Teks penuh

(1)

SPEAKING SKILL

Program Paket C

Dr. Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.

Universitas Negeri Semarang 2015

(2)

Biodata

Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.

Tasikmalaya, 7 September 1969S1- Linguistik Unpad 1995

S2- Pend. Bhs Inggris UPI 2001

S3- Linguistik Penerjemahan UNS

2011

rudi_fbsunnes@yahoo.com

http://e-teachingweb.blogspot.com/082137054727

(3)

Do you think that

stu-dents are good at

speaking?

(4)
(5)

What is Speaking?

Speaking is "the

process of building

and sharing meaning

through the use of

(6)

FeelingsOpinions

Personal

de-tails

Functions:

1- Giving advice 2- Expressing hope

3- Telling stories

Daily routinesDescribing:

1- People

(7)

Do You know that ?

?

?

Many language

learners regard

speaking ability as

the measure of

(8)

Do You know that ?

?

?

They regard speaking as

the most important skill

they can acquire, and

they assess their

progress in terms of their

accomplishments in

(9)

The Main Issues Are:

First Part:

Despite its importance, for many

years, teaching speaking has

been undervalued.

Second Part:

(10)

The above mentioned criteria are also the same criteria we use to test students’

ability to speak

While speaking, we expect

our students to be able to:

Produce the English speech sounds and

sound patterns

Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language.

Select appropriate words and sentences

according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.

Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and

logical sequence.

Use language as a means of expressing

values and judgments.

(11)

Teachers have to provide authentic

practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. )Practise speaking in class)

They have to help their students

develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specifc contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.

Teach VocabularyTeach Grammar

Teach Pronunciation/Intonation

Equip them with everything they

(12)

Provide real-life

situations

Teachers should create a classroom environment where students have

real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that

promote oral language. This can

occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to

(13)

Activities that Promote

Speaking

Tactics

for

(14)

Discussions

After a content-based lesson, a

discussion can be held for various reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or fnd solutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the

(15)

Role Play

The teacher gives information to

the learners such as who they

are and what they think or feel.

Thus, the teacher can tell the

student that "You are David, you

go to the doctor and tell him

(16)

Simulations

Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a president, he/she wears a suit and brings a microphone to deliver his speech. Role plays and simulations have many advantages.

(17)

Information Gap

Students are supposed to be

working in pairs.

One student will have the

information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information.

Information gap activities serve

many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information.  Also, each partner plays an

important role because the task

cannot be completed if the partners do not provide the information the others need.

These activities are efective

because everybody has the

(18)

Brainstorming

On a given topic, students can

produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the

context, either individual or group brainstorming is

efective and learners

generate ideas quickly and freely.

The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the

(19)

Storytelling

Students can briefy summarize

a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand,

They may create/imagine their

own stories to tell their classmates.

Story telling fosters creative

thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the

(20)

Interviews

Student Interviews

Students Teachers Parents Family Staff

Students can conduct interviews

on selected topics with various people.

Conducting interviews with

people gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them become

socialized. After interviews,

(21)

Story Completion

1- This is a very enjoyable,

whole-class, free-speaking activity for which students sit in a circle.

2- For this activity, a teacher starts

to tell a story, but after a few sentences he or she stops

narrating.

3- Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. Each

student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences.

4- Students can add new

(22)

It was a very hot Friday morning. The weather was very nice and the streets were almost empty.

Story completion with key words given:

scared

A loud crash injured bleeding

Emergen cy services

ambulance hospital experienceHorrible

(23)

Picture Narrating

criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric.

3. Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures (past simple) they need to use while

(24)

Reporting

1. Before coming to class,

students are asked to read a newspaper or magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they fnd as the most interesting news.

2. Teachers can also ask their students to watch a specifc

program on a specifc channel. Time of the program should be given well-in-advance.

3. Then, students could be asked to report back what they have seen and express their views concerning what was

(25)

Picture Describing

Students describe

what it is in the picture.

They discuss the

picture with their groups.

Then, a

spokesperson for each group

describes the

picture to the whole class. This activity fosters the

creativity and

imagination of the learners as well as their public

speaking skills.

It could also be

used as springboard for a whole

(26)

Speeches

Teachers can ask their students

to prepare a speech about one of the topics that were discussed in class.

They may also ask them to

prepare a speech about a special event or occasion. In fact, lots of students enjoy such activities as they allow them a great deal of freedom to express their ideas and show their talents.

(27)

Activities that Promote Speaking

DiscussionsRole PlaysSimulations

Information GapBrainstormingStorytelling

Interviews

Story CompletionReporting

Picture NarratingPicture

Describ-ing

(28)
(29)

Suggestions For Teachers

Provide maximum opportunity to

students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains

collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and

(30)

Try to involve as many

students as possible in

every speaking activity.

For this aim, practice

diferent was of student

participation.

Reduce teacher speaking

time in class while

increasing student

(31)

Indicate positive signs when

commenting on a student's response.

Ask eliciting questions such

as "What do you mean? How did you reach that

conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more.

Provide written feedback like

"Your presentation was really great. It was a good job. I

really appreciated your eforts in preparing the

materials and efcient use of your voice…“

Do not correct students'

pronunciation mistakes very often while they are

speaking. Correction should not distract student from

(32)

Involve speaking activities

not only in class but also out of class; contact parents and other people who can help.

Circulate around classroom

to ensure that students are on the right track and see

whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.

Provide the vocabulary

beforehand that students need in speaking activities.

Diagnose problems faced by

students who have difculty in expressing themselves in the target language and

provide more opportunities to practice the spoken

(33)

Spoken Scientific Approach

Observi ng

Questionin g

Experimenti ng/

Collecting Information

Associatin

(34)

KEGIATAN AKTIVITAS BELAJAR

MENGAMATI ( OBSERV-ING)

MELIHAT, MENGAMATI, MEMBACA, MENDENGAR, MENYIMAK (TANPA DAN DENGAN ALAT)

MENANYA

(QUESTIONING)

• MENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN DARI YANG FAKTUAL SAMPAI KE YANG BERSIFAT HIPOTESIS

• DIAWALI DENGAN BIMBINGAN GURU SAMPAI DEN-GAN MANDIRI (MENJADI SUATU KEBIASAAN)

PENGUMPULAN DATA (EXPERIMENTING)/

MENGUMPULKAN INFOR-MASI (GAINING INFORMA-TION)

• MENENTUKAN DATA YANG DIPERLUKAN DARI PER-TANYAAN YANG DIAJUKAN

• MENENTUKAN SUMBER DATA (BENDA, DOKUMEN, BUKU, EKPERIMEN)

• MENGUMPULKAN DATA

MENGASOSIASI (ASSOCIATING)

• MENGANALISIS DATA DALAM BENTUK MEMBUAT KATEGORI, MENENTUKAN HUBUNGAN DATA/KATE-GORI

• MENYIMPULKAN DARI HASIL ANALISIS DATA

• DIMULAI DARI UNUNI STRUCTURE-MULTI STRUCTURE-COMPLICATED STRUCTURE

MENGKOMUNIKASIKAN (COMMUNICATING)

• MENYAMPAIKAN HASIL KONSEPTUALISASI

(35)

Summary

Pay great attention to

teaching speaking.

Make students more

active in the learning

process

and

reduce

their anxiety.

Make

their

learning

(36)

References

Celce-Murcia. M. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (3rd ed). USA: Heinle&Heinle.

Chaney, A.L., and T.L. Burk. 1998. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8. Boston:

Allyn&Bacon.

Baruah, T.C. 1991. The English Teacher's

Handbook. Delhi: Sterling Publishing House.

Brown, G. and G. Yule. 1983. Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Emad Abdulla Al Sediri, Kingdom of Bahrain, Ministry of Education, Directorate of Curricula English Language Unit (Basic Education)

Harmer, J. 1984. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.

McDonough, J. and C. Shaw. 2003. Materials and Methods in ELT: a teacher’s  guide. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell.

Nunan, D., 2003. Practical English Language

Teaching. NY:McGraw-Hill.

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...

Unduh sekarang (36 Halaman)