Di Bandar Udara Juanda, saat ini ada beberapa. perusahaan penerbangan yang mempunyai jadwal penerbangan

Teks penuh

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V f > f <

o

rvi

5.1. KOMPOSISI JUMLAH PEMERBANGAM DI BANDAR UDARA JUAHDA

Di B a n d a r U d a r a Juanda, saat ini ada b e b e r a p a p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n y a n g m e m p u n y a i j a d w a l p e n e r b a n g a n d a n b e r o p e r a s i s e c a r a teratur. P e r u s a h a a n - p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n itu a d a l a h :

- GI ( G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a ) d e n g a n p e s a w a t k e l a s A = 60 %, k elas B = 40 %.

- M N A ( M e r p a t i N u s a n t a r a A i r l i n e s ) d e n g a n p e s a w a t k e l a s B = 50 %, k e las G = 50 %.

- B I A (Bo ur a q I n d o n e s i a A i r l i n e s ) d e n g a n p e s a w a t ke las B = 50 %, k e la s C = 50 %.

- HA L ( M a n d a l a A i r l i n e s ) d e n g a n p e s a w a t k e l a s B = 30 X, k e l a s C = 40 k e l a s D + E = 30 %

- P AS ( P e l i t a Air S e r v i c e ) d e n g a n p e s a w a t k e la s B = 20 %, k elas C = 40 %, k el as D+ E = 40 %

Selain G I , MNA, BIA, MA L da n PAS ada j u g a p e s a w a t - p e s a w a t t e r b a n g p r i b a d i m i l i k p e r u s a h a a n - p e r u s a h a a n s w as t a ( G u d a n g Garam), J u a n d a F l y i n g School, IPTN dan lain-lain, y a n g t idak m e m p u n y a i j a d w a l p e n e r b a n g a n tetap di B a n d a r U d a r a Juanda, y a n g t er d i r i d a r i p e s a w a t kelas C = 40 % dan

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kelas D + E = 60 %. J u g a terdapat p e s a w a t - p e s a w a t m i l i t e r m i l i k TNI-A U, TNI-AL, T N I - A D dan P O L R I .

K o m p o s i s i p r o s e n t a s e pema k a i a n B a n d a r U d a r a J u a n d a u n t u k p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k pada tahun 1987 dan 1988, d apat d i l i h a t p a d a a n a l i s i s d a t a pada L a m p i r a n I T abe l 1.19.

Dari a n a l i s i s d a t a tersebut, d i d a p a t k a n p r e d i k s i k o m p o s i s i p e m a k a i a n B a n d a r U dara J u a n d a u n t u k p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k p a d a ta hun 2000 (La mpir an IV T a b e l 4.7.), y a i t u :

- GI ( G a r u d a I n dones ia) = 2 2 .120 gera kan . - M N A (Merp ati H u s a n t a r a Airl i n e s ) = 8.01 9 gera kan . - B I A (Bo ura q I n d o n e s i a Airl i n e s ) = 7.1 02 gera kan.

- MAL ( M a n d a l a A i r l i n e s ) = 1.723 gera kan.

- P A S ( P e l i t a Air Servic e) = 446 ger aka n.

- L (Lai n - l a i n = p e s a w a t prib a d i = 17.876 ger aka n.

m i l i k p e r u s a h a a n - p e r u s a h a a n swasta, pemerin tah , dll.)

- M (Mil iter) = 8.75 7 gerakan.

J u m l a h tota l p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k p a d a tahun 2000 = 2 2 . 1 2 0 + 8 .019 + 7.102 + 1.723 + 44 6 + 17.87 6 + 8 . 7 5 7 = 6 6 . 0 4 3 g e r a k a n .

P a d a tahun 2000, s e l u r u h p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k G a r u d a In donesia, t e r k e c u a l i p e n e r b a n g a n s h u t t l e service, s e p e r t i S u r a b a y a - J a k a r t a dan J a k a r t a - S u r a b a y a y a n g m a s i h te tap d i t a n g a n i G a r u d a Indonesia, suda h d i s e r a h k a n k e p a d a M e r p a t i N u s a n t a r a Airl ine s. Den gan j u m l a h p e n e r b a n g a n S u r a b a y a - J a k a r t a dan J a k a r t a - S u r a b a y a = 25 g e r a k a n / h a r i , m a k a p a d a tahun 2000 j u m l a h p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a di B a n d a r U d a r a J u a n d a = 25 x 365 = 9.125 gerakan. S e d a n g j u m l a h g e r a k a n M e r pati N u s a n t a r a A i r l i n e s

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= 8 .01 9 + (22.1 20 - 9.125 ) = 2 1 .014 g e r a k a n .

B a n d a r U d a r a I n t e r n a s i o n a l Juanda, d i r a n c a n g d e n g a n k o m p o s i s i 85 % u n t u k p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k da n 15 % u n t u k p e n e r b a n g a n interna s i o n a l . S e d a n g k a n p e n e r b a n g a n i n t e r ­ n a s i o n a l ini h a n y a d i l a k u k a n o l e h G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a dan p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n asing, d e n g a n k o m p o s i s i G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a = 7,5 % dan p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a s i n g (PPA)

= 7,5 %. M a k a p r o s e n t a s e p e m a k a i a n B a n d a r U d a r a I n t e r ­ n a s i o n a l J u a n d a p a d a tahun 2000, a d a l a h s e b a g a i b e r i k u t :

GI ,9 . 1 2 5 / 6 6 . 0 4 3 X 85 % + 7,5 % = 19,24 %.

M N A = 21 . 0 1 4 /66.043 X 85 % = 27,0 5 %.

BIA z: 7 . 1 0 2 / 6 6 . 0 4 3 X 85 % = 9, 14 % .

MAL - 1 .723 / 6 6 . 0 4 3 X 85 % = 2,22 %.

PAS - 4 4 6 / 6 6 . 0 4 3 X 85 % = 0,57 %.

L z: 17 . 8 7 6/66.043 X 85 % = 23, 01 %.

M = 8 . 7 5 7 /66.0 43 X 85 % = 11,27 %.

PP A ^ 7,50 %.

D e n g a n d i s e r a h k a n n y a s e b a g i a n p e s a w a t p e n e r b a n g a n d o m e s t i k m i l i k G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a k e p a d a M e r p a t i N u s a n t a r a A i r l i n e s , m a k a k o m p o s i s i p e s a w a t G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a menja di:

k e l a s A = 80 %, k e las B = 20 %, dan k o m p o s i s i p e s a w a t M e r p a t i N u s a n t a r a A i r l i n e s m e n j a d i : k elas B = 70 % dan kelas C = 30 %. S e d a n g k a n p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a s i n g t e r d i r i d a r i p e s a w a t k elas A = 90 % dan kel as B = 10 %.

P a d a ta hun 2 0 0 0 ; p e a k hour di B a n d a r U d a r a I n t e r n a s i o n a l J u a n d a = 58 g e r a k a n / j a m , m a k a j u m l a h g e r a k a n p e s a w a t di B a n d a r U d a r a I n t e r n a s i o n a l Juan da, t e r d i r i

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d a r i :

GI = 19,24 % X 58 = 11 g e r a k a n / j a m . M N A = 2 7 ,05 % X 58 = 16 g e r a k a n / j a m . B I A = 9,14 % X 58 = 5 g e r a k a n / j a m . MAL = 2,22 % X 58 = 2 g e r a k a n / j a m . PA S = 0,57 % X 58 = 1 g e r a k a n / j a m . L = 23,01 % X 58 = 13 g e r a k a n / j a m . M = 11,27 % X 58 = 7 g e r a k a n / j a m . P P A = 7,50 % X 58 = 5 g e r a k a n / j a m .

J a d i p a d a t ahun 2000, j u m l a h g e r a k a n p e s a w a t di B a n d a r U d a r a I n t e r n a s i o n a l J u a n d a = 1 1 + 1 8 + 5 + 2 + 1 + 13 + 7 + 5 = 60 g e r a k a n / j a m .

5.2. J U M L A H D A N K A P A S I T A S G A T E

U n t u k m e n g h i t u n g j u m l a h dan k a p a s i t a s gate, d i b e d a k a n 2 jenis, y a i t u :

1. G a t e y a n g d i g u n a k a n s e c a r a b e r s a m a - s a m a u n t u k s e l u r u h k elas pesa wat .

2. G a t e y a n g d i g u n a k a n u n t u k p e s a w a t k elas t e r t e n t u s a j a .

5.2.1. G a t e y a n g D i g u n a k a n S e c a r a B e r s a m a - s a m a u n t u k S e l u r u h K e l a s P e s a w a t

U n t u k m e n g h i t u n g j u m l a h gate y a n g d i p e r l u k a n , d i p e r g u n a k a n r u m u s :

V T G = --- U

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di mana :

G = j u m l a h gate

V = volu m e r e n c a n a u n t u k k e d a t a n g a n atau k e b e r a n g - katan p e s a w a t (50 % p e a k hour) p e s a w a t / j a m . T - 2 = r a t a - r a t a w aktu p e n g g u n a a n g ate (jam),

m e n u r u t p r o p o r s i m a s i n g - m a s i n g k el as di mana : kelas A = 60 menit, kelas B = 40 menit, kelas C

= 30 menit, kelas D + E = 20 meni-t.

= p r o p o r s i p e s a w a t kelas i

= waktu p e m a k a i a n gate oleh p e s a w a t kel as i U = u t i l i z a t i o n fac tor

= 0,6 s/d 0,8 u n t u k g a t e y a n g d i g u n a k a n s emua airline s, dan 0,5 s/d 0,6 u n t u k g a t e yang h any a d i g u n a k a n airl i n e t e r t e n t u saja.

u n t u k m e n g h i t u n g k a p a s i t a s g a t e d i p e r g u n a k a n rum us :

G

di m a n a :

F = k a p a s i t a s g a t e per j a m ( p e s a w a t / j a m ) G = j u m l a h gate

i = p e s a w a t ke las i (i = 1,2,3,4 ,... n) n = j u m l a h ke las p e s a w a t

= p r o p o r s i p e s a w a t kelas i

= waktu p e m a k a i a n g ate oleh p e s a w a t kelas i

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5.2.2.Gate yang Digunakan untuk Pesawat Kelas Tertentu Saja

D a l a m j e n i s ke d u a ini, d i a s u m s i k a n b a h w a tidak s e l u r u h p e s a w a t d a p a t m e n g g u n a k a n s e l u r u h gate. D i a s u m s i - kan b a h w a s e b u a h g a t e u n t u k s e b u a h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g y a n g b e s a r d a p a t d i g u n a k a n j u g a oleh s e g a l a j e n i s p e s a w a t y an g lebih kecil.

D a l a m j e n i s ini, n o t a s i y a n g d i g u n a k a n a d a l a h :

i = u k u r a n p e s a w a t t e r b a n g y a n g d i k e l o m p o k k a n ke d a l a m k elas i ; i = 1 u n t u k y a n g p a l i n g be sar dan i = n u n t u k y a n g p a l i n g kecil.

= j u m l a h g a t e y a n g d a p a t m e n a m p u n g p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k elas i.

= p r o p o r s i ( f r ac t i on) d a r i g a t e total y a n g d a p a t m e n a m p u n g p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k e l a s i.

tj^ = p r o p o r s i ( f ra c t i o n ) d a r i w a k t u g a t e total ya ng d i b u t u h k a n p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k e l a s i.

F = k a p a s i t a s g a t e y a n g d i a s u m s i k a n d a p a t m e n a m p u n g s e l u r u h p e s a w a t terbang.

C = k a p a s i t a s g a t e y a n g d i a s u m s i k a n t i d a k d a p a t m e n a m p u n g s e l u r u h p e s a w a t terbang.

X = p e r b a n d i n g a n d a r i C d a n F

J u m l a h g a t e t otal G m e r u p a k a n j u m l a h g a t e d a r i s e m u a ti pe p e s a w a t terbang, y a k n i G = 2 ^ Gj^ da n p r o p o r s i ( f r a c ­ t io n) d a ri g a t e u n t u k p e s a w a t t e r b a n g tipe i, y a k ni gj^

Gj^/G. S e d a n g k a n p r o p o r s i ( f ra c t i o n ) d ar i w a kt u g a t e total y a n g d i b u t u h k a n p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k elas i, y a i t u :

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" ' 2i MiTi

M u l a - m u l a d i l i h a t a p a k a h gat e c u k u p u n t u k m e n a m p u n g p e s a w a t t e r b an g kelas i. Se ba g a i contoh, u nt uk p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k elas t e rbesar (i = 1), j i k a p r o p o r s i ( f r a c t i o n ) d a r i w a kt u y a n g d i b u t u h k a n u n t u k m e l a y a n i p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k e l a s 1, lebih kecil d a r i p a d a atau sama d e n g a n p r o p o r s i ( f r action) d ar i ga te total y a n g d a pat m e n a m p u n g p e s a w a t t er b a n g kelas 1 (tj^ <_ gj^), m a k a s e l u r u h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g kelas 1 d a pat d i t am pu ng . J i k a tj > gj^, m a k a t i d a k s el u r u h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g kelas 1 d a p a t d i t a m p u n g . U n t u k k a sus ini, k a p a s i t a s C = F (gj^/tj^).

S e l a n j u t n y a d i l i h a t a p akah g a t e Gj da n &2 d a p a t m e n a m p u n g s e l u r u h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g kelas 2. J i k a (tj^ + t2) -< (fii + m a k a gate te r s e b u t d a p a t m e n a m p u n g s e l u r u h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k e l as 2, tetapi j i k a (tj^ + t£) > (gj + g2>, m a k a t i d a k s e l u r u h p e s a w a t t e r b a n g k e l as 2 te rs e b u t d a p a t d i t a m p u n g o l e h g a te itu, dan seterusnya. U n t u k kasus

ini,

g l + g 2

k a p a s i t a s C = F. --- . S e c a r a umum, d a p a t d i t u l i s k a n ti + t2

^2 + ••• + 6n k a p a s i t a s C = F. ---

ti + t2 + ... + t„

D a r i p e r b a n d i n g a n gi/t^, (gj^ + g2)/(ti + t2), ..., (gl + g2 + ••• + ^n^/( ^ 1 + ^2 + + t^), d i p i l i h y a n g h a r g a n y a minimum. Dengan d e m i k i a n k a p a s i t a s C = F . X , di m a n a X = h a r g a m i n i m u m d ar i p e r b a n d i n g a n tsb. di a t a s .

G a t e B a n d a r U d a ra Juanda, d i r a n c a n g b e r d a s a r k a n

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p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n , di m a n a niasing-masing p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n menipunyai ga te s e ndir i-senciiri, y a n g h anya b o l e h d i g u n a k a n oleh p e s a w a t t e r b a n g d a r i p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n itu sendiri, y a i t u a p ron u n t u k GI, MNA , BIA, MAL, PAS, L a i n - l a i n (pesa w a t p r i b a d i m i l i k p e r u s a h a a n - p e r u s a h a a n s w a s t a da n p e m e r i n t a h ) , p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a s ing) dan mili ter .

D a r i k e d u a j e n i s p e r h i t u n g a n gate itu, y a n g p a l i n g t e pat d i g u n a k a n u n t u k p e r h i t u n g a n ga te di B a n d a r U d a r a J u a n d a a d a l a h m e t o d e per ta ma , y a i t u gate y a n g d i g u n a k a n s e c a r a b e r s a m a - s a m a u n t u k s e l u r u h kel as p e s a w a t d a r i suatu p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n .

5 . 2 . 3 . P e r h i t u n g a n

A p r o n d i r a n c a n g u n t u k m e n a m p u n g 50 % d a r i juralah p e s a w a t y a n g b e r o p e r a s i p a d a saat p e a k hour. Ha l ini d i b u a t d e n g a n m e n g a n g g a p b a h w a p e s a w a t y a n g d a t a n g dan y a n g b e r a n g k a t m a s i n g - m a s i n g s e b a n y a k 50 % d a r i j u m l a h p e s a w a t y a n g b e r o p e r a s i p a d a saat p e a k hour. J a d i b i l a p e r a n c a n g a n apro n d i d a s a r k a n atas k e b u t u h a n p a d a saat p e a k hour, m a k a p e r a n c a n g a n t i d a k ekonoinis lagi.

- GI ( G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a )

V T

G = --- U di m a n a :

V = 50 % X 11 = 6 pesa wat /ja in.

T = 2

= 80 % X 6 0/6 0 + 20 % X 4 0 / 6 0 = 0,93 jam.

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U 0,5

6 X 0,93

G = --- = 12 g a t e . 0,5

G 12

F = ---= --- = 12 p e s a w a t / j a m > 6 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,93

J a d i u n t u k GI d i p e r l u k a n 12 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 12 p e s a w a t / j a m .

- M N A ( M e r p a t i N u s a n t a r a A i r l i n e s ) V T

G ---

U di m a n a :

V = 50 % X 16 = 8 p e s a w a t / j a m . . T = 2

= 70 % X 4 0 / 6 0 + 30 % X 3 0 / 6 0 = 0, 62 jam.

U = 0,5

8 X 0,62

G = --- = 10 gate.

0,5

G 10

F = ---= --- = 16 p e s a w a t / j a m > 8 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,62

J a d i u n t u k M N A d i p e r l u k a n 10 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 16 p e s a w a t / j a m .

- B I A ( B o u r a q I n d o n e s i a A i r l i n e s ) V T

G = --- U di m a n a :

V = 5 0 % x 5 = 3 p e s a w a t / j a m . T = 2

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= 50 % X 4 0 / 6 0 + 50 % X 3 0 /60 = 0,58 jam.

U = 0, 5 3 x 0 , 5 8

G- = --- = 4 gate.

0,5

G 4

F = ---= --- = 6 p e s a w a t / j a m > 3 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,58

J adi u n t u k B I A d i p e r l u k a n 4 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 6 p e s a w a t / j a m .

- M A L ( M a n d a l a A i r l i n e s ) V T

G = --- U di m a n a :

V = 50 % x 2 = 1 p e s a w a t / j a m .

T = 2 Ti

= 30 % X 4 0 / 6 0 + 40 % x 30/ 60 + 30 % x 20/60

= 0,5 j a m . U = 0,5

1 x 0,5

G = --- = 1 gate.

0,5

G 1

F = --- = --- = 2 p e s a w a t / j a m > 1 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,5

J a d i u n t u k MAL d i p e r l u k a n 1 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 2 p e s a w a t / j a m .

- P A S ( P e l i t a A i r S e r v i c e ) V T

G = --- U di m a n a :

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V = 5 0 % x l = l p e s a w a t / j a m . 1 = 2

= 20 % X 4 0 / 6 0 + 40 % X 3 0 /60 + 40 % x 20/6 0

= 0,47 jam.

U = 0,5

1 X 0,47

G = --- = 1 gate 0,5

G 1

F = --- = ---- = 2 p e s a w a t / j a m > 1 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,47

J a d i u n t u k PA S d i p e r l u k a n 1 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 2 p e s a w a t / j a m .

L a i n - l a i n ( p e s a w a t p r i b a d i m i l i k p e r u s a h a a n swasta, p e m e r i n t a h d l l .)

V T

G = --- U di m a n a :

V = 50 % X 13 = 7 p e s a w a t / j a m

T = 2 = 40 % X 30/60 + 60 % x 2 0/60 = 0 , 4 0 jam.

U = 0,5

7 x 0,40

G = --- 6 gate.

0,5

G 6

F = --- = --- = 15 p e s a w a t / j a m > 7 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,40

J a d i u n t u k l a i n - l a i n d i p e r l u k a n 6 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 15 p e s a w a t / j a m .

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- P e r u s a h a a n P e n e r b a n g a n A s i n g V T

G = --- U di m a n a ;

V = 5 0 % x 5 = 3 p e s a w a t / j a m .

T = 2 = 90 % X 6 0/6 0 + 10 % x 4 0 / 6 0 = 0,97 jam.

U = 0,5 ^ 3 X 0,97

0,5 G

= 6 gate.

6

F = ---= --- = 6 pesawat/jain > 3 p e s a w a t / j a m .

2 0,97

J a d i u n t u k p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a s i n g d i p e r l u k a n 6 g a t e d e n g a n k a p a s i t a s 6 p e s a w a t / j a m .

5.3. U K U R A N D A N T A T A L E T A K G A T E

U k u r a n g a t e d i t e n t u k a n o l e h r a dius (R) y a n g p a l i n g m a k s i m u m d a r i w i n g tips, nose atau tail p e s a w a t (Tab el

5 . 1 ) , di tnana u k u r a n gate = 2 R ( Gamb ar 5 . 1 ) .

T a b e l 5 . 1 . M a x i m u m T u r n i n g R a d i.us .

Mauiitum steering angle (°)

Radii (ft)t

Aircraft Wing tips Nose Tail

DC-9-32 82 55.5 61.2 64.0

B-727-200 78 71.0 79.5 80.0

DC-8-63 67 110.4 99.0 109.7

DC-10-10 68 112.4 104.6 101.0

B-747A 70 140.0 ' 109.0 137.0

J Frora center of rotation

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G a m b a r 5.1. U k u r a n Gate Minimum.

Da ri T a b e l 3.1 d a p a t d i l i h a t b a h w a u n t u k G a r u d a I n d o n e s i a dan p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a sing d e n g a n pesa w a t r a n c a n g a n t e r b e s a r ke las A (B-747), y a n g m e n e n t u k a n adalah w i n g tips = 140 ft = 4 2 , 6 7 m, seda n g k a n u n t u k MNA, BIA, MA L dan PAS d e n g a n p e s a w a t ranc a n g a n t e r b e s a r kelas B ( B - 7 2 7 - 2 0 0 ) y a n g m e n e n t u k a n a d a l a h tail = 80 ft = 24,3 8 m.

U n t u k L a i n - l a i n (p es a w a t p r i b a d i m i l i k p e r u s a h a a n - p e r u s a h a a n swasta, p e m e r i n t a h dll.), d i a m b i l sa ma d e ngan MNA, BIA, MAL dan PAS, y ai tu d e n g a n p e s a w a t ran cangan t e r b e s a r kelas B. Jadi u k u r a n g a t e u n t u k GI dan p e r u s a h a a n p e n e r b a n g a n a s i n g = 2R = 85,3 4 m s e d a n g k a n u n t u k MNA, BIA, MAL, PAS dan L a i n - l a i n = 2R = 4 8 , 7 6 m. J a r a k bebas antar pesawat, dan j a r a k b a b a s a n t a r a p e s a w a t d e n g a n bang u n a n u n t u k seraua ke las = 10 m.

Apro n d i r a n c a n g deng a n sis t em open apron, dengan p o s i s i p e s a w a t n o s e - o u t p a d a w akt u p a r k i r . Apr on diba gi m e n j a d i 2 b a g i a n yaitu, apron A yang b e r a d a d i s e b e l a h

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u t a r a t e r m i n a l u n t u k GI dan PPA, da n apron B y a n g b e r a d a d i s e b e l a h s e l a t a n t e r m i n a l u n t u k MNA, BIA, MAL, PAS dan L a i n - l a i n . S e d a n g k a n u n t u k p e s a w a t Milit er, m e n g g u n a k a n apron lama (apron C), y a n g t e r l e t a k di s e b e l a h s e l atan r u n w a y lama (lihat G a m b a r 5.2 dan L a m p i r a n V G a m b a r 5.1.).

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Figur

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