The Use of the GIST Strategy Towards Students’ Reading Comprehension (Classroom Action Research at the Eight Year Students of MTs AswajaTengaran in the Academic Year of 2015/2016) - Test Repository

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Classroom Action Research at the Eighth Grade Students of Mts Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic Year of 2015/ 2016)

A Graduating Paper

Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fullfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S. Pd. I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga



113 11 076







"Pendidikan merupakan perlengkapan paling baik untuk

hari tua."





This Graduating Paper issincerely dedicated to:

Allah SWT

Muhammad SAW

My beloved mother and father




Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

Alhamdulillahirrabbil’alamin, firstly, the writer said as praise and

thanks to Allah SWT, the most gracious and merciful, with His blessing,

finally the writer could finish this graduating paper. Secondly, peace and

salutation always be given to our Prophet Muhammad SAW, the last

messenger of Allah who has guided us from the darkness into the lightness. The writer could complete this thesis entitled “THE USE OF



COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research at the EighthGrade

Students of MTS Aswaja Tengaran In the Academic years of 2015/2016)”

as one of the requirements for getting the Degree of Educational Islamic

Studies (S.Pd.I) in English Department of Teacher Training and Education

Faculty of IAIN Salatiga. By doing everything, all complicated things easier to


However, this success would not be achieved without those support,

guidance, advice, help, and encouragement from individual and institution.

So, it is an appropriate moment for the writer to deepest gratitude for:

1. Mr. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M. Pd., the Rector of IAIN Salatiga.

2. Mr. Suwardi, M. Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education



3. Mrs. Noor Malihah, Ph.D., as the Head of English Education


4. Mr. Ruwandi, S. Pd., M. A., as the writer’s counselor who has

educated, support, directed and given the writer countless advices,

suggestion, and recomendation from this graduating paper from the

begining until the end. Thanks for your patient and guidance.

5. Mr. Haryo Aji Nugroho, S. Sos., M. A., as the writer’s academic


6. All lecturers of English Department. Thanks for the broad knowledge.

7. All staff of IAIN Salatiga who helped the writer in processing the

graduating paper administration.

8. Mrs. Khabibah, S. Ag. As a Headmaster of MTs Aswaja Tengaran.

Thanks for gave me permission to conduct my research.

9. Mr. Hafid Zein Ahmad, S. Pd. I. As an English teacher of MTs Aswaja

Tengaran. Thanks for the cooperation and advices.

10. The big family of MTs Aswaja Tengaran. Thanks a lot.

11. My beloved father Sunardiand mother Amiroh, who offered their

endlesssuppport and constant prayers. This academic journey would

never not have been possible without their love, patience, and sacrifices

along the way. You are the best parents ever. I can never thank enough



12. My dearest older sister, the one and only, Siti Sholichah, Thanks for

your support, kindness, togetherness and for being my siblings. Your

the best. I love you so much.

13. My brother-in-law, M. Dimyati, thanks for your support brother, it is

meaningfull for me.

14. My Precious niece, Maghfiroh, Aunty really love you dear.

15. My best friends for life, Bebeb Roisa, Bunda Win, Unnie Ucie’, Lek

Mun, Bu Fatim. You are like my own sisters guys. Thank you for the

support, togetherness, kindness, and memories. Hope that our

friendship will be everlasting.

16. My partner in crime, “Acil” Ria Puspita Sari. Thanks for being my

partner to finish this graduating paper.

17. My Second Family, friends of PP. Salafiyah Pulutan. Thanks for the

kindness and togetherness.

18. All My Friends of Al Khidmah Kampus Salatiga. Thanks for the

togetherness and the kindness. I’ve got the way to make my life be

more balance then before.

19. My Friends in TBI 2011, especially TBI C. We finally got the degree

after struggled all this years on this precious education and


20. Thanks also to all sides who help me, it is impossible for me to mention



Finally, this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful

knowledge and information to the readers. The writer is pleased to accept

more suggestion and contribution for the improvement of this graduating


Wassalamu’alaikumWr. Wb.

Salatiga, 10th March 2016





LailatulMuntafi’ah. 2016. “The Use of the GIST Strategy Towards Students’ Reading Comprehension (Classroom Action Research

at the Eight Year Students of MTs AswajaTengaran in the

Academic Year of 2015/2016)”. Under

graduateProgram.StateInstitute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

The objectives of the study are to find out that the GIST (Generating Interactions between schemata and text) strategyimproves the students’ reading comprehension and to find out the significant improvement on

the students’ reading comprehension after being taught by using Generating Interactions between schemata and text (GIST) strategy. In this research, the researcher acted as an observer. There were two cycles in this research, in each cycle comprised of two meetings. The result of

this research was the majority of the students’ improved their reading

comprehension through the GIST strategy. It can be seen from the mean score of pre-test 55.13 and the mean score of post- test 75.27. The precentage of the pre- test shows that 13.33 % Excellent, 13.33% Good, 13.33% Average, 6.67% Poor, and 53. 33 %Very Poor.And the precentage of the post- test shows that 6.67 % Excellent, 73.33 % Good, 20 % Average, 0 % Poor, and 0 % Very Poor. The final result showed to

≥tt. It means that t-test score is 4.07, it was higher than the t- table score, 2.977. With a significance level of 0.5 %, It proved that there is a significant difference of the students’ reading comprehension after taught by the GIST strategy.




TITLE ... i




MOTTO... v








A. Background ofthe Study ... 1

B. Problemsof the Study ... 4

C. The Objectives of the Study ... 4

D. Benefits of the Study ... 4

E. Limitation of the Study ... 5

F. Definition of Key Terms ... 5



H. Review of Previous Study ... 6

I. Graduating Paper Organization ... 8


A. Nature of Reading ... 10

B. Reading Process ... 13

C. Definition of Reading Comprehension ... 14

D. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension ... 17

E. Reading Comprehension Strategies ... 19

F. Evaluation of Reading ... 21

G. Narrative Text ... 24

H. Definition of the GIST Strategy ... 27


A. Research Setting ... 31

1. Place of the Research ... 31

2. Subject of the Research ... 31

3. The General Information about MTs Aswaja Tengaran ... 31

B. Research Methodology... 32

1. Type of Research ... 32

2. Technique of Collecting Data ... 35



4. Evaluation Criteria ... 38

5. Technique of Analysis Data ... 42


A. Description of Research Schedule ... 45

B. Data Analysis ... 46

C. Field Notes ... 53

1. Cycle I ... 53

2. Cycle II ... 60

D. Discussion ... 65








Table 2.1: Scoring Rubric ... 23

Table 3.5: Students score’s Criteria ... 42

Table 4.1:The Time Setting of the Research ... 45

Table 4.2:The Students’ Pre- test Score ... 47

Table 4.3: The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score ... 48

Table 4.4: The Students’ Post- test Score ... 49

Table 4.5: The Students’ rate of Post- test Score ... 50








Chapter I is the introduction for the research. Here would be

present and discuss about the background of the study, the problem of the

study, the objective of the study, benefits of the study, limitation of the

research, definiyion of key term, hypothesis of the study, related of the

previews research and the graduating paper organization.

A. Background of the Study

Reading is a complex process both on its teaching and learning.

Reading is one of the language skills which is important for academic

success. Reading is the process of reconstructing the writer’s idea written in

a text or printed symbols based on the reader’s background knowledge and

experience. According to Mahmoud (1992:102), Reading is the ability to

comprehend, not simply to recognize letters, forms, and symbols. Without

comprehension, reading may prove to be almost useless.

In the process of comprehension, the students may have

comprehension difficulty or retention difficulty. Comprehension difficulty

according to Nathan and Lee as quoted by Ayu (2012) can be detected

through the signs such as confusion about the meaning of words and

sentences, inability to connect ideas in a passage, difficulty distinguishing

significant information from minor details, and lack of concentration during



The difficulties above also faced by the eight students of MTS

Aswaja Tengaran. Based on the writer Pre- Observation has been held on

10th November 2015 with Mr. Hafidz Zein Ahmad as an English teacher at

MTS Aswaja Tengaran, the writer found that the students have many

problems in reading comprehension. Those problems come from the teacher

and the students itself. Problems those come from the teacher is the method

or strategy used in teaching reading comprehension. The teacher use reading

aloud and translation method. The teacher ordered students to read the text

loudly then tranlsate it to indonesian language and then they have to

memorize it and present infront of the class in the other day. This methods

make students bored in reading the text.

Furthermore, those problems come from the students are the first, they

can not read the text aloud with correct pronounciation. Second, they can

not comprehend the text, they can not identify the main idea, supporting

detail, and factual informatin from the text or passage. This condition give

an affect to the students’ score in English. Third, English is not their

language acquisition so they have not accustomed to read English text and

they are lack of vocabulary. It is affect their interest in reading the text and

they are lazy to read it. The last is their ability in Englis is under the average

of other students in other school.

Mr. Hafidz said that as long as he tought English in MTS Aswaja

Tengaran, He used the reading aloud, translation and monolog methods.



not found yet the methods or strategy that appropriate to teach their students

in English lesson. The writer offer a several methods and strategy to the

teacher to be used in teaching reading. Finally, the teacher choose a GIST

strategy to teach reading comprehension.

The reasons why the writer choose this title is the writer want to help

students comprehend in reading text. Hopefully, by this strategy the students

can improve their ability in summarizing text and comprehend overall the

text content.

Cunningham (1982), stated that a GIST (Generating Interactions

between Schemata and Text) is a summarizing strategy used to assist

students’ comprehension and summary writing skills. Students use higher

-order thinking skills to analyze and synthesize what they have read. The

summary is usually limited to no more than fifteen words; therefore, the

students must analyze ways to delete non-essential information and use their

own words to summarize the main idea or “the gist” of the selection.

Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they

are reading, to condense this information, and to put it into their own words.

Therefore, the writer is interested in conducting the research entitled “ THE USE OF THE GIST STRATEGY TOWARDS STUDENTS’

READING COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research to the

Eighth Students of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic years of 2015/


4 B. Problems of the Study

1. Can the GIST(Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text)

strategy be used to improve students’ reading comprehension?

2. Can the GIST(Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text)

strategy be used to significantly improve students’ reading


3. How is the implementation of the GIST(Generating Interactions Between

Schemata and Text) strategy to improve the students’ reading


C. The Objectives of the Study

1. To find out that the GIST (Generating Interactions between schemata

and text) strategy improves the students’ reading comprehension.

2. To find out the significant improvement on the students’ reading

comprehension after being taught by using the GIST (Generating

Interactions between schemata and text) strategy.

3. To describe the implementation of generating interactions between

schemata and text (gist) to improve the students’ reading comprehension.

D. Benefits of the Study

This research will be beneficial as a follow:

1. Theoritical advantages are:

a. The result of research can be used as the reference for those who want

to conduct a research in English teaching to build students’ reading



b. Research is used for teacher in teaching English

2. Practical advantages are:

a. Students’ reading comprehension will be better than before by

understanding the GIST strategy.

b. The teacher will be able to do the action research in his class and it

can help him to solve the class’ problem.

3. Contribution of this study are:

a. The teacher can apply this strategy in the next teaching and learning


b. This strategy can motivate students in learning English. So, their skill

can be improved.

E. Limitation of the Research

In order to make focus in this research, the writer limit the study as


1. The research is limited in the use of the GISTstrategy.

2. The research is limited in reading comprehension on Narrative text.

3. The research is carried out to the eight grade students of Mts Aswaja

Tengaran in the academic year of 2015/ 2016.

F. Definition of Key Terms

The writer would like to explain about the meaning of Key Terms in

the title to make this research understandable. They are as follow:



According to Cunningham (1982) GIST is an acronym for

Generating Interactions between Schemata and Texts. It is summarising

strategy. Effective summarising leads to an increase in student learning.

Summarising requires students to focus on the main ideas of a text and to

decide what is important without omitting key ideas. The ability to

summarise has significant benefits for comprehending and ultimately

retaining and recalling information. Teaching students summarising

strategies, like ‘Get the Gist’, helps them learn to synthesise information,

a higherorder thinking skill which includes analysing information and

identifying key concepts.

2. Reading Comprehension

According to Dechant (1982: 312) comprehension is a thinking

process; it is thinking through reading. As such, it is dependent upon the

learners’ basic cognitive and intellectual skills; upon their background of

experience ( vocabulary, knowledge, concepts and ideas); an dupon their

language skills (knowledge of morphology, syntax and grammars).

G. Hypothesis of the Study

Based on the background of the study and the statement of the

problem the hypothesis of this study stated that generating interactions

between schemata and text (gist) strategy can significantly improve

reading comprehension of the eight grade students of MTs Aswaja


7 H. Review of Previous Research

In this research, the researcher takes review of related study from the

other resarcher as a comparison. The first review was conducted by

Muhammad Fajar Junanto, a student of State Institue for Islamic Studies

(IAIN) Tulungagung. His research title is : THE EFFECTIVENESS OF



ABILITY OF THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS AT MTS AL HUDA KEDUNGWARU” The result showed that there was a significant different

between the result of the pre-test and post-test score. The mean score of the

post-test was higher (80.80) than pre-test (70.16). The t-test value was

higher than the value of t-table (3.970 > 1.711). And it could be concluded

that the GIST strategy was effective used in teaching reading descriptive

text comprehension.

The second review was conducted by Ayu Dian Puspayani S. Putri, a

student of Ganesha University of Education Singaraja. Her thesis title is “



result of analysis in this study, it was found that GIST made a better

achievement in reading comprehension than conventional reading

technique. When the students’ learning style was considered, it was found



the students who were taught by GIST and Conventional Reading

Technique. This study proved that there were any significant differences in

students’ reading comprehension between the students according to the

variables of learning style.

From the previous researches above, the writer is pretty sure that this

research is different. Although the writer use the same strategy but the

writer take an other text, that is Narrative text and also the participants of

this research is from other school.

I. Graduating Paper Organization

In this section, the researcher would like to discuss some term in

chapter I into chapter V. This research is sistematically arranged as follows:

Chapter I is Introduction. This chapter consist of Background of the

study, the problem of the study, the objective of the study, the benefit of the

study, limitation of the research, the definition of key term, hypothesis of

the study, methodology of the research, review of previous research, and the

graduating paper organization.

Chapter II is Research Theories. this chapter consist of the nature of

reading, the reading process, definition of reading comprehension, factors

affecting reading comprehension, reading comprehension strategies,

evaluation of reading, the gist strategy, and theoritical framework..

Chapter III is Research Report. This chapter consist of research

setting, the place of the research, the subject of the research, the general



technique of colecting data, research instrument, evaluation criteria, and

technique of analysis data.

Chapter IV is Data Analysis. This chapter consist of Description of

research setting, description of research conduct, data analysis, pre- test,

post- test, field notes of cycle I, and cycle II.

Chapter V is Closure. This chapter consist of conclusion and


And for the last part of this graduating paper is References and





Chapter II is the review of the related research theories. This chapter

describes theories relevant toward research, theori descripstion, they are: The

nature of reading, the reading process, definition of reading comprehension,

factors affecting reading comprehension, reading comprehension strategies,

narrative text, and the gist strategy.

A. Nature of Reading

There are many theories occures that dealing with reading itself.

According to Smith (1982: 2) Reading is a matter of making sense of

written language rather than of decoding print to sound. It means that it

called reading if the reader is understand or catch the purrpose about what

has been read, not only voiced it loudly and does not get the purpose. But

the traditional belief that reading is a matter of “decoding” the letters of

written words into the sounds of speech.

In the other hand, Urquhart and Weir said that reading is the

process of receiving and interpreting information encoded in language

form via the medium of print (William, 2009: 14). Heilman, Blair &

Rupley (1981:4) stated that most of authorities were agree that reading is

an active and ongoing process that is affected directly by an individual’s

interaction with his environment. It was different with Nunan (2003:68)

stament, He said that Reading is a fluent process of readers combining



meaning. In addition, Smith in Fauziati (2002:139) defines reading more

pragmatically as an understanding a message conveyed by the writer

through visual and non-visual information.

Some people reading with different purposes. Mahmoud

(1992:103) stated that there are five main purposes for comprehensive


1. Reading for Specific Information: Reading for specific information is a common form of reading used to discover

specific or limited information. It is reading at an elementary

level through the recognition of simple symbols, words, and

sentences. Reading faor this purpose involves looking for

specific information and finding it quickly.

2. Reading for Application: Reading for applicattion is used to accomplish a special task. This type of reading may consist of

reading a cake recipe or following instruction to make or fix


3. Reading for Pleasure and Entertainment: Individuals read for many pleasureable reasons. This includes reading popular

magazines, newspaper, novels, and other similiar materials. It

is slower form of reading, which allows the reader to envision

the scenery and contemplate the background and characters

with enjoyment and appreciation. This form of reading calls



4. Reading for Ideas: This type of reading requires paying special attention to main ideas and concepts and the nature of

the presented information. The reader skims through major

topics, headings, illustrations, and conclusions in order to

obtain a general idea of the content. Reading for ideas is

enhanced through familiarity with the overall field of study,

related topics, facts, and discussions.

5. Reading for Understanding: Reading for understanding requires comprehension of the relationship between the

information introduced and overall knowledge of the subject. It

requires understanding the relationship of topics to sentences,

paragraphs, and the main idea. The reader must observe the

assosiations between facts, data, and another details.

B. Reading Process

Understanding the process of reading has been the focus of much

research over the past 125 years. Goodman (1976) and Stanovic (1980)

in Nunan (2003:70) stated that models of how the printed word is

understood have emerged from this research. The models are divided into

three categories: bottom-up models, top-down models, and interactive




This models tipically consist of lower-level reading process.

Students start with the fundamental basics of letter and sound

recognition, word recognition, identification of grammatical

structures, sentences and longer text. And finally meaning is the

order in achieving comprehension. In the bottom- up approach, all

reading material is carefully reviewed so that the students are not

exposed to vocabulary that is to difficult or that contains sounds

that they have not yet been introduced to.

2. Top- down

This models is begin with the idea that comprehension resides in

the reader. The reader use the background knowledge, makes

predictions, and searches the text to confirm or reject the prediction

that are made. In the top- down approach, the teacher should focus

on meaning generating activities rather than on mastery of word


3. Interactive

This models are accepted as the most comprehensive description of

the reading process. This type is combines the elements of bottom-

up and top- down models. In interacctive approach to reading

would include aspects of both intensive and extensive reading.

C. Definition of Reading Comprehension

There are diffences of opinion how to define comprehension as it



(1982:159) There is general agreement than by reading with

comprehension is meant constructing meaning from what is being

perceived in writing. In fact, reading without understanding should not be

called reading, for reading necessarily involves comprehending. Also,

Smith (1982:15) defined reading comprehension as a matter of ‘making

sense’ of text, of relating written language to what we know already and to

what we want to know. In other way Wolley 2011 in Junanto (2014:11)

defined reading comprehension as the process of making meaning from

text. According to Klingner and Geisler 2008 in Horton (2014:7) reading

comprehension is a complex process of constructing meaning by

coordinating a number of processes, including decoding, word reading,

and fluency along with the integration of background knowledge and

previous experiences. From those definition above, can be concluded that

reading comprehension is the process of understanding and deriving

meaning from the text trough several steps.

According to Mahmoud (1992:102) there are three levels of

reading comprehension:

1. Literal reading is the ability to follow directions and understand exact

words, meanings, and character.

2. Aesthetic reading is the ability to appreciate artistically the style and

overall quality of what is being read.

3. Critical reading consist of making factual distinctions between



The writer can conclude that there are three level of reading

comprehension. Firts, Literal reading is the ower levels of reading

comprehension. In this level, the reader know what the writer try to tell

about. He just can not explain it to other. Second, Aesthetic reading is the

middle levels of reading comprehension. In this level, the reader can

comment about what is being read. In other word, besides understand what

is being read, he can appreciate the outside of what is being read. The last,

Critical reading is the highest levels of reading comprehension. In this

level, the reader not only understand about the whole text but also he can

asking about what is being read, give his opinion after read, and also

compare it with the real life.

Mahmoud’s statement was in rythm with Dallman, Roger, Lynette &

DeBoer (1982:159) statement. According to them, The level on which

comprehension takes place can be classified in a variety of ways. One

classification recognizes that comprehension may be on:

1. The factual level, the reader can Understanding what is actually

written on the page.

2. The interpretative or inferential level, Designates the reader

comprehends the meaning that is not expressed ‘ in so many

words’ but can be implied or inferred

3. The evaluative or critical level, the reader evaluates What he reads



material in terms of the qualifications of the authhor, and

predicting outcomes.

Tankersley 2003 in Junanto (2014 : 10) stated that making

connection is the key to comprehension. We do not comprehend unless

we can make connections and are able to process the words that we read at

the thinking level. Comprehension needs three elements, they are:

a) The reader who is doing the comprehending

b) The text that is to be comprehended `

c) The activity in which comprehension is a part

D. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension

There are many factors that affect comprehension according to

Dallmann, Rouch, Char, & DeBoer (1982: 165). here as follows:

a. Difficulty of material

One of the major factor causes of lack of comprehension is that the

teachers expect them to read materials beyond their level.

b. Intelligence

A child’s ability to comprehend in reading as sometimes limited by

the conceptual “load” that his mental ability enables him to carry. All

the mechanical reading skills in the world will not able him to read

materials involving abstractions beyond the level of his mental

development. While we should never underestimate a child’s power, we


17 c. Environment

Noisy surroundings, inadequate lighting, high or low temperatures,

stimulating or distracting surroundings may interfere with maximum

comprehension. The extent to which the environment affects

comprehension varies with individuals. The same person may at one

time not to be bothered by factors that other times decidedly decrease

his comprehension.

d. Emphasize on word recognition

Methods of teaching that concentrate on the recognition of

individual words but neglect attention to meanings that can be derived

from connected discourse may account for deficiencies in


e. Emphasize on oral reading

Oral reading can have either a desirable or a detrimental effect on

comprehension. At times oral reading of a selection that is particular

difficult for the reader may increase his understanding of it, since them

then not only sees but also hears what he reads.

f. Background for reading a selection

A frequent cause of poor comprehension is lack of an experience



of knowledge of the words used and of understanding of the concepts

involved are limitations to comprehension.

g. Adjustment of reading techniques to purpose and type of material

Effective reading requires a flexible approach to the printed page.

There should be versatility in adapting the reading method to the

reading purpose and to the nature of the material being read.

E. Reading Comprehension Strategies

Generally, students who naturally learning with strategies are more

succesfull in school than whose do not. It is important to model the use of

effective strategies in the classroom so that the students are able to apply it


The research sugggest an active comprehension before, during and

after reading. Before reading, the students may define their goals for

redaing and consider what they already know about the topics and the

structure of the text. During reading, they makes connections among main

ideas, and try to resolve any comprehension difficulties that arise. After

reading, they may re-read it, skim the passage and summarize it, or take a


A good reader according to Rice (2009) in Junanto (2014:14) often

continue to reflect on the meaning of the text long after they have read it

and a good reader use a strategies flexibly depending on the type of text



There are many strategies for reading comprehension. They are

monitoring comprehension, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, story

structures, answering and generating questions, summarizing and multiple


1. Monitoring Comprehension: this includes a variety of instructional techniques for helping students learn to gauge how well they understand a passage and to apply strategies for correcting comprehension problems.

2. Cooperative Learning: cooperative or collaborative learning can be considered both a strategy and a social organization that fosters learning.

3. Graphic Organizers: across many studies, graphic organizers have proven to be useful in helping students visualize relationships among structural elements in a text. Graphic organizers are known by a number of names, including story maps, concept maps, or semantic organizers.

4. Story Structure: these strategies have typically involved training children to ask themselves questions about the basic components of stories as they read: characters, setting, goals of the characters, action taken, and outcome (Rice, 2009: 4).

5. Answering and Generating Questions: according Rice (2009: 4) that many studies of strategy instruction have focused on teaching children strategies for answering questions or generating questions of their own before, during, or after reading. Questions help students actively engage with a text,

check their comprehension, and construct memory




7. Multiple Strategies: this strategy involved a combination of two or more of the above techniques. Palinncar and Brown states that many approaches to multiple strategy instruction

such as “reciprocal teaching” include cooperative learning or

peer tutoring (Rice, 2009: 5).

From many strategies above, the teacher could choose good

strategy to be used in teaching and learning process. The students or

readers need a good strategy to improve their reading ability.

F. Evaluation of Reading

According to Orstein and Hunskins, Evaluation is a process that we

carry out to obtain data to determine wether to make changes, to make

modifications, eliminations, and/ or accept something in the curriculum (in

Ferda Tunҫ 2010: 2). In the other hand, Evaluation is the process of

analysing, reflecting upon, and summarising assessment information, and

making judgements and/or decisions based on the information collected.



Foundation for the Atlantic Canada English Language Arts

Curriculum defined assessment and evaluation as a follow:



( ary/studentaccess.pdf)

From the statement above, it as clearly explained that assessment

and evaluation are needed to know how far the students have learned, is

the teaching and learning process has been effective or how to convey the

students needs in a best way. In other word, assessment and evaluation are

ann important things in teaching and learning. The teacher coud find

which is wrong or not appropriate with the students’ needs, so the teacher

could fix it or make it better in the future.

According to Alderson (2000 :203) It should be understand that

there is no one ‘ best method’ for testing reading. No single test method

can fullfil all the varied purposes for which we might test.

In Brown (2004: 67-68)He stated that the description of IELTS

Test of Academic Reading Illustrates the range of techniques that are now

being employed in the testing of reading.

A Variety of questions are used, chosen from the following types: 1. Multiple- choice

2. Short answer questions 3. Sentence Completion

4. Notes/ Summary/ Diagram/ Flow Chart/ Table completion

5. Choosing from a heading bank for identified paragraph/ sections of the text.

6. Identifications of writer’s view/ attitudes/ claims/ yes/no/ not given 7. Classification

8. Matching Lists 9. Matching Phrases.

(International English Language Testing System Hand Book. 1999 and Specimen Materials. 1997.)

Multiple choice quetsions used to be by far the commonest way for



that stand out in support of multiple-choice formats, of course, practicality

and reliability, with their predetermined correct responses and time saving

scoring procedures. Multiple-choice offer overworked teachers the

tempting possibility of an easy and consistent process of scoring and


Table 2.1. Scoring Rubric

No. Aspects Score

1. The answer is correct, the sentence constructed in good grammar and

appropriate vocabulary.


2. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake in

grammar but it does not influence the meaning.


3. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake in

both grammar and vocabulary but they do not influence the meaning.


4. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake

both grammar and vocabulary but they influence the meaning.


5. The answer is wrong. 0

G. Narrative Text



Narrative is a text which retells the story or previous experiences.Narrative text presents a story of sequence events which involves characters. Narrative text presents an imaginative story. The purpose of the text is to entertain or amuse readers or listeners.

b. Generic Structure

1. Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (characters) of the story, the time and place where the story happened (who, what,when and where ).

2. Complication: a crisis arises. A series of events in which the main character attempts to solve the problem.

3. Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or worse.

4. Re-orientation: it is optional. The ending of the story. It sometimes contains the solution.

c. Language features

1. Usually uses Past tense (killed, called, etc)

2. Adverb of time (one day, last night, three years ago etc) 3. Time conjunction (when, suddenly, then, etc)

4. Specific character not general

5. Direct speech. It is to make lively the story

d. Kinds of Narrative Text

1. Folklore (cerita rakyat) 2. Legend (legenda) 3. Myth (mitos) 4. Fable (fabel)


24 e. Example of Narrative text.

The Legend of Roro Jonggrang

Roro Jonggrang was a very beautiful princess from Javanese

kingdom, Prambanan Kingdom hundred years ago. Her famous

beauty was known throughtout the country, and princes from far adn

different land and kingdoms came to propose her. But she refused all

their proposal, many princes returned brokenhearted. There was a

famous prince, namaaely prince Bandung Bondowoso.

He was famous by his strength, power and good looking. He

owned a big kingdom with thousand of soldiers.he heard about Roro

Jonggrang’s amazing beauty and he wanted to propose her. Having

heard that Prince Bandung Bondowoso was coming to marry her,

Roro Jonggrang grew worried. She disliked the idea of getting

married, however, she knew the consequence if she refused the

proposal. Bandung Bondowoso could attack her kingdom if she

dissapointed him. So, when Bondowoso arrived and proposed her,

she was willing to accept it with one condition.

Bandung Bondowoso had to make her 1000 temples in one night

time. If he failed, then Roro Jonggrang would not marry him. He

agreed to fullfill Jonggrang’s wish and started to work immadiately.

He used his power to call all the genies and asked them to help him

making a thousand temples in one night. He asked them to keep

working to complete the temple until the rooster crowed the next



Jonggrang worried. She tried to think any way to fail Bandung


Finally, she got an idea. She lighted up the candle and carried it to

the chicken coop where the rooster slept. When the rooster saw the

candle, it thought that it was almost dawn and the sun was going to

rise soon. The rooster quickly got up and in a second, it crowed. The

working genies heard the rooster and thought that the morning had

come. Instantly, they stopped working and dissapeared leaving the

undone temples. There was 999 temples that complete. Bondowoso

was disappointed to see that. He was very mad. When he found out

that it was the work of roro Jonggrang, he came to her and cursed her

into a stone. Until now, It was known as Prambanan Temples.

H. Definition of the GIST Strategy

According to Duke and Pearson as quoted by Junanto (2014:20)

that teaching students to summarize what they read is another way to

improve their overall comprehension of text. Summarizing text is one of

the most effevctive comprehension strategies (International Institute of

Child Health and Human Development: 2000) and an effective way to

learn from information text (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson: 1991;

Pressley & Woloshyn: 1995) in (Dromsky: 2011)

There are two distinct strategies for teaching summarization. They



governed approach summarization, the students are expected to do the

following step:

a. Deleting unnecessary material

b. Deleting redundant material

c. Replacing a higher term for list of items

d. Replacing a higher term for components of an action

e. Selecting a topic sentence

f. Inventing topic sentence, if unavailable

The Generating Interactions between Schema and Text (GIST)

strategy was developed by Cunningham (1982) in order to assist students

in briefly summarizing paragraphs (Horton 2014:11). This is a reading

comprehension strategy that teaches students how to write brief summary


According to Dromsky (2011:21) GIST does not require adherence

to a set of rules related to text structure. Rather, Cunningham combined

techniques and created a set of guidelines for teacher-directed strategy

instruction and provided an instructional sequence for gradually having

students independently produce gist statements for whole paragraphs. In

GIST, students create summaries of 15 or fewer words for increasingly

large amounts of text, beginning with single sentences and working to hard

to an entire paragraph.

Instruction in the GIST procedure follows Cunningham’s (1982)



that cover topics in the eight-grade curriculum in the district in which in

the study occurred. Sample passages and summary statements appear in

the materials section. The GIST procedure has six steps (Cunningham,

1982) that gradually lead students to independently produce gist

statements. Students begin with paragraphs and move to lengthier

passages. The following list is the steps for the GIST procedure. These are

reworded for brevity but adapted from Cunningham 1982 in Dromsky

(2011: 21)

Step 1

Select paragraphs with three to five sentences that appear to have a gist

and are at an appropriate level of difficulty.

Step 2

Present the first sentence to students on the chalkboard, overhead, or chart.

On the board draw 15 blanks. Have students read the sentence and tell

them to summarize the information in their own words in one sentence that

uses 15 or fewer words.

Step 3

When students have finished reading the sentence, cover it from view. Ask

students again to retell it in their own words in 15 or fewer words. Writing

one word at a time, have the group dictate the statement and edit until

complete. Students can view the paragraph again, but must dictate and edit



an accurate retelling, even if the sentence is an exact duplicate of the

original text. The instructor reinforces the guidelines of using 15 or fewer

words but does not evaluate content. Finally students compare their final

statement with text.

Step 4

Uncover the first and second sentences and erase the first set of blanks.

Present 15 new blanks ask them to read the sentences so they can write

another statement hat retells the first two sentences in their own words

using 15 or fewer words.

Step 5

After reading the sentences, cover both and remind students that they are

to compose a new statement that retells the information in 15 words or

less. As a group, use the same means to construct a statement as in step 3.

Step 6

Repeat this procedure adding one sentence at a time until students have

generated a statement of 15 or fewer words that they feel summarizes the

paragraph. Use this strategy as many times as necessary until students are

adept at producing statements for the paragraphs as a group. Then uncover

an entire paragraph at the beginning of a lesson and have the class generate

a statement for the whole paragraph without moving from sentence to

sentence. When students are adept at producing statements for paragraphs





Chapter III is methodology of the research. Here would be explained

about the setting of the research consist of the place, subject, and general

information about MTs Aswaja Tengaran. Also, research methodology which

is consist of type of the research, technique of collecting data, research

instrument, evaluation criteria, and the technique of analysing data.


Research Setting

1. Place of the Research

This research conducted at the eight grade students of MTS Aswaja

Tengaran. It was located in St. Masjid Besar No. 32 Tengaran,

Semarang Regency, Central Java.

2. Subject of the Research

The participants of this research is the eight year students of MTS

Aswaja Tengaran in the second semester. There were two classes of

eight grade, there were 15 students each class. but the researcher

choose only a class in doing this research, that was class of VIIIA.


General Information of MTs Aswaja

MTs Aswaja Tengaran was found by Mr. Ahmad Nazari who also

donated his field to establishment. Before changing into MTs Aswaja, the

name of the school was; PGA 4 tahun conducting teaching learning

activities in the morning (1967), PGA A, then changed into PGA 6 tahun



School (MA) then, the MA taken over by government and changed into

MAN 1 Tengaran and while the former keep becoming MTs Aswaja

Tengaran (1977), under supervision of LP Ma’arif. The headmaster

succession is chronogical as follows:: Mr. Muh Amin, Mr. Dawam

Badarudin, Mr. Khamil Yasin, Mr. Muh. Gufron, Mr. Muh Amin, and Siti

Khabibah, S. Ag. until now.

a. Visions and Mission of MTs Aswaja Tengaran

MTs Aswaja Tengaran have mission that being the excellence to

improve the qualified human resource both in science and religius


Then MTs Aswaja Tengaran also have visions that conducting

education orienting knowledge, social and moral qualities to produce

human resource qualified in science and religius awareness.


Research Methodology 1. Type of Research

The method that was used in making this research was Classroom

Action Research. According to Wallace as quoted by Khisbulloh

(2012: 25), Action research is systematically collecting data in our

daily practice that then is being analyzed to decide about what the

future should be based on the practice analysis. In other way, Carr &

Kemmis(1998) said that Action research is:



practices and the situations in which these practices are carried


According to Mattetal (2001:7) Classroom Action Research is a

method of finding out what works best in your own classroom so that

you can improve student learning. In CAR, the teacher focuses

attension on a problem or question on her/his own classroom. In other

way, McNiff 1992 (in Khisbulloh 2012:26) stated that the bclassroom

action research constitutes as one of a reflective research which the

result can be the instruments to develop the quality of the learning. It

can bea inferred that the classroom action research is the action

research which is held to improve the students condition. The

Classroom action research is also as the follow up of the observation

conducted in the field by researcher.

In the classroom action research, there are two cycles in action

research. Each cycle has a several stages of action research which are

proposed by McNiff (1992:22):

1. Planning

a. Preparing material, making lesson plan, and designing the

step in doing the action.

b. Preparing students’ name list and scoring.

c. Preparing teaching aids

d. Preparing sheet for classroom observation (to know the

situation of teaching learning process when the method is



e. Preparing a test (to know whether student’s reading

comprehension improve or not)

2. Acting

a. Giving pre- test

b. Teaching reading by gist strategy

c. Giving chance to the students to ask any difficulties or


d. Giving post- test

3. Observing

Observation is one of the instruments used in collecting the

data. Observation can be sistematically used to observe and note

the phenomena investigated like the students’ feeling, thinking

and something they do in teaching learning process.

4. Reflecting

The result of the observation is analyzed it is to remember

what happened that has been written in observation. Teacher

evaluated the teaching learning process that has been applied

through repeated reading, noted of the lack or weakness. Then,

after finding the result of teaching reading through oral reading

technique in a cycle, it make the improvement and decide wheter



Classroom action research can be illustrated based on

Kemmis and Mc Taggart’s view as quoted by Young, Rapp &

Murphy in Journal of Instructional Pedagogies.

Figure. 3.1. Classroom Action Research Cycle

The classroom action research conducted in MTS Aswaja

Tengaran to the eight year students of it. The goal is to improving

students reading comprehension through the gist strategy.

2. Technique of collecting data

There were several techniques of collecting data that used in this

research in order to get an accurate data. They were:

a. Test

Test is a set of question or exercises or other instrumental to

measure knowledge, intelligence, ability or attitude of groups or



stated that test is a measurement technique within we (the

teachers) found a variety of questions, declaration or assignments

series that should be done or answered by the respondent. Trough

the test, the teacher is easily know the students ability, neither

they need an improvement or not.

The tests that was used in this research are multiple choice and

essay. It was used as a pre-test and post- test to know the

students’ reading comprehension.

b. Documentation

Document means a written material. The researcher completed

the research by using document in which explained about the

school and the data which is needed for this research. The data are

book, transcript and a history book of MTS Aswaja Tengaran.

This technique is uses to know the students and teachers’

condition, structure organization, profile of the school and its


c. Observation

Beside doing the test, the researcher did class observation.

Observation is more than just looking and seeing. According to

Arifin (2012:231) Observation is a technique of collecting data

that was done by way of monitoring and recording sistematically,

logic, objective, and rational about fenomenon to get a certain



research but also more generally for supporting the profesional

growth of teachers and in the process of school development. This

method would be used to observe the teaching-learning process

and the students’ activities.

3. Research Instrument a. Test

1. Multiple Choice

The instrument of this research was writing production test.

There are 10 items of questions of multiple choice. Its all about

narrative text. The students should answer the whole questions

correctly. Score 2 for a correct answer then multiple it by 3.

The maximum point for this test is 60.

2. Essay

He second instrument of this research is an essay. It was

given to measure the students ability in summarizing the

narrative text before and after taught by the GIST Strategy.

Maximum score of each criteria is 4. And the total point of this

essay is 40.

b. Documentation

In order to collecting documentation data, the writer took:

1. Photograph evidence. According to Elliot (1991:78)



2. Documents. The relevant documents can be included:

syllabuses, school’s report, test sheet, sample of students’

written work.

c. Observation

The instrument in observation that was used is the students’

activities during teaching and learning process or students

observation sheet. The resercher observes the condition of the

subject in the learning process. It is analyzed about what the

matter of the learning process to find the essential problem.

Regarding with the resercher’s explanation above that are many

complexities in reading comprehension. So, the researcher

observes how far the students figure out the text after reading.

There are five aspects that could be the measurement of the

clear description of this observation. They are:

a. Student’s attention on the teacher’s explanation

b. Students’ activeness in asking question

c. Students’ activeness in responding question

d. Students’ enthusiasm in doing test.

4. Evaluation Criteria 1. Pre- test and Post- test.

a. Multiple choice, there are 10 items and each item is scored 2,

the total score is 20 and it was multipled by 3. The result is



b. Essay, there is one direction and have a five aspects. The

total score is 40.

The total score of multiple choice and an essay test is 100.

And the criteria of this result will be presented as follow:

Table. 3.5. Criteria Students’ Score

NO. Grade Qualification Range

Score Level Descriptor

1. A Excellent 85- 100 The student:

- Construct

meaning by


stated and

implied information, main ideas and supporting

details, and


conclusion in

texts with

familiar and

unfamiliar language - Interprets

aspects of

format and

style,a nd

author’s purpose

for writing

- Engages wuth



identfying ideas, oppinions and attitudes in the attitudes and points of view

- Show thorough

identifying most

stated and

conclusion in



identfying ideas, oppinions and attitudes in the attitudes and points of view

- Show

identifying some stated and implied information, main ideas and some supporting details,

in texts with

author’s purpose

for writing - Occasionally



some connections

with own


attitudes and points of view

- Show some

understanding of the content of the information, main ideas or supporting details in texts with

familiar and

purpose for writing

- Make a limited

attempt to engage with the text by identfying ideas,

oppinions and

attitudes in the

text; makes


connections with own experiences, attitudes and points of view

- Show limited



the content of the text as a whole

5. E Very Poor ≤ 49 The student does not

reach a standard

described by any of descriptors above Adapted from English Instructional Evaluation 1 by Ida Isnawati (2012) in Junanto (2014).

5. Technique of analysing data a. Descriptive Technique

A descriptive technique is used to know the students

behavior during the teaching learning process. In descriptive

technique, the researcher analyzes the observation sheet which has

been made by the collaborator.

b. Statistical Technique

Lodico (2006:12) stated that quantitative techniques

summarize data using numbers. Hypotheses and methods of data

collection are created before the research begins. This technique

is used to know the students‟ score of reading comprehension in

each cycle.

According to Fraenken and Wallen (2009: 192) the formula


1. Mean

𝑀 = ∑ 𝑋𝑁



M : Mean of student’s score

∑ 𝑋 : The sum score of students’ reading test

N : The total number of students

2. SD (Standard Deviation)

𝑆𝐷 = √∑ 𝐷𝑁 − (2 ∑ 𝐷𝑁 ) 2


SD : Deviation Standard

D : Different between pre- test and post- test

N : Number of observation in T- test

3. T- test

To be able to know whether there is a significant

improvement or not between pre- test and post- test, the

reseacher using T- test after calculating the SD. The formula


t0 =

(∑ 𝐷𝑁 ) (√𝑁−1𝑆𝐷 )




SD: deviation standard for one sample t- test

D : Different between pre-test and post-test





This chapter containts the result of a classroom action research in the use of

the gist strategy towards students’ reading comprehension at the eighth grade

students of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the academic year of 2015/2016.

A. Description of Research Schedule

This research has been done from February 13rd 2016 untill February

27th 2016. The time setting of the research conducted as follow:

Table. 4.1. The Time Setting of The Research

Date Activity

November 10th 2015 Interview the teacher

February 13th 2016 Pre- Test

February 15th 2016 Cycle I (first meeting)

February 16th 2016 Cycle I (second meeting)

February 22nd 2016 Cycle II (first meeting)

February 23rd 2016 Cycle II (second meeting)

February 27th 2016 Post- Test

The teaching and learning process of reading Narrative Text



understand about the material, they were not afraid asking about it to the

teacher. The students very enthusiastic being a part of teaching and

learning process.

B. Data Analysis 1. Pre- Test

Firstly, before the researcher doing this research. She was doing

some simple interview to the English teacher of MTs Aswaja on

Wednesday November 10th 2015, Mr. Hafida Zein Ahmad, S. Pd. I. The

teacher recommended the researcher to conduct the research in class VIII

A, because the class has a problem. Based on the teacher’s information,

many students got difficulties in understandig the text. They could not

determine the main idea and the supporting detail. They also lack of

mastering vocabularies.

Before did the research in a classroom, the researcher gave the

students a Pre- test to measure the students understanding about narrative

text before they were taught about it. They were not get any treatment

neither from the teacher nor the researcher. The Pre- test was distributed

on Saturday, February13th 2016. There were 20 questions, while 10 was

multiple choice and 10 other was essay. The questions are about narrative

text. The students have 60 minutes to do the Pre- Test.

Table 4.2. The Students’ Pre- Test Score.

No. Name Gender Score



2. Alif Fatikhah F 54

3. Dhea Ihza Alfara F 46

4. Gunadarma M 79

5. Heru Purnomo M 55

6. Ika Ardianti F 32

7. Kiki Puspita D. F 42

8. Majid M 56

9. M. Afif Fathoni M 91

10. Muthi Ishwariyah F 79

11. Noviyanto M 39

12. Reza Alif Nasya A. F 47

13. Sardi M 46

14. Siti Rohmah F 35

15. Virgo Bimantara M 38

SUM 827

a. The Mean of Pre- test

M = ∑ 𝑋



M = the mean obtained

∑ 𝑋 = the sum of pre- test score

𝑁 = the total number of students

M = 827


48 M = 55.13

Table. 4.3. The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score

No. Qualification Range Score Frequency

1. Excellent 85- 100 2

2. Good 70- 84 2

3. Average 55- 69 2

4. Poor 50- 54 1

5. Very Poor ≤ 49 8

b. The Precentage of the students’ pre- test score:

P = 𝐹

𝑁 𝑋 100 %

1). Excellent = 2

15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %

2). Good = 2

15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %

3). Average = 2

15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %

4). Poor = 1

15 𝑋 100 % = 6.67 %

5). Very Poor = 8

15 𝑋 100 % = 53.33 %

From the review on the research result, the mean of pre – test is

55.13 and the precentage of the pre- test shows that 13.33 %


Figure. 3.1. Classroom Action Research Cycle
Figure. 3.1. Classroom Action Research Cycle p.50
Table. 4.3. The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score
Table. 4.3. The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score p.64
Table 4.4. The Students’ Post- Test Score.

Table 4.4.

The Students’ Post- Test Score. p.65
Table. 4.6. The Result of the students’ pre-test and post-test
Table. 4.6. The Result of the students’ pre-test and post-test p.67
Table 3.1. The Facilities of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic

Table 3.1.

The Facilities of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic p.96
Table 3.2. The Office Equipments of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in

Table 3.2.

The Office Equipments of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in p.97
Table 3.3. The Students’ Activities of MTs Aswaja Tengaran

Table 3.3.

The Students’ Activities of MTs Aswaja Tengaran p.97
Table 3.4.The Organization Structure of MTs Aswaja

Table 3.4.The

Organization Structure of MTs Aswaja p.98
Gambar cerita populer.

Gambar cerita

populer. p.166
gambar cerita popular

gambar cerita

popular p.167