A. Previous Study - The students’ perception on English usage as the medium instruction used by the English teachers at SMAN-1 Palangka Raya - Digital Library IAIN Palangka Raya

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, there are three main things that will be talked about. They are previous study, concept of perception, and medium of instruction.

A. Previous Study

LuhPutuArtini studied about “Penggunaan English as medium of instruction

dankonsekuensinyaterhadap proses pembelajaranditinjaudaripersepsisiswa”1. The writer

applied descriptive qualitative method in her study. The result of the study showed that the commitment of teachers and students in using English is observed in classroom activity notwithstanding they have their inadequacy. The data of perception generally pointed out

the teachers‘ lack of self-confidence to use English in learning process. In line with that

finding, the students do not feel distinctly what the teachers use in English, consequently the students hard to understand and do their tasks. Depend on this research, the writer understands that there is a similarity between the previous research and what the writer wants to talk. It is usage of medium instruction used by teacher, but it is more complicated

than the writer‘s research. Luh Putu investigated deeply the implemetation by the teacher.

Beside that, it has basic disparity between them is the object. Luh Putu concerned her researh on science and mathematic class, while the writer focused on the English class.

Secondly, it is relevant to the study of MangasaAritonang about ―Motivation and

Confidence of Indonesian Teachers to Use English as Medium of Instruction”2. This

1LuhPutuArtini, ―

Penggunaan English as Medium of Instruction danKonsekuensinyaterhadap Proses PembelajaranDitinjaudariPersepsiSiswa‖, JurnalIlmuSosialdanHumanioraUniversitasPendidikanGanesha, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2013

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research used qualitative method which undertaken using an interpretive research paradigm and case study approach. The finding revealed varying increase in the levels of motivation and confidence of the participants and transformation of extrinsic to intrinsic motivation appeared to occur. The last result is some factors give contribution to increase the motivation and confidence. So, Aritonang has something different with the writer‘s research. It is contained in what he wants to know about the motivation and confidence of Indonesian Teachers using English as medium of instruction.

Another study is related, it is study of Sultan Sultan, Helen Borland and Bill Eckersley about “English Medium of Instruction in Indonesian Public Junior Secondary

School: Student’s Language Use, Attitude/Motivation and Foreign Language Outcomes”3.

The writers used multiple case study research design in their study. For sample, the writers used 3 SBI junior secondary schools in South Sulawesi Province. The results of the study: First, Most of the students of EMI improved their English because they have extra time to develop their skills outside the schools. Second, the data indicated that EMI students use English more often than their counterpart in no-EMI programs both at home and at schools. Together with that, students in urban areas speak more in mix between English and Indonesia than students in rural areas. Third, most of students responded that they learn English based on instrumental orientation. It is clear to make dissidence. Sultan et al, did the investigation toward the result of the applying english as medium instruction and make comparation with the students who do not use english in classroom.

Fourth study that is relevant, it is study of Ruth. M. H. Wong about “The

Effectiveness of Using English as the Sole Medium of Instruction in English Classes:

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Student Responses and Improved English Proficiency”. Action research was conducted by

the writer in this study. In this study, two senior secondary ESL classes in Hong Kong (Class E and Class P) were chosen as project classes. The student profiles of both classes were essentially homogeneous, and both classes were facing public examinations the following year. Students were admitted to the school with English grade results of either D or E (A is highest, F is a failed grade). The numbers of students in the two classes were 24 (Class E) and 25 (Class P), yielding a total of 49 participants. The result of the study said that the amount of English spoken with the teacher in each class were also different and it is evident that student of Class P spoke more substantial amount of English in class. Another result, it was clear that Class P students were generally keen to use only English in class. However, not all insights are easily apparent in statistical results — many Class E

students, although somewhat favoring ‗English-only‘ English lessons, actually did not

strongly prefer that this policy be implemented, and believed that some leeway for the use of Cantonese could in fact facilitate better learning.4

This is study of KarunakaranThirunavukkarsu about ―Reintroduction of English as

Medium of Instruction in Sri Lanka: With Special Reference to JAFFNA”. This study is purely based on qualitative method and exploratory in nature. Data was collected from two

schools: Jaffna Hindu College and Vembaddi Girls‘ High school. All together 80 subjects

participated in this study. As a result, it can be concluded that English medium education has received support in the Tamil community in Jaffna because English is considered as a prestige language and English is a tool through which one can reach the horizon of the

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world but the successful operation of the program still has a long way to go to address the expectation of the Tamil community in Jaffna.5

B. Concept of Perception

Perception is a process of using information and your understanding of the world so that sensation become meaningful experiences. Perception is more than a passive process of absorbing and decoding incoming sensations. Perception is so quick and familiar that it is difficult to appreciate the processes that allow you to turn sensory signals into your personal experiences of reality. By shaping experience, perceptions influence thoughts, feelings and actions. But before something can be perceived, it must be sensed.6

In other hand, perception is the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, an integration of stimuli carried out by the the sense organs and brain.7 Percepiton occurs when we integrate, organize, and interpret sensory information in a way that is meaningful.8 So, every single person has perception about everything in this world. But beside that, individuals perceive something in different way.

Most relevant theories and explanations of perception as a process of acquiring and processing of information may be divided into two basic groups, according to the direction of information flow9.

The first is a group of theories which suppose using only bottom–up processes when acquiring and processing sensory data. By bottom–up processes, it means processes that

5KarunakaranThirunavukkarsu, Reintroduction of English as Medium of Instruction in Sri Lanka:

With Special Reference to JAFFNA,International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, p 1-8.

6

Douglas A. Bernstein and Peggy W. Nash, Essentials of Psychology, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008, p 86.

7Robert S. Feldman,

Understanding Psychology, McGraw Hill Companies, 2011, p. 99

8

Don H. Hockenbury and Sandra E. Hockenbury, Psychology Sixth Edition, Worth Publishers, 2013, p. 88

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start at the lowest sensory levels — that means ( from the cortex‘s point of view) at the most distant levels of cognitive apparatus — and then they gradually lead to more complicated and complex processes which take place in higher (cortical) structures which are responsible for more global and abstract ways of thinking.

On the contrary, the top–down theories suppose that in the process of discrimination,

but mainly when processing sensory stimulus, it starts by ―feeling‖ sensory data on

receptors, but the processing presumes a downward influence of higher cognitive contents which organize and later determine them. Such influence it can call the top–down effect. The core of this approach is the fact that in order to process sensory stimulus, one needs to have prior experience or knowledge, or other influences which help to organize and form cognitive contents.

1. The Bottom–Up Theories of Perception Explanation

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the percepts are directly induced by external objects and more or less correspond to them.

A typical prototype of such direct realism is Gibson‘s theory of direct perception.

a). Gibson‘s theory of direct perception

J. J. Gibson believed that the cognitive apparatus was created and formed by a long evolutionary influence of external environment which is apparent in its structure and abilities. It learned to extract precisely the information which is necessary for the

survival. In accordance with Darwin‘s assumption, the pressures of the environment

caused the receptors to be created and formed so that they became sensitive to relevant stimulus from the environment and they adapted to the environment. Such interpretation of perception is called the ecological one because it attributes the determinative role to the environment and to its influence on the whole process of perception.

The basis of Gibson‘s theory is the conviction that the perception is determined

by optical flows optic arrays, which Gibson regarded as some sort of structures or patterns of light in the environment. The visual terminology he was using is not important since, analogically, it can be used for auditory or tactile components of perception.

2. The Top–Down Indirect Perception Theories

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experience, according to the theories of indirect perception, perception is possible only by means of mental representation,computation or creating a picture of a given reality.

a). Constructivist theories

Constructivist theories assume that the process of perception is a highly active process of extracting sensory stimuli, their evaluation, interpretation and backward organization of sensory stimulus. Perception is the end product of the interaction between stimulus and internal hypotheses, expectations and knowledge of the observer, while motivation and emotions play an important role in this process. Perception is thus influenced by a wide range of individual factors that can lead to an inadequate interpretation.

One of the most popular constructivist theories of perception is Gregory‘s theory.

While Gibson integrated the phylogenetic flow of time (the influence of evolution on cognitive apparatus) into the process of perception, Gregory used also the flow of ontogenetic time. He claims that sensory data found on receptors are just some sort of energy samples, but they are of no great importance themselves. Their importance is based on our previous experience. Data have the past and the future; they change themselves and they influence each other. They have some hidden aspects that emerge only if influenced by various conditions.

What Gregory is trying to suggest is what it calls the importance vagueness of sensory data. Similarly to Gibson, he does not doubt the importance of receptors for

acquiring data but he disagrees that sensors possess the ability ―to read― the meaning of

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Perception is a matter of receptors as well as of brain. The name of his book Eye and Brain follows this idea.

b). Computational theories

Another example of the bottom–up theories are computational theories. The core

of their approach is the expansion of Helmholz‘s belief in unconscious inference and

evaluation of sensory stimuli. Proponents of computational theories are trying to solve the issue of perception by eliminating the question of conscious experience, while at the

same time utilizing some of Gregory‘s premises. They believe that perception is not

determined by conscious intentionality or motivation, but that it is being operated by relatively easy mechanical rules which can be applied to unconscious entities as well.

A typical example of developing computational theories is the field of applied informatics and artificial intelligence. Although the area in which they study perception is not totally conscious or alive in the biological sense, in their theories they often utilize biology or comparisons of different cognitive apparatuses. By studying particular systems, by which organisms acquire and evaluate sensory data, they find the fundamental patterns algorithms which can be applied to apprehend human perception as well as in the area of inanimate nature. The example of such procedure may be the

analysis of scent tracks by a snake‘s vomeronasal organ.

1. Process of Perception

Perception does not just happen, but is the end result of complex ―behind the

scenes‖ processes, many of which are not available to the awareness. An everyday example

of the idea of behind the scenes processes is provided by what‘s happening as it watches a

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the play, another drama is occurring backstage. An actress is rushing to complete her costume change, an actor is pacing back and forth to calm his nerves just before he goes on, the stage manager is checking to be sure the next scene change is ready to go, and the lighting director is getting ready to make the next lighting change.

Just as the audience sees only a small part of what is happening during a play, the perception of the world around is only a small part of what is happening as the perceive. One way to illustrate the behind-the-scenes processes involved in perception is by describing a sequence of steps, which it will calls the perceptual process.

The perceptual process, shown in Figure 2.1, is a sequence of process that work together to determine the experience of and reaction to stimuli in the environment. It will consider each step in the process individually, but first let consider the boxes in Figure 2.1, which divide the process into four categories: Stimulus, Electricity, Experience and Action, and Knowledge. Stimulus refers to what is out there in the environment, what it actually pays attention to, and what stimulates the receptors. Electricity refers to the electrical signals that are created by the receptors and transmitted to the brain. Experience and Action refers to our goal to perceive, recognize, and react to the stimuli. Knowledge refers to knowledge it brings to the perceptual situation. This box is located above the other three boxes because it can have its effect at many different points in the process. It will consider each box in detail, beginning with the stimulus.10

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Figure. 2.1 The Perceptual Process

In this research, the writer intends to find out the perception of the students toward the usage of English as medium of instruction. The writer hopes by finding out the

students‘ perception, the students give their real experience inside the class, how the

teacher use language in the class, and how the students perceive the language used by the teacher.

Knowledge

Experience and action

7. Perception 8. Recognition 9. Action

Stimulus

1.Inviromental Stimulus

2.Attended Stimulus

3.Stimuluson the Receptors

Electricit y

4.Transduction 6.Processing

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C. Medium of Instruction 1. Definition

Generally, people in educational context often find and hear the term of medium of instruction in academic life. Medium of instruction has a meaning ―bahasapengantar‖ in Indonesian language. Thinking about the meaning of MOI (Medium of Instruction) is not really hard to analyze but it has to be disclosed plainly.

Medium of instruction is language that used as instruction by teacher inside the classroom.11 It is easy to understand that MOI is classroom language practiced by the teacher where the communication betweenteacher and students use that language. Furthermore, MOI is the language used to teach other subjects.12

Language is at the center of all the teaching and learning activities because it is the main medium and source for transmission of information and knowledge. Language use to teach and to impart instructions in any discipline, subject and at and any level of learning (Elementary, secondary, Higher etc) is called Medium of instruction. The medium of instruction is a controversial issue at all levels, especially in the society like Indonesia in which various systems of education are followed13.

The language medium policy refers to the policy related to the medium of instruction in school. The medium of instruction is the language used in the school to implement the curriculum. It performs all the functions of language (informative, regulatory, inter- national, personal) but in practice the most commonly formed ones are the informative, the

11

Aijaz Ahmed, TayyabaZarif and Tehseen, The Role of Medium of Instruction Used in Pakistani Classroom, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 4, No. 12, 2013.

12 A.S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Eight Edition), Oxford University Press,

2010, p. 923

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regulatory and the heuristic. Language has been used as a means to convey the accumulated knowledge and wisdom to the human race. It is also used as a tool to teach students the basic skills needed in later life. In addition, the student is given some practice in using language to find things out for themselves14.

D. English as Medium of Instruction

Teaching English as a foreign language, which is also known as teaching English to speakers of other languages or English language teaching involves the process of teaching the English language to students whose first language is not English15.

The function of English as an international tool or as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the English as a foreign language classroom. This does not only require that teachers help their students develop the linguistic skills needed to understand various kinds of accents and in turn be understood by others, but it also paves the way for an enhanced awareness of the existence of non-native speakers all over the world who use English as a means of communication16.

1. Usage of English

It is not an awkward moment when English language used in English class. However, Language is a skill and it must be applied than just kept in the brain.17 It indicates that the usage of language in the class supports the raising of skill on language. While Direct Method, one of teaching methods, which emerges a view of Henry Sweet that

14AlisPuteh, Medium Of Instruction Policy In Malaysia: The Fishman‘s Model, European Journal of

Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012, pp 11 - 22

15

Clare Gilby, Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Edge Hill University, 2011, p 1

16

Gillian Mansfield and Franca Poppi, The English as a Foreign Language / Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca, Profile Vol. 14, No. 1, 2012. p 159-172

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the method it is focused on the use of the target language in the classroom.18 The main point of the method is how to use the target language in communication of learning process The language used as the main language in the classroom for communication. It is proper to use a complex language in a class that is intermediate and advanced level. But for the begginers, it is more simple when the teacher uses gesture and tone of voice to help students understand the instruction. Holding with the situation, the students slowly understand and learn how to use words in English. So, as long as the learning process runs, they will also learn how to listen, pick out the words, and begin to think in English system. By the time, they will avoid the interfence of L1 or mother tongue.19

2. Start Using English

Even with the students who is the first time with English, it is possible to use entirely in English. Students which is used to receiving all instructions and explanation in native language will get in disorder with the real English classroom. At the first step, they have to be coaxed and persuaded to know the value of English class. The best thing to appeal to thir pride is introduction. Then, they get the knowledge from the teacher and use the knowldge. But the students only accept it and cannot be followed with the action. For

example, ―Would you please close your book?‖. This instruction should be have a clear

demonstration. Perhaps one or two students understand the instruction, but the majority of students confused. When the teacher has practiced the instruction and the students still do not understand well, the teacher should make the instructiom unpretentious. After giving

18

M.F. Patel and Praveen M. Jain, English Language Teaching (Sunrise Publishers and Distributors, 2008), p.78

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the instruction, and some students do not get the point, the teacher should not be angry with the students. Praise is more valuable than anger and punishment.20

3. Praise before Correction

The most important thing when teacher communicates with the students by giving the instruction and the demonstration follows it, mistakes can be happened whenever along the process of learning activity. If the students ask, ―You want collect our books?‖. This

question should be corrected but the first thing the teacher must praise them. ―Good, Well

done, Yes, I want collect your books.‖ After giving response with the praise, the teacher

should say, ―Do you want to collect our books?‖, and ask to the students to use the pattern of the question. This way is an effort to avoid lack of confidence of the students. They will be motivated and not nervous of making mistakes.21

4. Get The Students Talking

As what we talk about the circumstance in classroom above, teacher must say to the students what to do and how to do together with gesture. For example, even in the class

which not taught about present perfect tense, the teacher asks, ―Have you finished your

exercise?‖. Then the teacher can nod and give the gesture toward someone who has

finished the exercise and say ―Yes, I have.‖ The whole students in the class will understand

and can say it too. Finally, the students will automatically respond without needing the gesture of teacher when the same pattern of the question asked.

The teacher also can use this another technique to get the students speak and talk. When a student comes late, the teacher should stop him using L1 by gesturing and giving some necessary words like, ―I‘m sorry I‘m late‖ several times until he can say it. Then the

20

Ibid...p.1

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teacher gives a respond ―Good, Yes thank you, but do not be late again‖ or others

expression that indicate a praise.22

5. Persuading the Students To Speak English

By the end of the year, students have quite a good idea to speak in English. The teacher may need to explain this and say that they will be better in their exam and raise the ability to speak if they speak with people they meet. But naturally, sometimes they will ask something by using their L1. Do not worry, explain them slowly in English and make them repeat it.Praise them, say that they are clever than they think and after a few weeks the students will try things more.23

A theory supports the usage of English (target language) in class as medium instruction that is Direct Method. The basis of this method was developed in Europe by Francois Gouin in the 1880s. His premise was that it was best to learn another language by listening to it and speaking it just as children do instead of learning a set of gram mar rules and vocabulary lists. The goal of this method is to teach students, usually adults, how to converse in everyday situations in another language. From this idea developed the direct method as an antithesis to the grammar-translation approach. A couple of decades later, the direct method was popularized in the United States by Charles Berlitz (who called it the Berlitz Method) and used it in his commercial Berlitz language schools. Other aspects of the direct method include class room instruction exclusively in the target language, only everyday language is taught, and grammar being learned inductively. Although this

method‘s initial insistence on using only the second language in the class room as well as

its lack of activities to develop reading and writing prevented it from being accepted in

22

Ibid.p. 2

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public education, it has, with modifications, influenced some contemporary approaches such as communicative language teaching, the natural approach, and total physical response.24

E. Grammar Translation Method

The measurement of using English as e medium of instruction is covered by the theory of direct method and processes in teaching the English class by Jane Willis. It supports the ideas of implementation English in the class. As a theory, grammar translation method (GTM) shows the writer about intervene of using L1 in English class. This is a consideration to use L1 in problem of monolinguals.

The Grammar-Translation Method is not new. It has had different names, but it has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was called the Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek. Earlier in the 20th century, this method was used for the purpose of helping students to read and appreciate foreign language literature. It was also hoped that through the study of the grammar of the target languagestudents would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Finally, it was thought that foreign language learning would help students grow intellectually; it was recognized that students would probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it would be beneficial anyway25. In GTM, the meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into the students‘

24

Deborah L. Norland and Terry Pruett-Said, A Kaleidoscope of Models and Strategies for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, London: Teacher Ideas Press, 2006, p 5

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native language. The language that is used in class is mostly the students‘ native

language26

.

More than that, the use of mother tongue may contribute to language learning process in various occasions in the learning-teaching process; however, the excessive use of it may result in too much dependence on it, which is less desired outcome27. Moderate and judicious use of the mother tongue is helpful and canfacilitate the learning and teaching of the target language28. Schweer cited in Elsa Auerbachthat a sociopolitical rationale for the use of the L1 in ESL classrooms. She primarily addresses the situation of immigrant ESL learners studying in the United States. Her conclusions, however, are applicable to any immigrant second language learners in any metro pole. In this article, she states

that―everyday classroom practices, far from being neutral and natural, have ideological

origins and consequences for relations of power both inside and outside the classroom.‖

Auerbach summarized her conclusion in the following way: ―Starting with the L1 provides

a sense of security and validates the learners‘ lived experiences, allowing them to express

themselves. The learner is then willing to experiment and take risks with English.‖

Piasecka seconds Auerbach‘s position when she states, ―One‘s sense of identity as an

individual is inextricably bound up within one‘s native language.Schweers excerpted in Hopkins that if the learner of a second language is encouraged to ignore his/her native language, he/she might well feel his/her identity threatened29.

26

Ibid, p 21

27

TuranPakera and ÖzlemKaraagaç, The use and functions of mother tongue in EFL classes, AnInternational Conference on Teaching and Learning English as an Additional Language, Antalya – Turkey, 2015, p 111-119

28

Tang Jinlan, Using L1 in the English Classroom, English Teachers Forum, 2002, p 32

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Schweers also cited in Atkinson lists appropriate uses for the L1 in the L2 classroom. Auerbach suggests the following possible occasions for using the mother tongue: negotiation of the syllabus and the lesson; record keeping; classroom management; scene setting; language analysis; presentation of rules governing grammar, phonology, morphology, and spelling.

The purpose of the grammar translation method was to help students read and understand foreign language literature. It was an efficient way of learning vocabulary and grammatical structures. Through focusing on the rules of the grammar of the target language students would recognize the features of two languages that would make language learning easier. A significant role of this method is translating one language into the other. In this method mastery of the grammatical rules and vocabulary knowledge are emphasized; therefore. It has been hoped that learning is facilitated. In order to communicate accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately skills and practice students need are provided using the grammar translation method.

Reading and writing are the primary skills students develop in this method; moreover, translation activities will supply students clarity and they will have the opportunity to improve accuracy in the target language. When students can cover form and meaning their language awareness will raise, and they will enhance their abilities to study independently. Mart cited on Vienne that also points out that translation activity will raise awareness not only of the mother tongue and the foreign language, but also of the two cultures. Translation in foreign language learning process promotes understanding. The Grammar-Translation method has been considered useful for students in second language

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one can use, develops the ability of interpretation, and through the imitation of the best writers it makes us able to produce similarly good texts, because translation forces us to notice such details as would escape the attention of a simple reader30.

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Figur

Figure. 2.1
Figure. 2.1 p.10

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