THE USE OF GENERATING INTERACTIONS
BETWEEN SCHEMATA AND TEXT (GIST)
STRATEGY TOWARDS STUDENTS’ READING
AClassroom Action Research at the Eighth Grade Students of Mts Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic Year of 2015/ 2016)
A Graduating Paper
Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fullfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S. Pd. I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga
113 11 076
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) OF
"Pendidikan merupakan perlengkapan paling baik untuk
This Graduating Paper issincerely dedicated to:
My beloved mother and father
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Alhamdulillahirrabbil’alamin, firstly, the writer said as praise and
thanks to Allah SWT, the most gracious and merciful, with His blessing,
finally the writer could finish this graduating paper. Secondly, peace and
salutation always be given to our Prophet Muhammad SAW, the last
messenger of Allah who has guided us from the darkness into the lightness. The writer could complete this thesis entitled “THE USE OF
GENERATING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SCHEMATA AND TEXT
(GIST) STRATEGY TOWARDS STUDENTS’ READING
COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research at the EighthGrade
Students of MTS Aswaja Tengaran In the Academic years of 2015/2016)”
as one of the requirements for getting the Degree of Educational Islamic
Studies (S.Pd.I) in English Department of Teacher Training and Education
Faculty of IAIN Salatiga. By doing everything, all complicated things easier to
However, this success would not be achieved without those support,
guidance, advice, help, and encouragement from individual and institution.
So, it is an appropriate moment for the writer to deepest gratitude for:
1. Mr. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M. Pd., the Rector of IAIN Salatiga.
2. Mr. Suwardi, M. Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education
3. Mrs. Noor Malihah, Ph.D., as the Head of English Education
4. Mr. Ruwandi, S. Pd., M. A., as the writer’s counselor who has
educated, support, directed and given the writer countless advices,
suggestion, and recomendation from this graduating paper from the
begining until the end. Thanks for your patient and guidance.
5. Mr. Haryo Aji Nugroho, S. Sos., M. A., as the writer’s academic
6. All lecturers of English Department. Thanks for the broad knowledge.
7. All staff of IAIN Salatiga who helped the writer in processing the
graduating paper administration.
8. Mrs. Khabibah, S. Ag. As a Headmaster of MTs Aswaja Tengaran.
Thanks for gave me permission to conduct my research.
9. Mr. Hafid Zein Ahmad, S. Pd. I. As an English teacher of MTs Aswaja
Tengaran. Thanks for the cooperation and advices.
10. The big family of MTs Aswaja Tengaran. Thanks a lot.
11. My beloved father Sunardiand mother Amiroh, who offered their
endlesssuppport and constant prayers. This academic journey would
never not have been possible without their love, patience, and sacrifices
along the way. You are the best parents ever. I can never thank enough
12. My dearest older sister, the one and only, Siti Sholichah, Thanks for
your support, kindness, togetherness and for being my siblings. Your
the best. I love you so much.
13. My brother-in-law, M. Dimyati, thanks for your support brother, it is
meaningfull for me.
14. My Precious niece, Maghfiroh, Aunty really love you dear.
15. My best friends for life, Bebeb Roisa, Bunda Win, Unnie Ucie’, Lek
Mun, Bu Fatim. You are like my own sisters guys. Thank you for the
support, togetherness, kindness, and memories. Hope that our
friendship will be everlasting.
16. My partner in crime, “Acil” Ria Puspita Sari. Thanks for being my
partner to finish this graduating paper.
17. My Second Family, friends of PP. Salafiyah Pulutan. Thanks for the
kindness and togetherness.
18. All My Friends of Al Khidmah Kampus Salatiga. Thanks for the
togetherness and the kindness. I’ve got the way to make my life be
more balance then before.
19. My Friends in TBI 2011, especially TBI C. We finally got the degree
after struggled all this years on this precious education and
20. Thanks also to all sides who help me, it is impossible for me to mention
Finally, this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful
knowledge and information to the readers. The writer is pleased to accept
more suggestion and contribution for the improvement of this graduating
Salatiga, 10th March 2016
LailatulMuntafi’ah. 2016. “The Use of the GIST Strategy Towards Students’ Reading Comprehension (Classroom Action Research
at the Eight Year Students of MTs AswajaTengaran in the
Academic Year of 2015/2016)”. Under
graduateProgram.StateInstitute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.
The objectives of the study are to find out that the GIST (Generating Interactions between schemata and text) strategyimproves the students’ reading comprehension and to find out the significant improvement on
the students’ reading comprehension after being taught by using Generating Interactions between schemata and text (GIST) strategy. In this research, the researcher acted as an observer. There were two cycles in this research, in each cycle comprised of two meetings. The result of
this research was the majority of the students’ improved their reading
comprehension through the GIST strategy. It can be seen from the mean score of pre-test 55.13 and the mean score of post- test 75.27. The precentage of the pre- test shows that 13.33 % Excellent, 13.33% Good, 13.33% Average, 6.67% Poor, and 53. 33 %Very Poor.And the precentage of the post- test shows that 6.67 % Excellent, 73.33 % Good, 20 % Average, 0 % Poor, and 0 % Very Poor. The final result showed to
≥tt. It means that t-test score is 4.07, it was higher than the t- table score, 2.977. With a significance level of 0.5 %, It proved that there is a significant difference of the students’ reading comprehension after taught by the GIST strategy.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE ... i
DECLARATION ... ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ... iii
STATEMENTOF CERTIFICATION ... iv
DEDICATION ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... vii
ABSTRACT ... x
TABLEOF CONTENTS ... xi
LIST OF TABLES ... xiv
LIST OF FIGURES ... xv
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. Background ofthe Study ... 1
B. Problemsof the Study ... 4
C. The Objectives of the Study ... 4
D. Benefits of the Study ... 4
E. Limitation of the Study ... 5
F. Definition of Key Terms ... 5
H. Review of Previous Study ... 6
I. Graduating Paper Organization ... 8
CHAPTER II:REVIEW OF LITERATURE ... 10
A. Nature of Reading ... 10
B. Reading Process ... 13
C. Definition of Reading Comprehension ... 14
D. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension ... 17
E. Reading Comprehension Strategies ... 19
F. Evaluation of Reading ... 21
G. Narrative Text ... 24
H. Definition of the GIST Strategy ... 27
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH REPORT ... 31
A. Research Setting ... 31
1. Place of the Research ... 31
2. Subject of the Research ... 31
3. The General Information about MTs Aswaja Tengaran ... 31
B. Research Methodology... 32
1. Type of Research ... 32
2. Technique of Collecting Data ... 35
4. Evaluation Criteria ... 38
5. Technique of Analysis Data ... 42
CHAPTER IV: RESEACH FINDINGS ... 45
A. Description of Research Schedule ... 45
B. Data Analysis ... 46
C. Field Notes ... 53
1. Cycle I ... 53
2. Cycle II ... 60
D. Discussion ... 65
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS ... 67
A. CONCLUSION ... 67
B. SUGGESTIONS ... 68
REFERENCES ... 70
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Scoring Rubric ... 23
Table 3.5: Students score’s Criteria ... 42
Table 4.1:The Time Setting of the Research ... 45
Table 4.2:The Students’ Pre- test Score ... 47
Table 4.3: The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score ... 48
Table 4.4: The Students’ Post- test Score ... 49
Table 4.5: The Students’ rate of Post- test Score ... 50
LIST OF FIGURE
Chapter I is the introduction for the research. Here would be
present and discuss about the background of the study, the problem of the
study, the objective of the study, benefits of the study, limitation of the
research, definiyion of key term, hypothesis of the study, related of the
previews research and the graduating paper organization.
A. Background of the Study
Reading is a complex process both on its teaching and learning.
Reading is one of the language skills which is important for academic
success. Reading is the process of reconstructing the writer’s idea written in
a text or printed symbols based on the reader’s background knowledge and
experience. According to Mahmoud (1992:102), Reading is the ability to
comprehend, not simply to recognize letters, forms, and symbols. Without
comprehension, reading may prove to be almost useless.
In the process of comprehension, the students may have
comprehension difficulty or retention difficulty. Comprehension difficulty
according to Nathan and Lee as quoted by Ayu (2012) can be detected
through the signs such as confusion about the meaning of words and
sentences, inability to connect ideas in a passage, difficulty distinguishing
significant information from minor details, and lack of concentration during
The difficulties above also faced by the eight students of MTS
Aswaja Tengaran. Based on the writer Pre- Observation has been held on
10th November 2015 with Mr. Hafidz Zein Ahmad as an English teacher at
MTS Aswaja Tengaran, the writer found that the students have many
problems in reading comprehension. Those problems come from the teacher
and the students itself. Problems those come from the teacher is the method
or strategy used in teaching reading comprehension. The teacher use reading
aloud and translation method. The teacher ordered students to read the text
loudly then tranlsate it to indonesian language and then they have to
memorize it and present infront of the class in the other day. This methods
make students bored in reading the text.
Furthermore, those problems come from the students are the first, they
can not read the text aloud with correct pronounciation. Second, they can
not comprehend the text, they can not identify the main idea, supporting
detail, and factual informatin from the text or passage. This condition give
an affect to the students’ score in English. Third, English is not their
language acquisition so they have not accustomed to read English text and
they are lack of vocabulary. It is affect their interest in reading the text and
they are lazy to read it. The last is their ability in Englis is under the average
of other students in other school.
Mr. Hafidz said that as long as he tought English in MTS Aswaja
Tengaran, He used the reading aloud, translation and monolog methods.
not found yet the methods or strategy that appropriate to teach their students
in English lesson. The writer offer a several methods and strategy to the
teacher to be used in teaching reading. Finally, the teacher choose a GIST
strategy to teach reading comprehension.
The reasons why the writer choose this title is the writer want to help
students comprehend in reading text. Hopefully, by this strategy the students
can improve their ability in summarizing text and comprehend overall the
Cunningham (1982), stated that a GIST (Generating Interactions
between Schemata and Text) is a summarizing strategy used to assist
students’ comprehension and summary writing skills. Students use higher
-order thinking skills to analyze and synthesize what they have read. The
summary is usually limited to no more than fifteen words; therefore, the
students must analyze ways to delete non-essential information and use their
own words to summarize the main idea or “the gist” of the selection.
Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they
are reading, to condense this information, and to put it into their own words.
Therefore, the writer is interested in conducting the research entitled “ THE USE OF THE GIST STRATEGY TOWARDS STUDENTS’
READING COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research to the
Eighth Students of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the Academic years of 2015/
4 B. Problems of the Study
1. Can the GIST(Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text)
strategy be used to improve students’ reading comprehension?
2. Can the GIST(Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text)
strategy be used to significantly improve students’ reading
3. How is the implementation of the GIST(Generating Interactions Between
Schemata and Text) strategy to improve the students’ reading
C. The Objectives of the Study
1. To find out that the GIST (Generating Interactions between schemata
and text) strategy improves the students’ reading comprehension.
2. To find out the significant improvement on the students’ reading
comprehension after being taught by using the GIST (Generating
Interactions between schemata and text) strategy.
3. To describe the implementation of generating interactions between
schemata and text (gist) to improve the students’ reading comprehension.
D. Benefits of the Study
This research will be beneficial as a follow:
1. Theoritical advantages are:
a. The result of research can be used as the reference for those who want
to conduct a research in English teaching to build students’ reading
b. Research is used for teacher in teaching English
2. Practical advantages are:
a. Students’ reading comprehension will be better than before by
understanding the GIST strategy.
b. The teacher will be able to do the action research in his class and it
can help him to solve the class’ problem.
3. Contribution of this study are:
a. The teacher can apply this strategy in the next teaching and learning
b. This strategy can motivate students in learning English. So, their skill
can be improved.
E. Limitation of the Research
In order to make focus in this research, the writer limit the study as
1. The research is limited in the use of the GISTstrategy.
2. The research is limited in reading comprehension on Narrative text.
3. The research is carried out to the eight grade students of Mts Aswaja
Tengaran in the academic year of 2015/ 2016.
F. Definition of Key Terms
The writer would like to explain about the meaning of Key Terms in
the title to make this research understandable. They are as follow:
According to Cunningham (1982) GIST is an acronym for
Generating Interactions between Schemata and Texts. It is summarising
strategy. Effective summarising leads to an increase in student learning.
Summarising requires students to focus on the main ideas of a text and to
decide what is important without omitting key ideas. The ability to
summarise has significant benefits for comprehending and ultimately
retaining and recalling information. Teaching students summarising
strategies, like ‘Get the Gist’, helps them learn to synthesise information,
a higherorder thinking skill which includes analysing information and
identifying key concepts.
2. Reading Comprehension
According to Dechant (1982: 312) comprehension is a thinking
process; it is thinking through reading. As such, it is dependent upon the
learners’ basic cognitive and intellectual skills; upon their background of
experience ( vocabulary, knowledge, concepts and ideas); an dupon their
language skills (knowledge of morphology, syntax and grammars).
G. Hypothesis of the Study
Based on the background of the study and the statement of the
problem the hypothesis of this study stated that generating interactions
between schemata and text (gist) strategy can significantly improve
reading comprehension of the eight grade students of MTs Aswaja
7 H. Review of Previous Research
In this research, the researcher takes review of related study from the
other resarcher as a comparison. The first review was conducted by
Muhammad Fajar Junanto, a student of State Institue for Islamic Studies
(IAIN) Tulungagung. His research title is :” THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
GENERATING INTERACTION BETWEEN SCHEMATA AND TEXT (GIST)
STRATEGY ON READING DESCRIPTIVE TEXT COMPREHENSION
ABILITY OF THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS AT MTS AL HUDA KEDUNGWARU” The result showed that there was a significant different
between the result of the pre-test and post-test score. The mean score of the
post-test was higher (80.80) than pre-test (70.16). The t-test value was
higher than the value of t-table (3.970 > 1.711). And it could be concluded
that the GIST strategy was effective used in teaching reading descriptive
The second review was conducted by Ayu Dian Puspayani S. Putri, a
student of Ganesha University of Education Singaraja. Her thesis title is “
THE EFFECT OF ‘GIST’ AND LEARNING STYLE TOWARD READING
COMPREHENSION OF XI STUDENTS AT SMA DWIJENDRA BUALU IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012” The result showed that Based on the
result of analysis in this study, it was found that GIST made a better
achievement in reading comprehension than conventional reading
technique. When the students’ learning style was considered, it was found
the students who were taught by GIST and Conventional Reading
Technique. This study proved that there were any significant differences in
students’ reading comprehension between the students according to the
variables of learning style.
From the previous researches above, the writer is pretty sure that this
research is different. Although the writer use the same strategy but the
writer take an other text, that is Narrative text and also the participants of
this research is from other school.
I. Graduating Paper Organization
In this section, the researcher would like to discuss some term in
chapter I into chapter V. This research is sistematically arranged as follows:
Chapter I is Introduction. This chapter consist of Background of the
study, the problem of the study, the objective of the study, the benefit of the
study, limitation of the research, the definition of key term, hypothesis of
the study, methodology of the research, review of previous research, and the
graduating paper organization.
Chapter II is Research Theories. this chapter consist of the nature of
reading, the reading process, definition of reading comprehension, factors
affecting reading comprehension, reading comprehension strategies,
evaluation of reading, the gist strategy, and theoritical framework..
Chapter III is Research Report. This chapter consist of research
setting, the place of the research, the subject of the research, the general
technique of colecting data, research instrument, evaluation criteria, and
technique of analysis data.
Chapter IV is Data Analysis. This chapter consist of Description of
research setting, description of research conduct, data analysis, pre- test,
post- test, field notes of cycle I, and cycle II.
Chapter V is Closure. This chapter consist of conclusion and
And for the last part of this graduating paper is References and
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Chapter II is the review of the related research theories. This chapter
describes theories relevant toward research, theori descripstion, they are: The
nature of reading, the reading process, definition of reading comprehension,
factors affecting reading comprehension, reading comprehension strategies,
narrative text, and the gist strategy.
A. Nature of Reading
There are many theories occures that dealing with reading itself.
According to Smith (1982: 2) Reading is a matter of making sense of
written language rather than of decoding print to sound. It means that it
called reading if the reader is understand or catch the purrpose about what
has been read, not only voiced it loudly and does not get the purpose. But
the traditional belief that reading is a matter of “decoding” the letters of
written words into the sounds of speech.
In the other hand, Urquhart and Weir said that reading is the
process of receiving and interpreting information encoded in language
form via the medium of print (William, 2009: 14). Heilman, Blair &
Rupley (1981:4) stated that most of authorities were agree that reading is
an active and ongoing process that is affected directly by an individual’s
interaction with his environment. It was different with Nunan (2003:68)
stament, He said that Reading is a fluent process of readers combining
meaning. In addition, Smith in Fauziati (2002:139) defines reading more
pragmatically as an understanding a message conveyed by the writer
through visual and non-visual information.
Some people reading with different purposes. Mahmoud
(1992:103) stated that there are five main purposes for comprehensive
1. Reading for Specific Information: Reading for specific information is a common form of reading used to discover
specific or limited information. It is reading at an elementary
level through the recognition of simple symbols, words, and
sentences. Reading faor this purpose involves looking for
specific information and finding it quickly.
2. Reading for Application: Reading for applicattion is used to accomplish a special task. This type of reading may consist of
reading a cake recipe or following instruction to make or fix
3. Reading for Pleasure and Entertainment: Individuals read for many pleasureable reasons. This includes reading popular
magazines, newspaper, novels, and other similiar materials. It
is slower form of reading, which allows the reader to envision
the scenery and contemplate the background and characters
with enjoyment and appreciation. This form of reading calls
4. Reading for Ideas: This type of reading requires paying special attention to main ideas and concepts and the nature of
the presented information. The reader skims through major
topics, headings, illustrations, and conclusions in order to
obtain a general idea of the content. Reading for ideas is
enhanced through familiarity with the overall field of study,
related topics, facts, and discussions.
5. Reading for Understanding: Reading for understanding requires comprehension of the relationship between the
information introduced and overall knowledge of the subject. It
requires understanding the relationship of topics to sentences,
paragraphs, and the main idea. The reader must observe the
assosiations between facts, data, and another details.
B. Reading Process
Understanding the process of reading has been the focus of much
research over the past 125 years. Goodman (1976) and Stanovic (1980)
in Nunan (2003:70) stated that models of how the printed word is
understood have emerged from this research. The models are divided into
three categories: bottom-up models, top-down models, and interactive
This models tipically consist of lower-level reading process.
Students start with the fundamental basics of letter and sound
recognition, word recognition, identification of grammatical
structures, sentences and longer text. And finally meaning is the
order in achieving comprehension. In the bottom- up approach, all
reading material is carefully reviewed so that the students are not
exposed to vocabulary that is to difficult or that contains sounds
that they have not yet been introduced to.
2. Top- down
This models is begin with the idea that comprehension resides in
the reader. The reader use the background knowledge, makes
predictions, and searches the text to confirm or reject the prediction
that are made. In the top- down approach, the teacher should focus
on meaning generating activities rather than on mastery of word
This models are accepted as the most comprehensive description of
the reading process. This type is combines the elements of bottom-
up and top- down models. In interacctive approach to reading
would include aspects of both intensive and extensive reading.
C. Definition of Reading Comprehension
There are diffences of opinion how to define comprehension as it
(1982:159) There is general agreement than by reading with
comprehension is meant constructing meaning from what is being
perceived in writing. In fact, reading without understanding should not be
called reading, for reading necessarily involves comprehending. Also,
Smith (1982:15) defined reading comprehension as a matter of ‘making
sense’ of text, of relating written language to what we know already and to
what we want to know. In other way Wolley 2011 in Junanto (2014:11)
defined reading comprehension as the process of making meaning from
text. According to Klingner and Geisler 2008 in Horton (2014:7) reading
comprehension is a complex process of constructing meaning by
coordinating a number of processes, including decoding, word reading,
and fluency along with the integration of background knowledge and
previous experiences. From those definition above, can be concluded that
reading comprehension is the process of understanding and deriving
meaning from the text trough several steps.
According to Mahmoud (1992:102) there are three levels of
1. Literal reading is the ability to follow directions and understand exact
words, meanings, and character.
2. Aesthetic reading is the ability to appreciate artistically the style and
overall quality of what is being read.
3. Critical reading consist of making factual distinctions between
The writer can conclude that there are three level of reading
comprehension. Firts, Literal reading is the ower levels of reading
comprehension. In this level, the reader know what the writer try to tell
about. He just can not explain it to other. Second, Aesthetic reading is the
middle levels of reading comprehension. In this level, the reader can
comment about what is being read. In other word, besides understand what
is being read, he can appreciate the outside of what is being read. The last,
Critical reading is the highest levels of reading comprehension. In this
level, the reader not only understand about the whole text but also he can
asking about what is being read, give his opinion after read, and also
compare it with the real life.
Mahmoud’s statement was in rythm with Dallman, Roger, Lynette &
DeBoer (1982:159) statement. According to them, The level on which
comprehension takes place can be classified in a variety of ways. One
classification recognizes that comprehension may be on:
1. The factual level, the reader can Understanding what is actually
written on the page.
2. The interpretative or inferential level, Designates the reader
comprehends the meaning that is not expressed ‘ in so many
words’ but can be implied or inferred
3. The evaluative or critical level, the reader evaluates What he reads
material in terms of the qualifications of the authhor, and
Tankersley 2003 in Junanto (2014 : 10) stated that making
connection is the key to comprehension. We do not comprehend unless
we can make connections and are able to process the words that we read at
the thinking level. Comprehension needs three elements, they are:
a) The reader who is doing the comprehending
b) The text that is to be comprehended `
c) The activity in which comprehension is a part
D. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension
There are many factors that affect comprehension according to
Dallmann, Rouch, Char, & DeBoer (1982: 165). here as follows:
a. Difficulty of material
One of the major factor causes of lack of comprehension is that the
teachers expect them to read materials beyond their level.
A child’s ability to comprehend in reading as sometimes limited by
the conceptual “load” that his mental ability enables him to carry. All
the mechanical reading skills in the world will not able him to read
materials involving abstractions beyond the level of his mental
development. While we should never underestimate a child’s power, we
17 c. Environment
Noisy surroundings, inadequate lighting, high or low temperatures,
stimulating or distracting surroundings may interfere with maximum
comprehension. The extent to which the environment affects
comprehension varies with individuals. The same person may at one
time not to be bothered by factors that other times decidedly decrease
d. Emphasize on word recognition
Methods of teaching that concentrate on the recognition of
individual words but neglect attention to meanings that can be derived
from connected discourse may account for deficiencies in
e. Emphasize on oral reading
Oral reading can have either a desirable or a detrimental effect on
comprehension. At times oral reading of a selection that is particular
difficult for the reader may increase his understanding of it, since them
then not only sees but also hears what he reads.
f. Background for reading a selection
A frequent cause of poor comprehension is lack of an experience
of knowledge of the words used and of understanding of the concepts
involved are limitations to comprehension.
g. Adjustment of reading techniques to purpose and type of material
Effective reading requires a flexible approach to the printed page.
There should be versatility in adapting the reading method to the
reading purpose and to the nature of the material being read.
E. Reading Comprehension Strategies
Generally, students who naturally learning with strategies are more
succesfull in school than whose do not. It is important to model the use of
effective strategies in the classroom so that the students are able to apply it
The research sugggest an active comprehension before, during and
after reading. Before reading, the students may define their goals for
redaing and consider what they already know about the topics and the
structure of the text. During reading, they makes connections among main
ideas, and try to resolve any comprehension difficulties that arise. After
reading, they may re-read it, skim the passage and summarize it, or take a
A good reader according to Rice (2009) in Junanto (2014:14) often
continue to reflect on the meaning of the text long after they have read it
and a good reader use a strategies flexibly depending on the type of text
There are many strategies for reading comprehension. They are
monitoring comprehension, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, story
structures, answering and generating questions, summarizing and multiple
1. Monitoring Comprehension: this includes a variety of instructional techniques for helping students learn to gauge how well they understand a passage and to apply strategies for correcting comprehension problems.
2. Cooperative Learning: cooperative or collaborative learning can be considered both a strategy and a social organization that fosters learning.
3. Graphic Organizers: across many studies, graphic organizers have proven to be useful in helping students visualize relationships among structural elements in a text. Graphic organizers are known by a number of names, including story maps, concept maps, or semantic organizers.
4. Story Structure: these strategies have typically involved training children to ask themselves questions about the basic components of stories as they read: characters, setting, goals of the characters, action taken, and outcome (Rice, 2009: 4).
5. Answering and Generating Questions: according Rice (2009: 4) that many studies of strategy instruction have focused on teaching children strategies for answering questions or generating questions of their own before, during, or after reading. Questions help students actively engage with a text,
check their comprehension, and construct memory
7. Multiple Strategies: this strategy involved a combination of two or more of the above techniques. Palinncar and Brown states that many approaches to multiple strategy instruction
such as “reciprocal teaching” include cooperative learning or
peer tutoring (Rice, 2009: 5).
From many strategies above, the teacher could choose good
strategy to be used in teaching and learning process. The students or
readers need a good strategy to improve their reading ability.
F. Evaluation of Reading
According to Orstein and Hunskins, Evaluation is a process that we
carry out to obtain data to determine wether to make changes, to make
modifications, eliminations, and/ or accept something in the curriculum (in
Ferda Tunҫ 2010: 2). In the other hand, Evaluation is the process of
analysing, reflecting upon, and summarising assessment information, and
making judgements and/or decisions based on the information collected.
Foundation for the Atlantic Canada English Language Arts
Curriculum defined assessment and evaluation as a follow:
From the statement above, it as clearly explained that assessment
and evaluation are needed to know how far the students have learned, is
the teaching and learning process has been effective or how to convey the
students needs in a best way. In other word, assessment and evaluation are
ann important things in teaching and learning. The teacher coud find
which is wrong or not appropriate with the students’ needs, so the teacher
could fix it or make it better in the future.
According to Alderson (2000 :203) It should be understand that
there is no one ‘ best method’ for testing reading. No single test method
can fullfil all the varied purposes for which we might test.
In Brown (2004: 67-68)He stated that the description of IELTS
Test of Academic Reading Illustrates the range of techniques that are now
being employed in the testing of reading.
A Variety of questions are used, chosen from the following types: 1. Multiple- choice
2. Short answer questions 3. Sentence Completion
4. Notes/ Summary/ Diagram/ Flow Chart/ Table completion
5. Choosing from a heading bank for identified paragraph/ sections of the text.
6. Identifications of writer’s view/ attitudes/ claims/ yes/no/ not given 7. Classification
8. Matching Lists 9. Matching Phrases.
(International English Language Testing System Hand Book. 1999 and Specimen Materials. 1997.)
Multiple choice quetsions used to be by far the commonest way for
that stand out in support of multiple-choice formats, of course, practicality
and reliability, with their predetermined correct responses and time saving
scoring procedures. Multiple-choice offer overworked teachers the
tempting possibility of an easy and consistent process of scoring and
Table 2.1. Scoring Rubric
No. Aspects Score
1. The answer is correct, the sentence constructed in good grammar and
2. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake in
grammar but it does not influence the meaning.
3. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake in
both grammar and vocabulary but they do not influence the meaning.
4. The answer is correct, the sentence is constructed by making a little mistake
both grammar and vocabulary but they influence the meaning.
5. The answer is wrong. 0
G. Narrative Text
Narrative is a text which retells the story or previous experiences.Narrative text presents a story of sequence events which involves characters. Narrative text presents an imaginative story. The purpose of the text is to entertain or amuse readers or listeners.
b. Generic Structure
1. Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (characters) of the story, the time and place where the story happened (who, what,when and where ).
2. Complication: a crisis arises. A series of events in which the main character attempts to solve the problem.
3. Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or worse.
4. Re-orientation: it is optional. The ending of the story. It sometimes contains the solution.
c. Language features
1. Usually uses Past tense (killed, called, etc)
2. Adverb of time (one day, last night, three years ago etc) 3. Time conjunction (when, suddenly, then, etc)
4. Specific character not general
5. Direct speech. It is to make lively the story
d. Kinds of Narrative Text
1. Folklore (cerita rakyat) 2. Legend (legenda) 3. Myth (mitos) 4. Fable (fabel)
24 e. Example of Narrative text.
The Legend of Roro Jonggrang
Roro Jonggrang was a very beautiful princess from Javanese
kingdom, Prambanan Kingdom hundred years ago. Her famous
beauty was known throughtout the country, and princes from far adn
different land and kingdoms came to propose her. But she refused all
their proposal, many princes returned brokenhearted. There was a
famous prince, namaaely prince Bandung Bondowoso.
He was famous by his strength, power and good looking. He
owned a big kingdom with thousand of soldiers.he heard about Roro
Jonggrang’s amazing beauty and he wanted to propose her. Having
heard that Prince Bandung Bondowoso was coming to marry her,
Roro Jonggrang grew worried. She disliked the idea of getting
married, however, she knew the consequence if she refused the
proposal. Bandung Bondowoso could attack her kingdom if she
dissapointed him. So, when Bondowoso arrived and proposed her,
she was willing to accept it with one condition.
Bandung Bondowoso had to make her 1000 temples in one night
time. If he failed, then Roro Jonggrang would not marry him. He
agreed to fullfill Jonggrang’s wish and started to work immadiately.
He used his power to call all the genies and asked them to help him
making a thousand temples in one night. He asked them to keep
working to complete the temple until the rooster crowed the next
Jonggrang worried. She tried to think any way to fail Bandung
Finally, she got an idea. She lighted up the candle and carried it to
the chicken coop where the rooster slept. When the rooster saw the
candle, it thought that it was almost dawn and the sun was going to
rise soon. The rooster quickly got up and in a second, it crowed. The
working genies heard the rooster and thought that the morning had
come. Instantly, they stopped working and dissapeared leaving the
undone temples. There was 999 temples that complete. Bondowoso
was disappointed to see that. He was very mad. When he found out
that it was the work of roro Jonggrang, he came to her and cursed her
into a stone. Until now, It was known as Prambanan Temples.
H. Definition of the GIST Strategy
According to Duke and Pearson as quoted by Junanto (2014:20)
that teaching students to summarize what they read is another way to
improve their overall comprehension of text. Summarizing text is one of
the most effevctive comprehension strategies (International Institute of
Child Health and Human Development: 2000) and an effective way to
learn from information text (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson: 1991;
Pressley & Woloshyn: 1995) in (Dromsky: 2011)
There are two distinct strategies for teaching summarization. They
governed approach summarization, the students are expected to do the
a. Deleting unnecessary material
b. Deleting redundant material
c. Replacing a higher term for list of items
d. Replacing a higher term for components of an action
e. Selecting a topic sentence
f. Inventing topic sentence, if unavailable
The Generating Interactions between Schema and Text (GIST)
strategy was developed by Cunningham (1982) in order to assist students
in briefly summarizing paragraphs (Horton 2014:11). This is a reading
comprehension strategy that teaches students how to write brief summary
According to Dromsky (2011:21) GIST does not require adherence
to a set of rules related to text structure. Rather, Cunningham combined
techniques and created a set of guidelines for teacher-directed strategy
instruction and provided an instructional sequence for gradually having
students independently produce gist statements for whole paragraphs. In
GIST, students create summaries of 15 or fewer words for increasingly
large amounts of text, beginning with single sentences and working to hard
to an entire paragraph.
Instruction in the GIST procedure follows Cunningham’s (1982)
that cover topics in the eight-grade curriculum in the district in which in
the study occurred. Sample passages and summary statements appear in
the materials section. The GIST procedure has six steps (Cunningham,
1982) that gradually lead students to independently produce gist
statements. Students begin with paragraphs and move to lengthier
passages. The following list is the steps for the GIST procedure. These are
reworded for brevity but adapted from Cunningham 1982 in Dromsky
Select paragraphs with three to five sentences that appear to have a gist
and are at an appropriate level of difficulty.
Present the first sentence to students on the chalkboard, overhead, or chart.
On the board draw 15 blanks. Have students read the sentence and tell
them to summarize the information in their own words in one sentence that
uses 15 or fewer words.
When students have finished reading the sentence, cover it from view. Ask
students again to retell it in their own words in 15 or fewer words. Writing
one word at a time, have the group dictate the statement and edit until
complete. Students can view the paragraph again, but must dictate and edit
an accurate retelling, even if the sentence is an exact duplicate of the
original text. The instructor reinforces the guidelines of using 15 or fewer
words but does not evaluate content. Finally students compare their final
statement with text.
Uncover the first and second sentences and erase the first set of blanks.
Present 15 new blanks ask them to read the sentences so they can write
another statement hat retells the first two sentences in their own words
using 15 or fewer words.
After reading the sentences, cover both and remind students that they are
to compose a new statement that retells the information in 15 words or
less. As a group, use the same means to construct a statement as in step 3.
Repeat this procedure adding one sentence at a time until students have
generated a statement of 15 or fewer words that they feel summarizes the
paragraph. Use this strategy as many times as necessary until students are
adept at producing statements for the paragraphs as a group. Then uncover
an entire paragraph at the beginning of a lesson and have the class generate
a statement for the whole paragraph without moving from sentence to
sentence. When students are adept at producing statements for paragraphs
Chapter III is methodology of the research. Here would be explained
about the setting of the research consist of the place, subject, and general
information about MTs Aswaja Tengaran. Also, research methodology which
is consist of type of the research, technique of collecting data, research
instrument, evaluation criteria, and the technique of analysing data.
1. Place of the Research
This research conducted at the eight grade students of MTS Aswaja
Tengaran. It was located in St. Masjid Besar No. 32 Tengaran,
Semarang Regency, Central Java.
2. Subject of the Research
The participants of this research is the eight year students of MTS
Aswaja Tengaran in the second semester. There were two classes of
eight grade, there were 15 students each class. but the researcher
choose only a class in doing this research, that was class of VIIIA.
B.General Information of MTs Aswaja
MTs Aswaja Tengaran was found by Mr. Ahmad Nazari who also
donated his field to establishment. Before changing into MTs Aswaja, the
name of the school was; PGA 4 tahun conducting teaching learning
activities in the morning (1967), PGA A, then changed into PGA 6 tahun
School (MA) then, the MA taken over by government and changed into
MAN 1 Tengaran and while the former keep becoming MTs Aswaja
Tengaran (1977), under supervision of LP Ma’arif. The headmaster
succession is chronogical as follows:: Mr. Muh Amin, Mr. Dawam
Badarudin, Mr. Khamil Yasin, Mr. Muh. Gufron, Mr. Muh Amin, and Siti
Khabibah, S. Ag. until now.
a. Visions and Mission of MTs Aswaja Tengaran
MTs Aswaja Tengaran have mission that being the excellence to
improve the qualified human resource both in science and religius
Then MTs Aswaja Tengaran also have visions that conducting
education orienting knowledge, social and moral qualities to produce
human resource qualified in science and religius awareness.
C.Research Methodology 1. Type of Research
The method that was used in making this research was Classroom
Action Research. According to Wallace as quoted by Khisbulloh
(2012: 25), Action research is systematically collecting data in our
daily practice that then is being analyzed to decide about what the
future should be based on the practice analysis. In other way, Carr &
Kemmis(1998) said that Action research is:
practices and the situations in which these practices are carried
According to Mattetal (2001:7) Classroom Action Research is a
method of finding out what works best in your own classroom so that
you can improve student learning. In CAR, the teacher focuses
attension on a problem or question on her/his own classroom. In other
way, McNiff 1992 (in Khisbulloh 2012:26) stated that the bclassroom
action research constitutes as one of a reflective research which the
result can be the instruments to develop the quality of the learning. It
can bea inferred that the classroom action research is the action
research which is held to improve the students condition. The
Classroom action research is also as the follow up of the observation
conducted in the field by researcher.
In the classroom action research, there are two cycles in action
research. Each cycle has a several stages of action research which are
proposed by McNiff (1992:22):
a. Preparing material, making lesson plan, and designing the
step in doing the action.
b. Preparing students’ name list and scoring.
c. Preparing teaching aids
d. Preparing sheet for classroom observation (to know the
situation of teaching learning process when the method is
e. Preparing a test (to know whether student’s reading
comprehension improve or not)
a. Giving pre- test
b. Teaching reading by gist strategy
c. Giving chance to the students to ask any difficulties or
d. Giving post- test
Observation is one of the instruments used in collecting the
data. Observation can be sistematically used to observe and note
the phenomena investigated like the students’ feeling, thinking
and something they do in teaching learning process.
The result of the observation is analyzed it is to remember
what happened that has been written in observation. Teacher
evaluated the teaching learning process that has been applied
through repeated reading, noted of the lack or weakness. Then,
after finding the result of teaching reading through oral reading
technique in a cycle, it make the improvement and decide wheter
Classroom action research can be illustrated based on
Kemmis and Mc Taggart’s view as quoted by Young, Rapp &
Murphy in Journal of Instructional Pedagogies.
Figure. 3.1. Classroom Action Research Cycle
The classroom action research conducted in MTS Aswaja
Tengaran to the eight year students of it. The goal is to improving
students reading comprehension through the gist strategy.
2. Technique of collecting data
There were several techniques of collecting data that used in this
research in order to get an accurate data. They were:
Test is a set of question or exercises or other instrumental to
measure knowledge, intelligence, ability or attitude of groups or
stated that test is a measurement technique within we (the
teachers) found a variety of questions, declaration or assignments
series that should be done or answered by the respondent. Trough
the test, the teacher is easily know the students ability, neither
they need an improvement or not.
The tests that was used in this research are multiple choice and
essay. It was used as a pre-test and post- test to know the
students’ reading comprehension.
Document means a written material. The researcher completed
the research by using document in which explained about the
school and the data which is needed for this research. The data are
book, transcript and a history book of MTS Aswaja Tengaran.
This technique is uses to know the students and teachers’
condition, structure organization, profile of the school and its
Beside doing the test, the researcher did class observation.
Observation is more than just looking and seeing. According to
Arifin (2012:231) Observation is a technique of collecting data
that was done by way of monitoring and recording sistematically,
logic, objective, and rational about fenomenon to get a certain
research but also more generally for supporting the profesional
growth of teachers and in the process of school development. This
method would be used to observe the teaching-learning process
and the students’ activities.
3. Research Instrument a. Test
1. Multiple Choice
The instrument of this research was writing production test.
There are 10 items of questions of multiple choice. Its all about
narrative text. The students should answer the whole questions
correctly. Score 2 for a correct answer then multiple it by 3.
The maximum point for this test is 60.
He second instrument of this research is an essay. It was
given to measure the students ability in summarizing the
narrative text before and after taught by the GIST Strategy.
Maximum score of each criteria is 4. And the total point of this
essay is 40.
In order to collecting documentation data, the writer took:
1. Photograph evidence. According to Elliot (1991:78)
2. Documents. The relevant documents can be included:
syllabuses, school’s report, test sheet, sample of students’
The instrument in observation that was used is the students’
activities during teaching and learning process or students
observation sheet. The resercher observes the condition of the
subject in the learning process. It is analyzed about what the
matter of the learning process to find the essential problem.
Regarding with the resercher’s explanation above that are many
complexities in reading comprehension. So, the researcher
observes how far the students figure out the text after reading.
There are five aspects that could be the measurement of the
clear description of this observation. They are:
a. Student’s attention on the teacher’s explanation
b. Students’ activeness in asking question
c. Students’ activeness in responding question
d. Students’ enthusiasm in doing test.
4. Evaluation Criteria 1. Pre- test and Post- test.
a. Multiple choice, there are 10 items and each item is scored 2,
the total score is 20 and it was multipled by 3. The result is
b. Essay, there is one direction and have a five aspects. The
total score is 40.
The total score of multiple choice and an essay test is 100.
And the criteria of this result will be presented as follow:
Table. 3.5. Criteria Students’ Score
NO. Grade Qualification Range
Score Level Descriptor
1. A Excellent 85- 100 The student:
implied information, main ideas and supporting
unfamiliar language - Interprets
- Engages wuth
identfying ideas, oppinions and attitudes in the attitudes and points of view
- Show thorough
identfying ideas, oppinions and attitudes in the attitudes and points of view
identifying some stated and implied information, main ideas and some supporting details,
in texts with
for writing - Occasionally
attitudes and points of view
- Show some
understanding of the content of the information, main ideas or supporting details in texts with
purpose for writing
- Make a limited
attempt to engage with the text by identfying ideas,
attitudes in the
connections with own experiences, attitudes and points of view
- Show limited
the content of the text as a whole
5. E Very Poor ≤ 49 The student does not
reach a standard
described by any of descriptors above Adapted from English Instructional Evaluation 1 by Ida Isnawati (2012) in Junanto (2014).
5. Technique of analysing data a. Descriptive Technique
A descriptive technique is used to know the students
behavior during the teaching learning process. In descriptive
technique, the researcher analyzes the observation sheet which has
been made by the collaborator.
b. Statistical Technique
Lodico (2006:12) stated that quantitative techniques
summarize data using numbers. Hypotheses and methods of data
collection are created before the research begins. This technique
is used to know the students‟ score of reading comprehension in
According to Fraenken and Wallen (2009: 192) the formula
𝑀 = ∑ 𝑋𝑁
M : Mean of student’s score
∑ 𝑋 : The sum score of students’ reading test
N : The total number of students
2. SD (Standard Deviation)
𝑆𝐷 = √∑ 𝐷𝑁 − (2 ∑ 𝐷𝑁 ) 2
SD : Deviation Standard
D : Different between pre- test and post- test
N : Number of observation in T- test
3. T- test
To be able to know whether there is a significant
improvement or not between pre- test and post- test, the
reseacher using T- test after calculating the SD. The formula
(∑ 𝐷𝑁 ) (√𝑁−1𝑆𝐷 )
SD: deviation standard for one sample t- test
D : Different between pre-test and post-test
This chapter containts the result of a classroom action research in the use of
the gist strategy towards students’ reading comprehension at the eighth grade
students of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the academic year of 2015/2016.
A. Description of Research Schedule
This research has been done from February 13rd 2016 untill February
27th 2016. The time setting of the research conducted as follow:
Table. 4.1. The Time Setting of The Research
November 10th 2015 Interview the teacher
February 13th 2016 Pre- Test
February 15th 2016 Cycle I (first meeting)
February 16th 2016 Cycle I (second meeting)
February 22nd 2016 Cycle II (first meeting)
February 23rd 2016 Cycle II (second meeting)
February 27th 2016 Post- Test
The teaching and learning process of reading Narrative Text
understand about the material, they were not afraid asking about it to the
teacher. The students very enthusiastic being a part of teaching and
B. Data Analysis 1. Pre- Test
Firstly, before the researcher doing this research. She was doing
some simple interview to the English teacher of MTs Aswaja on
Wednesday November 10th 2015, Mr. Hafida Zein Ahmad, S. Pd. I. The
teacher recommended the researcher to conduct the research in class VIII
A, because the class has a problem. Based on the teacher’s information,
many students got difficulties in understandig the text. They could not
determine the main idea and the supporting detail. They also lack of
Before did the research in a classroom, the researcher gave the
students a Pre- test to measure the students understanding about narrative
text before they were taught about it. They were not get any treatment
neither from the teacher nor the researcher. The Pre- test was distributed
on Saturday, February13th 2016. There were 20 questions, while 10 was
multiple choice and 10 other was essay. The questions are about narrative
text. The students have 60 minutes to do the Pre- Test.
Table 4.2. The Students’ Pre- Test Score.
No. Name Gender Score
2. Alif Fatikhah F 54
3. Dhea Ihza Alfara F 46
4. Gunadarma M 79
5. Heru Purnomo M 55
6. Ika Ardianti F 32
7. Kiki Puspita D. F 42
8. Majid M 56
9. M. Afif Fathoni M 91
10. Muthi Ishwariyah F 79
11. Noviyanto M 39
12. Reza Alif Nasya A. F 47
13. Sardi M 46
14. Siti Rohmah F 35
15. Virgo Bimantara M 38
a. The Mean of Pre- test
M = ∑ 𝑋
M = the mean obtained
∑ 𝑋 = the sum of pre- test score
𝑁 = the total number of students
M = 827
48 M = 55.13
Table. 4.3. The Students’ rate of Pre- test Score
No. Qualification Range Score Frequency
1. Excellent 85- 100 2
2. Good 70- 84 2
3. Average 55- 69 2
4. Poor 50- 54 1
5. Very Poor ≤ 49 8
b. The Precentage of the students’ pre- test score:
P = 𝐹
𝑁 𝑋 100 %
1). Excellent = 2
15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %
2). Good = 2
15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %
3). Average = 2
15 𝑋 100 % = 13.33 %
4). Poor = 1
15 𝑋 100 % = 6.67 %
5). Very Poor = 8
15 𝑋 100 % = 53.33 %
From the review on the research result, the mean of pre – test is
55.13 and the precentage of the pre- test shows that 13.33 %