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Mariany Gusniar Samosir Reg. Number 4113332003

Bilingual Chemistry Education Program


Submitted to Fulfill the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan






The greatest praise and thankfulness to the Almighty God, Jesus Christ for His grace and blessing who always provide health, spirit, strength and everything to the author in finishing this thesis well and accordance to the planning time.

This thesis, “The Development of Interactive and Innovative Chemistry Learning Material on the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium” has been arranged to obtain the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (FMIPA), State University of Medan (UNIMED).

In this opportunity, the author would like to express the great appreciation to Prof. Drs. Manihar Situmorang, M.Sc., Ph.D., as the thesis supervisor and Dr. Simson Tarigan, M.Pd., Dr. Ajat Sudrajat, M.Si and also Drs. Rahmat Nauli, M.Si as the thesis examiners and also to Drs. Marudut Sinaga, M.Si., as the author’s academic supervisor for their valuable time spent in giving guidances, advices, motivations, comments and suggestions during the process of finishing this thesis.

The author also says thanks to Prof. Drs. Motlan, M.Sc., Ph.D., as the dean Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Medan, then Prof. Dr.rer.nat. Binari Manurung, M.Si., and Dr. Iis Siti Jahro, M.Si., as the head and secretary of Bilingual Program. Great thanks to Prof. Dr. Ramlan Silaban, M.Si., Prof. Dr. Retno Dwi Suyanti, M.Si., Dr. Zainuddin Muchtar, M.Si, Dra. Anna Juniar, M.Si, and also Freddy Tua Musa Panggabean, S.Pd., M.Pd as the expert lecturer to standarize the module. And also thanks to Syamsuddin, S.E., (Pak Sam) as bilingual staff for his helping in administrative assistance and kindness.



The deepest and special gratitude, appreciation and love to my beloved parents, E. T. P. Samosir and D. Sitinjak for theis countless love, supports, prays, motivation and careness and also to my beloved brothers, Septian Adil Putra Samosir and Denis Ary Yusuf Samosir, then to my beloved sisters Sriratika Samosir for their supports. And also special thanks to my beloved sister Vera Christina Manalu and also my brothers and my sisters at “Bersama 25” for their loves and great motivations and also funny capricious that make me spiritfully.

Special thanks also goes to my friends Lanita Br Munthe, Liesa Afridhila, Nova Syntia, Januelman Purba (Dik’A 2011), Corry, Fitri, Esalygna, Novi, Dessy, Yory Yosua Siahaan (BilChem 11), Rhone P. Brocha (BilChem 11), Rusdi Lastaida (BilChem 11), Juwita Sitorus (BilChem 11), Hesti vera (BilChem 11), that have accompany me during the research. I also would like to thanks for all of my friend in BILINGUAL CHEMISTRY 2011, and for Billingual Chemistry 2010 as our “original senior”, Brother Dimas Frananta Simatupang, S.Pd (BilChem’09), Sis Fenny Rizki Amelia, S.Pd (BilChem’10) and also for my closed friend Obi Satrinanda Manik for his support during the research, and everyone who cannot be mentioned his/her name for their support and frienship during my academic years.

Finally, the author hopes this thesis would be useful for everyone who like to explore more about the learning material and the innovation and integration to learn chemical equilibrium notably and chemistry generally. May God bless us forever.

Medan, July 2015 The author,





Mariany Gusniar Samosir (Reg. Number : 4113332003)


The development of innovative and interactive learning material on the teaching of chemical equilibrium is explained. The study is aimed to obtain good and standard learning material on the teaching of chemical equilibrium to university students. The study is conducted through enrichment of chemical equilibrium topics followed by the development of learning media in video form to integrate a relevant material on each chemistry topics on chemical equilibrium. The results showed that the learning subject of chemical equilibrium has been developed well. Standardization of the material and learning material have been carried out by make questionnaire and the lectures are agree with developed learning materials with respond (3.62), students bilingual chemistry 2011 with responds (3.50), students bilingual chemistry 2012 with responds (3.70), and student bilingual chemistry 2013 with responds (3.60). The total average of the respond is 3.67 that means learning material is valid and good. The learning material set in e-book and the media is set in a CD to make it easy to use in learning process in offline system. The developed of learning material have been standard and can use as learning material on the teaching of chemical equilibrium as topic in General Chemistry II motivate the student to study chemistry.





Legalization Sheet i

Biography ii

Abstract iii

Acknowledgement iv

List of Contents vi

List of Tables ix

List of Figures x

List of Appendix xi


1.1. Background 1

1.2. The Problem Identification 5

1.3. The Problem Formulation 6

1.4. The Problem Limitation 6

1.5. Research Objectives 7

1.6. The Significance of Research 7

1.7. The Operational definition 7


2.1. Learning Material 9

2.1.1. Defining of Learning Material Focused 9

2.1.2. The Types of Learning Material 9

2.1.3. The Development of Learning Material 10

2.2. The Innovation of Learning 11

2.2.1. Defining of Innovation Focused 11

2.2.2. Innovation in Teaching and Learning Process 12 2.2.3. Interactive Teaching Material for Chemistry 17


vii E- learning Focused Definition 18 E-learning as Bio-information 20 Assessment of the Feasibility Standard 21 Textboook in Learning Materials based

on Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP)

2.3. Description of Study Materials 23

2.3.1. Chemical Equilibrium 23 Definition of Chemical Equilibrium 24 Le ChâtelierPrinciple 26 Equilibrium Expression 28

2.4. Conceptual Framework 29

2.5. Research Hypothesis 30


3.1. The Overview of Research 31

3.2. Research Location and Time 32

3.3. Research Population and Sample 32

3.4. Research Instrument 33

3.5. Research Design 33

3.6. Research Procedure 33

3.7. Data Analysis 37




4.1. Survey of General Chemistry Textbooks 38 4.2. Descriptive analysis of General Chemistry Textbooks 40 4.3. Development of Innovated Chemistry Learning Module 47 4.4. Standardization of Innovative Learning Module 49

4.5. Discussion 50


5.1. The Conclusion 57

5.2. The Suggestion 58




Page Table 2.1. The table of relationship between Q and K in chemical equilibrium 29 Table 4.1. The Description of General Chemistry Textbook that are include

in the survey 38

Table 4.2. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code A 40 Table 4.3. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code B 41 Table 4.4. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code H 41 Table 4.5. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code C 42 Table 4.6. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code D 43 Table 4.7. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code E 43 Table 4.8. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code F 44 Table 4.9. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code G 44 Table 4.10. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code I 45 Table 4.11. The result of Descriptive Analysis of Textbook Code J 45 Table 4.12. The Percentage Average of Suitability of Description Material

for Analyzed Textbooks 46

Table. 4.13. The Questionnaire Result of Innovative and Interractive





Fig 2.1. The figure of thermal equilibrium 23

Fig 2.2. the figure of chemical equilibrium concept 24 Fig 2.3. The figure of final concentration of chemical equilibrium 25 Fig 2.4. The figure of reaction of Le Chatelier principle 26 Fig 2.5. The figure of disruption and restoration of chemical equilibrium reaction 27 Fig 4.1. The comparison of average percentage of books 47 Fig 4.2. The application of development learning material using software 48

Fig 4.3. The integration of module innovation 48





Appendix 1. Sylllaby 64

Appendix 2. Analysis of General ChemistryTextbok 68 Appendix 3. Questionnaire of Innovation and Interactive Chemistry 78

Learning Material on the topic of chemical equilibrim

Appendix 4. The question for Description of Trial 79 Appendix 5. The Innovative and Interactive Chemistry Learning Material 81 Appendix 6. The Questionnaire of Standardization by Students 82 Appendix 7. The Questionnaire of Standardization by Chemistry Lecturers 87 Appendix 8. The Average of Standardization value by Students and Lecturers 88

Appendix 9. Research Documentation 89




1.1. Background

Basically the vision of science education is to prepare the students to have an understanding of science and technology, through the development of thinking skills, attitudes and skills in an effort to understand themselves, they will be able to manage the environment, can overcome the problems in the environment. Fenrich (in Pranomo, 2008) state that, in the long run, the vision of science education provides critical thinking ability, logical, systematic, be creative, diligent, disciplined, follow the rules, be able to work together, be open, confident, have job skills, social skills, communication skills and other basic capabilities which is a scholarly work continuously need to be developed to provide students in the face of the challenges in an increasingly competitive society.

Wiederhold (in Costa, 1980) state that, the underlying philosophy is the study of the basic capabilities of this scientific work is the very essence of science which holds science as a product and a process. As a product, is the science of Sciences acquired through a structured process of active, dynamic and explorative of inductive activity (Carin, 1997). Next learning science is based on constructivism learning theory which holds that learning is an activity to build knowledge that is done by the students based on the experience of previous owned (Ramsey, 1993). The learning process is carried out through an exploration of the stages which have experience through scientific activities started with the observation of primary and or secondary data up to the conclusion that a new knowledge. Learning is an activity to apply new knowledge on relevant issues conducted in inductive and deductive, which is an activity that develops thinking and acting in a sustainable way (Zevenbergen et al., 2010).



and higher-order thinking, developing a critical attitude, logical, systematic, disciplined, objective, open and honest, cooperative, curiosity, love to learn science. In addition, it will foster job skills through relevant activities. The attitudes and skills ability to grow "science disposition", i.e. the desire, awareness and dedication to science is needed in 21st century technology. The purpose of learning starts with a desired or would like to know the students. Dalton (2008) state that learning based on constructivism reference gives students experience as a means to form knowledge. The provision of science learning, students are required to develop the science process skills, inductive thinking, scientific attitude, skill manipulation tools, communication skills all of which are integrated in the basic skills of scientific work (Liliasari, 2009)

According to (Arifin, 2005), currently, the problems of the quality of secondary education are often discussed and debated, especially not the achievement of a quality education which evenly even if Indonesia has used the national curriculum as a guide. Various efforts to improve the quality of education continue to be done in various ways, but the indicator towards the improvement of the quality of education is still slow. Improved quality of education should always be done continuously, either conventionally or through innovation in anticipation of the changes to be faced by the students, so as to be able to think globally and act in accordance with the culture of Indonesia (Pandley et al., 1994)



"Chemical Equilibrium". Chemical Equilibrium contains concepts difficulties analysis concept in study and teach it.

Many research findings revealed the students difficulties on the concepts relating to the topic of chemical equilibrium which is, stated that students have difficulty in describing the scheme of particulate matter and transfer to the sub-micro symbolic representations in equilibrium in solution. According to Orgill & Shuterland (2008) states, although students are able to complete the calculation (as a symbolic representation), but find it difficult to represent aspects of the system submicroscopic solution. Based on this problem researchers intend to make innovation of teaching materials, in order to facilitate the students to understand the concepts learned.

According to Atwi Suparman on (Suhi achmad, 2009), improving the quality of education should always be performed conventionally or through innovation. Innovation in education is seen as central concept for obtaining change for a better education, as it believed that the quality of education is an indicator for the development rate of the country. The common approach of innovation is a changed in a significant and substantial respect for the innovated object. The innovations in education are including the invention, diffusion and adoption, communication and utilization that produce better result. Innovation in education could be in a new practice in technology of teaching, aided instruction, teaching and learning activities, learning material, and another practice that bring improvement in education sector.



focused and able to support the achievement of competence of students in learning. Therefore, it is necessary that learning can make students understand about the subject presented and can be applied in everyday life. Need a concrete attempt to design learning which gives ease to students in solving problems and guide students to associate of science in real life creatively (Giantcarlo and Slunt, 2004)

Innovation learning materials on chemical subjects especially on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium is also very necessary as it relates to the improvement of the quality of graduates in employment fill the field of chemistry. The utilization of information technology for learning has also encouraged a shift from the conventional learning, learning to be independent so that the impression of learning long remembered by students, in addition to the technology will make students more interactive learning independently, besides learning innovations can also provide increased efficiency and effectiveness of learning toward renewal (Ingo Eilks and Bill Byers, 2009).

A good learning materials must be able to present the teaching material according to the demands of the curriculum, following the development of science and technology and can bridge the learning for competencies has been established can be achieved (Rosenberg, 2001). Chemical materials in the learning materials should be systematic, complete, easier to understanding, attract, motivate independent study and has additional material as appropriate to the characteristics of student enrichment. The research aims to produce innovative chemical materials in hardcopy and electronic forms to support the achievement of desired competencies (Bruner, 2010).



development through module is 74% whereas in the control class (without module) is 61%. The other researcher that have been made in connection with the teaching methode that Dimas Frananta S (2013) with the tittle “The Effectivity of Innovated Learning Module and Demostration Methode with Macromedia Flash Animation to Improve Student’s Achievement on the Teaching of Salt Hydrolisis” with effectivenes percentage of innovated module is 74,25% for student without module and 84.33% with innovated module.

Based on the description, researchers are interested in doing some research and trying to develop innovative learning materials in learning chemistry. This research entitled “The Development of Innovative and Interactive Chemistry Learning Material on the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium”

1.2. Problem Identification

Based on the background of that which has been described previously, some problems can be identified as the following:

1. The arrangement of chemistry learning material on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium to order it is suited to the common curriculum.

2. Prepare an innovation and interactive chemistry learning material on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium in order the teaching and learning process can be proceeded optimum.

3. Make innovation on to the chemistry learning material of Chemical Equilibrium in order the students can easily to study chemistry.



1.3. Problem Formulation

Based on the background that has been stated previously, then the formulation of the problem in this study are:

1. How the arrangement of chemistry topic Chemical Equilibrium to order it is suited to the common curriculum?

2. How to prepare an innovative and interactive chemistry learning material on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium in order the teaching and learning process can be proceeded optimum?

3. What kind of innovation can be made on to the learning material of Chemical Equilibrium in order the students can easily to understand chemistry?

4. How to standardized a developed learning material to meet the standard provided by Indonesia Education National Standard Beareau (BSNP)?

1.4. Problem Limitation

In order for this study did not deviate from the purpose of research, the problem in this study should be limited. From the formulation of this problem, so that limit the problem in this study are:

1. Arranging and developing the standard innovative and interactive learning materials on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium.

2. Preparation of innovative and interactive teaching materials developed from the general chemistry textbooks used in the Science Faculty, State University of Medan.

3. Analyze the student’s opinion to the textbooks used in university.



1.5. Research Objectives

The objective of this research is to develop an innovative and interactive learning material on the teaching of Chemical Equilibrium in the university. The specific objectives to be achieved in this study are:

1. Arrangement of chemistry learning material topic Chemical Equilibrium to order it is suited to the common curriculum

2. To prepare an innovative and interactive chemistry learning material on the topic of Chemical Equilibrium in order the teaching and learning process can be proceed optimum

3. To know what kind of innovation can be made on to the learning material of Chemical Equilibrium in order the students can easily to study chemistry.

4. To standarize a developed learning material to meet the standard provided by Indonesia Education National Standard Beareau (Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan).

1.6. The significance of Research

The advantages that were hoped from this research:

1. Chemistry teacher can use teaching material as module to make an effective teaching and learning and to increase student’s achievement. 2. For researcher, to develop and standardize the teaching material as

module to be used in student in university.

3. Student who learn chemistry can understand the topic of Chemical Equilibrium easier, more attractive, and enjoyable.



1.7. The Operational Definition

Based on that explanation, the operational definition as the following: 1. Innovation are research activities, development, and engineering

which aims at developing or applying the practical value and the context of the new science, or new ways to apply science and technology that already exists in the product or production process because Innovative for learning material here is a learning that is designed/ composed by integrating new innovations in the learning with the goal of keeping students more easily understand the learning done. Innovation is a new breakthrough that is different from the ordinary (conventional) learning, such as the addition of the media in the process of learning, the formation of discussion groups and so on. 2. Interactive learning material are a modification of material to meet

attractive one. Said interactive because the user will experience the interaction and being active for example actively paying attention to images, pay attention to the writings of varying color or motion, sound, video and even animated films.

3. materials are all materials (both information, tools or text) that are arranged systematically, which shows the figure of the whole of the competence to be controlled by the learners and are used in the process of learning with the aim of planning and review of the implementation of the study.




Based on the result of research that obtained from the result of data analysis. It can be stated some conclusion as follows:

1. The arranging of innovative and interactive chemistry learning material on topic of chemical equilibrium has succesfully designed suited to the common curriculum that using at university students. The development of chemistry learning material could be used as a learning media on teaching of chemical equilibrium at second semester for university.

2. The standard and good innovative and interractive chemistry learning material prepared to proceed teaching and learning process optimum. It was get the positive response from students and chemistry lecturers as a standardizer with point that given.

3. The kind of innovation that has been include on the development of innovative and interactive chemistry learning material is offline and online innovation. There are video, example and exercise as an offline innovation, while the online innovation when the students connected to internet and using the web link that has been inputed on the learning material as an e-book.



5.2. The Suggestion

Based on the conclusion above, there are some suggestion that have to be stated in order to make teaching and learning process in chemistry become effective and efficient as follows:

1. It is suggested that the chemistry lecture should give the standard and good innovative and interactive chemistry learning material based on the common curriculum as main learning media to student in the university especially learning material of chemical equilibrium.

2. It is suggested to next researcher could improve the better innovative and interactive learning material based on common curriculum and develop the e-book to make it more simple and easy according to the suggestion that given by sample as standardizer.



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Fig 2.1. The figure of thermal equilibrium
Fig 2 1 The figure of thermal equilibrium . View in document p.10