Fisiologi Dan Produksi Karet Dengan Berbagai Sistem Sadap Dan Penggunaan Stimulan Gas

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SUMMARY

Yayuk Purwaningrum. Physiology and Production of Rubber with Different Tapping System and Use of Gas stimulants. Supervisory by J.A. Napitupulu, Chairani Hanum, and Tumpal HS, Siregar.

Growth and yeild of Rubber is determined by several factors such as genetic, environmental and exploitation system. Each clone has different metabolic level, namely low, medium and high. Differences in metabolism can be characterized through specific morpho-physiological character. Differences in metabolism and water status in the soil and plants will cause differences in exploitation systems used.

Exploitation system in rubber cultivation consists of exploitation intensity, length of tapping slices, tapping frequency and stimulant application. Mistake in the selection of exploitation system will lead to decrease in rubber productivity. This research was conducted at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara III (Persero), Sungai Putih. Data on average annual rainfall is divided into wet months (September to November), dry months (January-March) and humid months (April-August-December) according to Oldeman classification system. Variables associated with anatomical and morpho-physiological observations of rubber is predetermined then followed by exploitation system experiment on each clone to study the physiological responses and yield of clones PB 260 and BPM1. This research design is Nested Design, with two treatment factors. The first factor is tapping system, consisted of four levels namely S/4, S/2 S/2U and S/4U. The second factor is stimulant that consists of four levels ie liquid stimulant ET2,5%, and gas ETG/9d, ETG/18d, and ETG/27D. To observe the response of each clone after treated by exploitation systems, measurement was conducted for physiology and latex yield.

Results of anatomy and morpho-physiological identification shown that there is no difference in number and diameter of latex vessels, sucrose content, inorganic phosphate, and latex yield between clones BPM 1 and PB 260 both on renewable and virgin bark. Thiol levels were higher in clones PB 260 compared to BPM 1. Similarly, Thiol levels were higher in renewable bark of clone PB 260 than virgin bark of clone BPM 1. Results of physiological responses and production due to exploitation system treatment in the two clones show that downward tapping with length of tapping slices S/4, in the wet, humid and dry months with gas stimulants on clone BPM 1 will generate high DRC, TSC, Latex flow rate. For sucrose, the highest content was obtained at same direction and length of tapping slice (S/4) but for liquid stimulant, the highest Pi levels and potential yield was found in length of tapping slices S/2 with the same direction (downwards and use the liquid stimulants). Upward tapping system, length of tapping slice S/2 in dry and humid months with gas stimulants for clone BPM 1 was generating high thiol levels and yields. For the same tapping system (S/2U) in wet months and using liquid stimulants will produce high latex flow rate. Short slices with upward direction (S/4U) using liquid stimulant in humid months produce high latex flow rate and yield. The highest blockage index for BPM 1 was found for short slice with upward direction (S/4U) and gas stimulants. For clones PB 260, downward tapping system, short slice (S/4) and using gas stimulant on dry months produce high TSC and DRC. Slices length S/2 with upward tapping and gas stimulant on dry and wet months produce high levels of sucrose, Pi, thiol, Blockage index and high yield potential. With the same length, tapping direction and using liquid stimulant, S/2U produces high index and high yield for clone PB 260.

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Upward tapping system, slices length S/4 (S/4U) with gas stimulants in wet, dry and humid months produces high latex rate for clone PB 260. Exploitation system S/d3 ETG 2U/27D on BPM1 can increase the yield of rubber up to 185.67% in humid months, while for clones PB260, exploitation system S/2U d3 ET/15d can increase the yield up to 135.51% in the wet months. For one year of testing, application of all stimulant on clone BPM1 and PB 260 have not shown excessive exploitation stress as reflected by thiol levels from 0.30 to 0.48.

Keywords: Clones BPM 1, PB 260, exploitation system, anatomy and morpho-physiology variable and latex yeild.

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RINGKASAN

YAYUK PURWANINGRUM. Fisiologi dan Produksi Karet dengan Berbagai Sistem Sadap dan Penggunaan Stimulan Gas. Di bawah bimbingan JA Napitupulu, Chairani Hanum, dan Tumpal HS, Siregar.

Pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman karet ditentukan oleh beberapa faktor antara lain genetik, lingkungan dan sistem sadap. Setiap klon karet memiliki tingkat metabolisme yang berbeda, yaitu rendah, sedang dan tinggi. Perbedan metabolisme dapat ditandai melalui karakter morfo-fisiologi yang spesifik. Perbedaan metabolisme dan status air dalam tanah dan tanaman akan menyebabkan perbedaan sistem eksploitasi yang digunakan. Sistem sadap pada budidaya karet terdiri dari intensitas sadap, panjang irisan sadap, frekuensi sadap dan aplikasi stimulan. Kesalahan dalam pemilihan sistem eksploitasi akan menyebabkan penurunan produktivitas karet.

Penelitian dilaksanakan di PT. Perkebunan Nusantara III (Persero) Sungai Putih, selama satu tahun, yang dibagi atas bulan basah (Sep-Desember), bulan kering (Janurai-Maret). Dan bulan lembab (April-Agustus). Peubah amatan terkait anatomi, morfo-fisiologi karet dilakukan terlebih dahulu, yang kemudian selanjutnya melakukan percobaan sistem eksploitasi pada masing masing klon untuk melihat respons fisiologi dan produksi dari klon PB 260 dan BPM 1.

Hasil penelitian menunujukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang nyata dari jumlah dan diameter pembuluh lateks, kadar sukrosa, fosfat anorganik, dan hasil antara klon PB 260 dan BPM 1 baik pada kulit pulihan maupun kulit perawan. Tetapi diperoleh kesimpulan khusus kadar tiol lebih tinggi pada klon PB 260 dibandingkan dengan BPM 1. Hasil penelitian respons fisiologi dan produksi akibat perlakuan sistem sadap pada dua klon diperoleh bahwa kadar sukrosa lebih tinggi pada klon BPM 1 dibandingkan klon PB 260. Kadar sukrosa yang tinggi untuk klon BPM 1 menggunakan sistem sadap S/4 d3 ET/15d di bulan lembab, S/2U d ETG/9d (bulan basah) dan S/2U d3ETG/18d (bulan kering). Kadar FA lebih tinggi pada klon BPM 1 dibulan basah (S/2d3ETG/9d). dibandingkan klon PB 260. Akan tetapi pada bulan kering (S/2U d3ETG/18d) dan lembab (S/2U d3 ETG/9d) FA PB 260 lebih tinggi. Kadar tiol lebih tinggi pada klon PB 260 di bulan basah dan kering (S/2U d3 ETG/9d) dibandingkan BPM 1. Pada bulan lembab perubahan sistem sadap dan stimulan tidak mempengaruhi kadar tiol pada klon PB 260. Kadar Karet Kering di bulan kering (S/4d3ETG/9d) dan lembab (S/2d3ET/15d) klon BPM 1 lebih tunggi dibandingkan PB 260. Kecuali di bulan basah PB 260 lebih tinggi dari BPM 1 (S/2 d3 ETG/9d). Indeks penyumbatan pada klon BPM 1 lebih rendah di bulan basah (S/2U d3 ET/15d), kering (S/4U d3 ETG/9d) dan lembab (S/4 d3 ETG/18d) dibandingkan klon PB 260. Produksi lateks dan indeks produksi pada klon BPM 1 lebih tinggi di bulan lembab dengan sistem sadap S/2U d3ETG/27d dibandingkan klon PB 260. Akan tetapi pada bulan basah dan kering (S/2U d3ET/15d) produksi dan indeks produksi tertinggi pada PB 260. Sistem eksploitasi S/2U d3 ET/15d pada klon PB260 pada bulan basah dapat meningkatkan hasil 135,51%. Sistem eksploitasi S/2U d3 ETG/27d pada klon BPM 1 dapat meningkatkan hasil 39,52% pada bulan kering dan 185,67% pada bulan lembab. Sistem eksploitasi S/2U d3 ETG/27d pada BPM 1 dapat meningkatkan hasil karet sampai 185.67% pada bulan lembab, sedangkan untuk klon PB 260 sistem eksploitasi S/2U d3 ET/15d dapat meningkatkan hasil 135,51% pada bulan basah. Selama satu tahun pengujian pemberian semua perlakuan stimulan pada klon

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BPM 1 dan PB 260 belum menunjukkan cekaman eksploitasi yang berlebihan yang tercermin dari kadar tiol 0.30-0.48. Selama satu tahun pengujian pemberian semua perlakuan sistem eksploitasi pada klon BPM 1 dan PB 260 belum menunjukkan cekaman berlebihan yang tercermin dari kadar tiol pada kisaran 0,30 - 0,48.

Kata kunci : Klon BPM 1, PB 260, sistem sadap, peubah fisiologi dan hasil lateks.

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