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17 Maret 2014 Ratno Nuryadi

Contoh-Contoh Kata/Kalimat yang Sering Digunakan dalam KTI

Internasional

A. Judul

1. A study of [on] … 2. Studies in …

3. Investigation of … / Inquiry into … 4. Analysis of …

5. Observations on [of] … 6. Problems of …

7. Aspects of … 8. … in …

9. On … 10. Etc

B. Introduction, Background

B.1. Selama ini riset … belum banyak dilakukan

1. Only few attempts [Surprisingly few studies] have so far been made at … 2. No studies have ever tried to …

3. … has never been examined.

4. Little attention has been given to the point.

5. The study of … has been strangely neglected by critics (scientists, etc.). 6. So far the study of … has been superficial.

7. Research on … often fails to grasp … 8. The problem is still in controversy.

9. The author (the work) has hitherto been ignored.

B.2. Riset ini pernah dilakukan

1. Numerous attempts have been made by scholars to show (demonstrate) … 2. Over the past few years (decades) a considerable number of studies have been made on …

3. In the last few years, several articles have been devoted to the study of … 4. … has provoked a great deal of controversy.

5. Over the last few years (decades), … has been the subject of controversy. 6. Much ink has been spent on …

7. … have worked from a slightly different angle.

8. The researches of modern scientist have thrown new light on the subject. 9. … has been recently brought to light by …

10. In a recent paper published in … , … a new analysis (interpretation, etc.) of …

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B.3. Riset ini pernah dilakukan, tetapi belum cukup

1. Although … has been an object of study for a long time, there is a little agreement as to …

2. Although a large number of studies have been made on … , little is known about …

3. A great deal of effort has been made on … . What seems to be lacking, however, is …

C. Tema dan Tujuan

C.1. Menulis tema dan tujuan dengan jelas 1. The purpose (aim) of this paper is to … 2. We are concern with … ( We deal with …) 3. Our concern is to consider (examine, etc.) … 4. This paper is intended as an investigation of …

5. It is because I believe that … that I have written this tudy. 6. The point I want to make is that …

7. What I wish to show in this paper is …

8. The present book is written with the aim of ing …

9. Two motives have combined to make me write a paper on … 10.The purpose here is to explore a little further into …

C.2. Menghindari hal yang tidak berhubungan dengan tema 1. We are not concerned here with …

2. A close study of … is not necessary for our purpose. 3. … , but this is not our present concern.

4. … , but it is not my present purpose to explore this area. 5. …, but here I limit the discussion to …

C.3. Sesuai dengan lingkup …

1. … comes within the scope of this paper. 2. The intended the readership is …

3. The target audience is …

D. Kalimat Pembuka

1. First of all, we have to inquire into … 2. We will begin by considering …

3. The first question (point, etc.) to be discussed is … 4. A good place to start is …

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7. We will begin with a simple observation. 8. … provides a starting-point.

9. I would like to focus attention on …

E. Menunjukkan masalah

1. The question is …

2. The question now arises:

3. The question then arises about (as to) …

4. This drives us to the question whether (what, how, etc.) … 5. … is open to question.

6. Two points need to be made.

7. The question which has been touched from time to time but not explored is … 8. We are confronted by two difficulties. The first is … . The second is …

9. While there can be no doubt that … , there must be considerable doubt as to …

10.There remains a second question:

11.The question which we must consider next is … 12.There is a further point which needs to be clarified. 13.One final point should be made about…

14.It remains an unsettled question what (how, whether, etc.) … 15.Having decided … , the only thing left to discuss is …

16.The problem increases when one turns from A to B.

F. Menyatakan fokus dan point masalah

1. The point about … is …

2. The core of all the questions is … 3. This is the central problem of …

4. Central to this issue is the problem of …

5. That goes to the very heart ( core) of the problem. 6. … is, in fact, the key to …

7. It offers the key to an understanding of …

8. Here one gets a glimpse of the secret background of … 9. Pursuing these questions, we almost reach the core of …

G. Melakukan klasifikasi

G.1. Melakukan pembagian kategori 1. There are three kinds of …

2. They may be divided into three types.

3. They can be classified into three main groups. 4. They are grouped into the same class.

5. … falls into three catagories. 6. … belongs to the category of …

7. … should be differentiated into A, B and C.

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G.2. Membagi masalah menjadi poin-poin

1. It will be useful, to begin with, to make a distinction between two kinds of … 2. Three points seem to be helpful in attempting to sketch out …

3. We may consider the subject under the following heads: (1) … ; (2) … ; and (3) …

4. It seems reasonable to consider … through three types of organization. 5. The question resolves itself into the following two points.

G.3. Di luar kategori

1. … passes clean outside the category of … 2. … can be left outside the category of …

H. Menuliskan Urutan

H.1. Menuliskan urutan dari banyak masalah atau kejadian 1. First, … . Secondly, … . Thirdly, …

2. In the first place, … . In the second place, … . Furthermore, …

3. To begin with ( To start with), … then ( next), … . Finally ( lastly), … . 4. For one thing, … . What is more, … One final point is …

H.2. Poin penting menguat sesuai urutan

1. The first important point is … . Even more important is … . Most important of all is …

H.3. Poin penting melemah sesuai urutan

1. The first and foremost, … . Next, … . Only in the final place, ….

I. Kalimat Penambahan

1. Added to this (these), … 2. In addition to this (these), … 3. It should also be added that … 4. To … we may add, for instance, …

5. There is one other thing that is important for (in) … 6. There is one further … that we must not ignore.

7. The most important addition to be made to what we have said about … is … 8. We need scarcely add that …

J. Memberikan Contoh

1. Take … for example. 2. … , for example, …

3. Examples of this are … , … , and …

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7. Such as / like

8. This is an interesting case where … 9. This is a good illustration of …

10. The following serves as an example:

11. Here, for example, is a passage (a few lines, etc.) from … 12. Three examples will suffice to show …

13. The following are a few random examples: 14. Another example is …

15. Here is another example: … 16. Another example occurs in …

17. … is another illustration of the same point. 18. There are several other examples.

19. As a further example of … , let us consider the following extract (quotation) from … :

20. Another, less elaborate (less typical), example is … 21. Similar examples will spring to ( come to) mind: … 22. Similar examples are abundant ( numerous). 23. Examples abound.

24. There are many cases where …

25. One can cite many examples which seem to support this. 26. I will take an example to illustrate (show, etc.) …

K. Menyatakan Pengecualian

1. There are a few exceptions to the rule. 2. … is an exception to the rule that …

3. With the exception of … / except … / except for … / except that … 4. This rule has its exceptions in …

5. …. , although it is subject to some exceptions.

6. One exception should be made to what has been said about … 7. … , and … is no exception.

8. Without exception, …

L. Menyatakan Bukti

1. There is good (sufficient, enough, considerable) evidence to show (prove) that …

2. There is evidence in plenty to show that … 3. There is further evidence to suggest that …

4. There is evidence in favour of (in support of, to support) … 5. There is evidence against the idea.

6. … serves as evidence of …

7. … gives (produces) evidence for …

8. It would be possible to argue (though the evidence is not compeling) that … 9. It cannot be proved that …, but it seems likely (unlikely) that …

10.There is not much (enough) evidence to decide the matter. 11.Direct evidence for … is, and is likely to remain, exiguous. 12.There is no conclusive proof that …

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15.… argues from textual evidence that …

16.The authenticity for … is doubtful (remains uncertain). 17.… gives authenticity to …

M. Menyatakan Poin Utama (summary)

1. In short (in brief) 2. To sum up

3. The point is that …

4. Let me summarize the main points that have been made in this chapter. 5. It can be best summarized in the following sentences:

6. We may put the whole question briefly in this way. 7. Such is an outline of …

8. It may be desirable to mention shortly the points of … 9. All of this amounts to saying that …

10.So far, we have seen how (what, that, etc.) … 11.What I have tried to show in this chapter is that … 12.It was observed in this (the preceding) chapter that …

N. Menyatakan Kejelasan Suatu …

1. It follows from what has been said that … 2. This example from … makes it clear that … 3. All these things make it clear that …

4. From this viewpoint one may say that …

5. We can see (recognize) from … what (how, that, etc.) … 6. It is clear (plain) that …

7. From these remarks one general point becomes very clear: 8. A close look at … will reveal that …

9. Reflection on some of these will make clear that …

10.Several observations in the last few paragraphs have shown what (how, that, etc.)…

11.Viewed in this light, … can be regarded as …

O. Kesimpulan

1. It should be concluded, from what has been said above that … 2. We may, therefore, reasonably conclude that …

3. It seems reasonable to conclude: … 4. Thus we see …

5. We may go on from this to the conclusion that … 6. We arrive at (come to) the conclusion that …

7. On these grounds I have come to the conclusion that … 8. In conclusion, (1) … ; (2) … ; (3) …

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