal interview for some students of CLS 1 Class D.

Table 3.3: Interview Structure Continuum, developed from Merriam (2009)

Structured Interview Unstructured/Informal interview - Wording of questions is

predetermined - Order of questions is

predetermined

- Interview is oral form of a written survey

- Goal is learning from this interview to formulate questions for later interviews

- Used primarily in ethnography participant, observation, and case study

The researcher conducted an interview with the lecturer of CLS 1 Class in order to gather more information about students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice based on the lecturer‟s point of view. The researcher asked the lecturer of CLS 1 Class D about students‟ responses during the implementation of impromptu speech practice, students‟ values and preference (likes or dislikes), students‟ attitudes and beliefs (what they are thinking), students‟ achievements, and also students‟ weaknesses and strength. In this

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wanted to confirm the students‟ answers to the questionnaire. In addition, the

interview to the lecturer is important. The purpose of the interview is to gather the personal experience of the lecturer regarding to the students‟ responses to the

implementation of impromptu speech practice.

Furthermore, in order to get more data about students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice, the researcher asked three students in an informal interview who had unique answers. According to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2011), the interview is a flexible tool for data collection, enabling multi-sensory channels to be used: verbal, non-verbal, spoken and heard. The researcher used member check strategy in the interview in which the researcher gave back the summary of the interview in a script form to the lecturer to ensure that the information is accurate.

E.Data Analysis Techniques

There were three steps in analyzing this research. Miles and Huberman (1984) define, analysis consists of three con-current flows of activity: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. The explanation of three con-current flows of analysis activity is presented as follows.

1. Data Reduction Strategy

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analysis that sharpens, sorts, focuses, discards, and organizes data in such a way that final conclusions can be drawn and verified (Tesch, 1990).

After gathering the data, the researcher reduced the data into small patterns. The data were transformed through selection, summary of interview transcript and by being coded in a small pattern. Miles & Huberman (1984) add that as data collection proceeds, further episodes of data reduction occur (writing summaries, coding, teasing out themes, making cluster, making partitions, and writing memos).

In this study, the researcher developed coding categories. Developing coding systems in qualitative research faces similar parameters (Bogdan & Biklen 2003). Particular research questions and concerns generate certain categories. In this research, the researcher separated the data into codes family. The purpose of coding in codes family was to help the researcher to understand what the codes are and some specific ideas for coding possibilities, not to present an exhaustive scheme from which the researcher mechanically borrow. Bogdan and Biklen (2003) develop code family which are explained as follows.

Table 3.4: Code Family. Developed From Bogdan and Biklen (2003)

Code Family Descriptions

Setting/Context Codes General information on the setting topic, or subject

Definition of Situation Codes

To place units of data that tell you how the subjects define the setting of particular topic.

Perspectives held by Subjects

Codes oriented toward ways of thinking all or some subjects share that are not as general as their overall definition of the situation but indicate orientations toward particular aspects of a setting.

Subjects‟ ways of

thinking about People and Objects

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Process Codes Words and phrases that facilitates categorizing sequences of events, changes over time, or passages from one type or kind of status to another.

Strategy Codes The tactics, methods, techniques, maneuvers, ploys, and other conscious ways people accomplish various things. Relationship and Social

Structure Codes

Regular patterns of behavior among people not officially defined by the organizational chart. Units of data that direct you to cliques, friendships, romance, coalitions, enemies and mentors/students.

Narrative Codes It describes the structure of talk itself.

Method Codes It isolates material pertinent to research procedures, problems, joys, dilemmas and the like.

The researcher chose three codes family in order to get the point of the data. the three codes family are activity codes, perspectives held by subjects and subjects ways of thinking. After coding the data, the researcher displayed the data in the form of narrative descriptive.

2. Data Display Strategy

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information-processing capabilities and prey on their tendencies to find simplifying patterns.

3. Conclusion Drawing/Verification Strategy

Conclusion drawing is a result of a study. From the start of data collection, the qualitative analyst begins to decide what things mean – it is nothing regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations, causal flows, and propositions (Miles & Huberman, 1984). After displaying the data in a narrative description, the researcher made a brief conclusion of the study.

Conclusions were also verified as the analyst proceeded. Verification may be as brief as a fleeting second thought crossing the analyst‟s mind during writing, with a short excursion back to the field notes, or it may be thorough and elaborate, with lengthy argumentation and review among colleagues to develop “inter -subjective consensus”, or with extensive efforts to replicate a finding in another

data set. In this study, the researcher verified the data by giving back the transcript data to the respondent being analyzed (Miles & Huberman, 1984). The purpose of giving back the result of the data was to verify the trustworthiness of the study.

F. Research Trustworthiness

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source of data or triangulation strategy in order to minimize research bias and to prove research trustworthiness.

Furthermore, the researcher used member-check in order to get respondents‟ validation and improve the accuracy of the research. The researcher made a transcript of observation from peer-observer and gave it back to the peer-observer so that the result would be valid from the peer-observer point of view. Moreover, the peer-observer‟s participation also strengthen research trustworthiness because the result of the observation did not only come from the researcher‟s point of view, but also peer-observer point of view. The researcher also gave the interview transcript to the lecturer of CLS 1 Class D so that the lecturer would know the result of the interview section.

G. Research Procedure

This part shows the procedures of the research from the beginning of the research until the data was reported. According to Rummel (1964), there are four steps in doing a research in education. The four steps are presented as follows.

1. Choosing a Problem for Research

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2. Organizing the Techniques in Data Collection

The researcher conducted a qualitative research methodology. The research design was in the tradition of case study. In order to obtain validity and reliability of the study, the researcher conducted triangulation strategy. The triangulation strategy was observation, survey (distributed questionnaire), and interview.

The observation was done by the researcher and peer observer. The researcher divided the observation sheet into three parts. The first part consisted of statements that presented about the condition of the Classroom, participants responses (students and lecturer), and the Classroom activity. The second part, the researcher made a time table to be filled by the researcher and observer about the activity in the Classroom. The last part, the researcher put some descriptive and reflective explanation about students‟ behavior, strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of impromptu speech practice. After getting the data from the observation by the researcher and peer-observer, the researcher rewrote a result of the data in a form of table.

The second data triangulation was developing an open-ended questionnaire for the students about their responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice. The researcher used the analysis of the observation to strengthen students‟ responses in the form of questionnaire. Based on the students‟ answer in

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perspectives of the implementation of impromptu speech practice. Then, the researcher presented the questionnaires from the students in the form of words.

After analizing the questionnaire and the observation, the researcher made an appointment with the lecturer of Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Class D to have a formal interview section. The aim of the interview section was to get data from lecturer‟s point of view on the students‟ responses in CLS 1 Class, especially

on the implementation of impromptu speech practice. The researcher mentioned some questions regarding to students‟ responses, behavior, strengths, weaknesses, and progress on the implementation of impromptu speech practice.

After having the interview, the researcher summarized the interview in the form of narrative text, then the researcher gave the summary back to the lecturer to make sure that the point of the interview was stated as in the summary. The researcher also conducted an informal interview with three students with different responses. The aim of an informal interview was to strengthen students‟ responses and suggestions on the implementation of impromptu speech practice.

3. Analyzing Data

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4. Writing the research report

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44 CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the presentation and discussion of the research findings which provide the answers to the research questions. The research questions are: What students’ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice are and What students’ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice to improve students’ speaking skills are. The

researcher presented the data in a form of words.

A.Study Site

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informal interview with three students regarding the students‟ responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice and the students‟ suggestions for further implementation of impromptu speech practice.

B.Data Analysis

The data analysis consisted of three stages. The stages were data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. The following section is the explanation of each part.

1. Data Reduction

The researcher obtained plenty of data so that the researcher had to record the results carefully. The amount of the data which had been collected were complex. As proposed by Miles and Hubberman (1984), the activity in qualitative data analysis performed interactively and ran continuously until complete, so that the data were already saturated. Therefore, the researcher conducted a data reduction by reading the data as many as possible.

Figur

Table 2.1 Three key features of learners’ speech (Goh & Burns 2012, p.43)
Table 2 1 Three key features of learners speech Goh Burns 2012 p 43 . View in document p.35
Table 2.2: Fluency vs Accuracy (Richards 2005, p.15)
Table 2 2 Fluency vs Accuracy Richards 2005 p 15 . View in document p.36
Table 2.3: Pre-communicative activities & Communicative Activities
Table 2 3 Pre communicative activities Communicative Activities . View in document p.37
Table 3.1: The Observation Schedule
Table 3 1 The Observation Schedule . View in document p.47
Table 3.2: The Description of Questionnaire
Table 3 2 The Description of Questionnaire . View in document p.50
Table 3.3: Interview Structure Continuum, developed from Merriam (2009)
Table 3 3 Interview Structure Continuum developed from Merriam 2009 . View in document p.52
Table 3.4: Code Family. Developed From Bogdan and Biklen (2003)
Table 3 4 Code Family Developed From Bogdan and Biklen 2003 . View in document p.54
Table 4.1: Code Family (Coding Data) Developed From Bogdan and Biklen (2003)
Table 4 1 Code Family Coding Data Developed From Bogdan and Biklen 2003 . View in document p.63
Figure 4.1: The outline presentation of Research Question and Coding  Category
Figure 4 1 The outline presentation of Research Question and Coding Category . View in document p.65
Figure 4.2: Connection between Research Questions and Themes
Figure 4 2 Connection between Research Questions and Themes . View in document p.66

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Lainnya : Student`s responses to the implementation of impromptu speech practice to improve student`s speaking skills in critical listening and speaking 1 class. Communicative Language Teaching Definition of Terms Research Objectives Significance of the Study Definition of Response Definition and Types of Response Types of responses Definition and Types of Response Definition of Impromptu Speech Practice Giving an Impromptu Speech Practice Impromptu Speech Practice to Elaborate More Topics Students’ Accuracy and Fluency in Impromptu Speech Practice Mechanical, Meaningful, and Communicative Practice Information Gap Activity Speech Practices in Communicative Language Teaching Ten Core Assumptions of Current Communicative Language Teaching. Speech to Inform Speaking Class in Critical Listening and Speaking 1 Speech to Persuade Speech to Entertain Theoretical Framework REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Research Method RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Setting RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Participants RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Questionnaire Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique Interview Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique Data Reduction Strategy Data Analysis Techniques Data Display Strategy Data Analysis Techniques Choosing a Problem for Research Organizing the Techniques in Data Collection Analyzing Data Research Procedure Writing the research report Study Site RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Coding Category Data Reduction Data Display Data Analysis Conclusion Drawing and Verification