I S E H T s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P e h t n i a t b O o t

122  Download (0)

Teks penuh

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

v i o

T Papa and Mama,

(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

  xiii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... i

APPROVAL PAGES ... ii

DEDICATION PAGE ... iv

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... v

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... vi

ABSTRACT ... vii

ABSTRAK ... ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ... xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... xiii

LIST OF TABLES ... xvii

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xviii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Research Background ... 1

B. Research Problem ... 5

C. Problem Limitation ... 6

D. Research Objectives ... 6

E. Research Benefits ... 7

(15)

  xiv

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 10

A. Theoretical Description ... 10

1. Scaffolding ... 10

a. Scaffolding as Metaphor ... 10

b. Scaffolding Defined ... 12

c. Scaffolding as a Teaching Technique ... 15

2. English Conversation Class ... 24

a. The Nature of Conversation ... 24

b. English Conversation Class in SMAN 1 Kalasan ... 25

3. The Second Grade Students of High School ... 27

B. Theoretical Framework ... 31

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 33

A. Research Method ... 33

B. Research Setting ... 34

C. Research Participants ... 34

D. Research Instruments and Data Gathering Technique ... 36

1. Interview ... 36

2. Observation Checklist ... 37

3. Field Notes ... 39

4. Video Recording ... 40

E. Data Analysis Technique ... 42

(16)

  xv

2. Triangulation ... 43

F. Research Procedure ... 45

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS ... 48

A. The Use of Scaffolding and Its Types in English Conversation Class 48 1. The Elements of the Activities ... 48

a. Opening ... 49

b. Getting Ready ... 49

1) Non-Verbal Warming Up Activity: Mirror Hands ... 49

2) Non-Verbal Cooling Down Activity: Breathing ... 50

3) Group Formation Activity: Mix and Mingle ... 51

c. Working from/into Scenarios and Scripts ... 52

1) One-Word Dialogues ... 52

2) Dialogue Interpretation ... 53

3) Role-Play ... 56

2. The Occurrence of Scaffolding and Its Types during the English Conversation Class ... 57

a. Offering Explanation ... 59

b. Inviting Students’ Participation ... 63

c. Verifying and Clarifying Students Understandings .... 68

d. Modeling of Desired Behaviors ... 71

(17)

  xvi

B. The Advantages of Scaffolding as a Teaching Technique ... 76

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 79

A. Conclusions ... 79

B. Recommendations ... 82

1. For Other Teachers ... 82

2. For Other Researchers ... 84

REFERENCES ... 85

(18)

  xvii

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

3.1 Question for Interview ... 37

3.2 Data Gathering Techniques ... 41

(19)

  xviii

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A Statement from SMAN 1 Kalasan ... 88

APPENDIX B The Result of the Observation Checklist ... 89

APPENDIX C The Result of the Field Notes ... 91

APPENDIX D The List of Interview Questions ... 95

APPENDIX E The Result of the Interview ... 96

(20)

  1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This first chapter consists of six parts. They are the research background, research problem, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits, and definition of terms.

A. Research Background

Recently, active English spoken mastery is an essential requirement demanded for many purposes. Speaking English is one aspect to support best communication as well as for absorbing and developing science, technology, culture, arts and other aspects of life. Being concerned that speaking English is important for students’ future, some schools consider that English is not only taught as a main subject applied by the government, but also supported by designing an English program to endorse the English subject.

SMAN 1 Kalasan designs an English program in addition to formal

(21)

 

yet. Since the use of scaffolding as a teaching technique was observed to bring benefits to students’ learning process, the writer considered to conduct this study.

However, recently English teachers are challenged to deal with the fact that the world of teaching is revolutionizing. The prior concept in teaching students was transferring knowledge in one way of communication which mostly happened along the process. Teachers gave the comprehended knowledge to the students. Students’ objective was to decode the knowledge. Teachers provided them with rules and skills in order to achieve the objective. In the end of the teaching process, students had to acquire the knowledge. Yet, it was led to proficiency. However, the main idea of teaching and learning today has changed to a concept that builds students to be the primary subject of the teaching and learning process. Students are demanded to be able to actively construct their knowledge and understanding.

(22)

 

in the teaching-learning process. Teachers’ task is to ensure that students actively join the process while providing assistance until the students are able to perform the given tasks independently.

Since the role of teachers is still essential, teacher’s assistance during the learning process is necessary. According to Bruner, teacher’s assistance is the major component of teaching activity (as cited in Roehler and Cantlon, 1997, p. 9). The assistance that exists during students’ learning process is called scaffolding. Scaffolding as a teaching technique gives the solution for such case that challenges English conversation teachers in SMAN 1 Kalasan.

The term scaffolding is relatively new for educators, even though the notion has been applied for a long time under the other names. When people hear the word scaffolding, they directly relate it with the new buildings construction, or skyscrapers that need renovation. Therefore, the concept of scaffolding as a teaching technique is adopted from the concept of scaffolding used on construction site, which acts momentary to support a job based on the needs, and will be removed when it is no longer required.

(23)

 

temporary supporting process which is presented by an expert to assist learners to connect the existence space between the area that they have known and can do and the area they must achieve and accomplish so they can be successful in the learning process (p. 169).

Numerous research about scaffolding shows that scaffolding is an important tool in language teaching. In the result of their research, Roehler and Cantlon (1997) emphasize that “scaffolding is an important instructional tool because it supports students’ learning (p. 39).” Moreover, Gaskins et al. (1997) state that scaffolding assistance constructs students to internalize knowledge of content, strategies, and thinking disposition, and how to use them productively (p. 71). As a teaching technique, the writer believes that scaffolding can be implemented in teaching English conversation effectively as the technique has been implemented in the English conversation class.

According to Hartman, the ultimate goal of the educator when using scaffolding is “for the student to become an independent and self-regulating learner and problem solver” (as cited in Van Der Stuyf, 2002). Roehler and Cantlon (1997) mention that there are five types of scaffolding, namely; offering explanations, inviting students participation, verifying and clarifying student understandings, modeling of desired behaviors, and inviting students to contribute clues (pp. 16- 30).

(24)

 

advantages of scaffolding is that it can be applied for individual as well as for group of learning. It also can be used in the area where the range of understanding and the level of intelligences or capacities of the students exist.

Recognizing the facts, this study aims to the use of scaffolding to teach the second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan in English conversation class. In

conducting the study, the writer uses a set of material developed by Maley and Duff (2005) to provide suitable teaching and learning materials and activities related to the study. English conversation class is chosen to conduct this study since it is a quite new program that still needs development in the teaching learning process and since the observation had been conducted for three semesters in this class. The second grade high school students are selected because they experience the second year of learning English conversation in which they were not in the time of adapting or preparing final examination like what the first grade and the third grade students experienced. Thus, this study is undertaken in order to identify the occurrence of the five types of scaffolding proposed by Roehler and Cantlon (1997), and to investigate their functions to teach second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan during English conversation class.

B. Research Problem

By considering the research background above, there are three problems to be formulated:

(25)

 

2. When do they occur during English conversation class?

3. What are the advantages of implementing scaffolding and its types in English conversation class?

C. Problem Limitation

Referring to the problems formulated above, this study makes some limitations. This study focuses on the use of the five types of scaffolding as a teaching technique proposed by Roehler and Cantlon to teach second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan during English conversation class.

CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) is one method that mostly used in teaching speaking. The goal of CLT is to enable students to communicate in the target language, which shares the similarity with the goal of English conversation class. It means that the principles of CLT as a teaching method might be used during the teaching learning process. However, this study limits the discussion on the investigation of scaffolding as a teaching technique implemented in English conversation class since scaffolding teaching technique is adjustable to teach many kinds of aspects especially in language teaching, not on the method used in the teaching learning process. In this study, there will not be further discussion on the CLT in English conversation class.

D. Research Objectives

(26)

 

of scaffolding, to identify their occurrence during the English conversation class, and to investigate their advantages to teach second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan.

E. Research Benefits

By conducting this research, the writer hopes that this study brings benefits for the better development of English teaching. For being more specific, this research is aimed to yield benefits for:

1. English Teachers

The study is conducted to introduce scaffolding to teachers, especially English teachers who are willing to discover other techniques, which are fresher and more innovative. It is addressed particularly to deal with the situation and the condition of the education today which put students as primary subject in teaching learning process, instead of having the teachers as the center of the learning. This study is expected to help English teachers to understand more about scaffolding. The writer recommends scaffolding to be implemented as alternative technique in language teaching, especially English.

2. Other researchers

(27)

 

a guidance to conduct an in-depth study in the future and even result a better performance.

F. Definition of Terms

This study concerns with some variables. Hence, it is important to define some variables clearer in order to avoid and to prevent misunderstanding. The terms to be defined in this thesis are as follows:

1. Scaffolding

Scaffolding is a teaching technique that first proposed by Bruner. According to Wood, Bruner and Ross (1976), scaffolding is a form of assistance offered by the adults that essentially occur during a learners’ learning process (p. 199). The concept of scaffolding as teaching technique is teachers’ or adults’ assistance in teaching learning process.

In this study, the writer investigates some types of scaffolding, which are elaborated by Roehler and Cantlon (1997), and their advantages during English conversation class. According to them, there are five types of scaffolding that can be provided in the class, namely, offering explanations, inviting students participation, verifying and clarifying student understandings, modeling of desired behaviors, and inviting students to contribute clues (p. 16). The types of scaffolding will be identified during the activities occur in English conversation class.

(28)

 

order to carry out particular tasks. The scaffolding teaching technique can be used when another technique are being implemented. In this study, for instance, scaffolding occurs in the middle of discussion and role play. Scaffolding and its types can be distinguished from principles, as they are not only rules, but ways of assisting students’ learning. The underlying concept of scaffolding teaching technique is adults’ or teachers’ assistance.

2. English Conversation Class

English conversation class is a special program or extracurricular designed by the school board of SMAN 1 Kalasan to support English curriculum that has

been established nationally. This program aims at improving students’ spoken English in English conversation. It focuses on the practice of conversation as a part of speaking skill, instead of learning only the theory of English. Even though it is an extracurricular, every student has to attend the class since it is put inside the regular schedule along with other main subjects.

3. Second Grade of SMAN 1 Kalasan

Second grade students are the students around 16-17 years old who are in the second year of high school. According to the latest curriculum, the second grade students have taken their certain majors determined by the school, namely, science and social major. In this study, the writer selects the students of XI IPS 2 of SMAN 1Kalasan in the first semester during 2011/2012 academic year.

(29)

  10 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter has two major parts to discuss, namely theoretical description

and theoretical framework. The theoretical description presents few theories

related to the study, while the theoretical framework discusses about the

guidelines that is used in conducting the study.

A. Theoretical Description

In this section, there are three main topics to discuss, namely Scaffolding,

English Conversation Class, Second Grade Students of High School. On the

discussion of scaffolding, there are three subtopics addressed. Namely,

scaffolding as metaphor, scaffolding defined, and scaffolding as a teaching

technique.

1. Scaffolding

a. Scaffolding as Metaphor

The writer is motivated to conduct this study since scaffolding as teaching

technique has not been well known among the educators. Therefore, it is

necessary to know the adoption of term scaffolding in educational field, especially

for the educators who are going to learn and apply scaffolding as a teaching

technique.

Scaffolding is not a new word for many people. They know scaffolding as

(30)

principle, the word of scaffolding is used in educational field by borrowing its

nature. The Oxford American Dictionary and Thesaurus defines scaffolding, used

on construction sites, as “a temporary structure formed of poles, planks, etc.,

erected by workers and used by them while building or repairing a house, etc.”

Scaffolding physically supports workers and it also facilitates them to move up

and down, here and there, and anywhere around the site in order to complete their

job. According to Herber and Herber (1993), scaffolding provides workers with

both a place to work and the means to reach work areas that they could not access

on their own (p. 138). Here, the principle of scaffolding that is used as a teaching

technique is the principle of assisting and supporting. Scaffolding as teaching

technique provides educators’ or adults’ assistance and support to learners in the

area that they cannot reach by themselves when they are completing the given

tasks.

When it is seen from the outside of the building, scaffolding looks like an

external skeleton erected surrounds the building, even though it has nothing to do

with supporting its weight. The nature of scaffolding is temporary, which is

designed to disassemble quickly according to the needs. It can be stretched higher

or dropped lower, spread north or retreated west. When the job has done and it is

no longer required, scaffolding is taken apart and removed, as its nature is

physically momentary. Although a temporary structure, it can be used again on

the next job. Significantly, scaffolding is attached to the building, not the workers

(Axford, 2009). In teaching and learning process, scaffolding also shares the

(31)

learning process. Similar with the use in construction site, scaffolding will be

reduced gradually or removed when the learners no longer need the assistance

because they can do the task independently.

McKenzie gives another example of scaffolding as a physic structure in a

deep metaphor, “the workers cleaning the face of the Washington Monument do

not confuse the scaffolding with the monument itself. The scaffolding is

secondary. The building is primary.” The concept of scaffolding is adopted as a

metaphor. It has meaning that scaffolding is addressed secondary, while the

learners are the primary in the teaching learning process.

b. Scaffolding Defined

After knowing scaffolding as a metaphor, it is important to know the

definition of scaffolding as a teaching technique since scaffolding is the main

topic to discuss in this study. According to Bruner (2006), the nature of tutorial

process is “the means whereby an adult or ‘expert’ helps somebody who is less

adult or less expert” (p. 198). The statement explains that teaching learning

process happens when someone or adult who is more knowledgeable and skillful

is present to assist somebody who is less knowledgeable and less skillful. It can

happen anywhere and anytime where there is a process of teaching and learning

happens, both formal and informal. What comes to teaching and learning process

is a problem to be solved. The function of tutoring itself then directs to an effort

of problem solving. The issue of problem solving in achieving skill acquisition is

preconditioned by an assumption that a learner is unassisted. In this condition, the

(32)

modeling or imitation. Wood, Bruner, and Ross emphasize the statement that is

stated:

“Discussion of problem solving or skill acquisition are usually premised on the assumption that the learner is alone and unassisted. If the social context is taken into account, it is usually treated as an instance of modeling and imitation. But the intervention of a tutor may involve much more than this” (199).

According to them, in learning situation, more often than not, it involves a

kind of scaffolding process that support a learner to solve a problem, carry out a

task or achieve a goal which would be more effective than his unassisted efforts.

The concept of the study is brought into the use of the term of scaffolding in

educational field that was introduced for the first time. The scaffolding “consists

essentially of the adult ‘controlling’ those elements of the task that are initially

beyond the learner’s capacity, thus permitting him to concentrate upon and

complete only those elements that are within his range of competence” (p. 199).

By using scaffolding in the process, they believe that it can bring much more

benefit for the learners than undertaking a complete assistance of the task. Thus,

the goal is to be successful. “The task thus proceeds to a successful conclusion.

We assume, however, that the process can potentially achieve much more

eventually, in development of task competence by the learner at a pace that would

far outstrip his unassisted efforts” (p. 199).

The term of scaffolding as a technique in educational field has not been

popular enough in the group of teachers, but some academic researchers have

studied it for years, including Graves and Braaten. They define scaffolding as the

(33)

associate the existence space between the area that they have known and can do

and the area they must achieve and accomplish so that they can be successful in

the learning process. It means to relate the previous learning with the new

information that the learners get during the learning process, to bring them to

succeed in obtaining the goal of the learning process.

Gaskins, et al. also support the idea of scaffolding for education field.

According to Rogoff, in relation with the intelligent behavior, scaffolding refers to

supportive situations where adults help children or learners extending their current

skills and knowledge to a higher level of competence (as cited in Gaskins, et al.,

1997, 45). Gaskins, et al. (1997) quoted the significance of scaffolding by Pearson

and Fielding that, in school setting, scaffolding is whatever teachers say or do to

enable children to complete the tasks they could not complete without assistance

(p. 45). Scaffolding is employed not only to encourage the development of

contents and strategies, but also to help students modify aspects of their personal

style that interfere within the learning (p. 63). Ideally, scaffolding should take

place in a friendly, lively, and enjoyable atmosphere and also collaborative

environment where children feel free and motivated to contribute ideas. It is

because they are accepted as worthy consideration and their understandings are

frequently assessed. The situation, where there is an adult assistance, gives an

opportunity for children to internalize knowledge of content, strategies, and

dispositions. It is expected that in the future, they will use this knowledge to guide

(34)

support must be gradually shifted and the learner should take on more

responsibility for completing the task (p. 45-6). Gaskins, et al. conclude that:

scaffolding means explaining, demonstrating, and jointly constructing an idealized version of a performance. Scaffolding includes recruiting the student’s interest, reducing the number of steps so the task is manageable, maintaining students’ persistence toward the goal, making critical features evident, and controlling frustration and risk (p. 47).

Above all, Riley (2011) states in his book that, “the scaffold is the

potentiality of each individual to act and react” to a guidance, guided by “those

who have been entrusted with their care, because they cannot do it on their own.”

Scaffolding is provided assistance in order to bring out learners’ potentiality to

respond to it because they cannot complete the task by their own. He also supports

that the term of scaffolding in an educational field is a useful and appropriate term

since “it is a solid and yet transitory structure, semi permanent, rather than fixed,

changeable with will be unlike a foundation, able to be modified without

destroying the structure itself” (p. 21). He gives an understanding that scaffolding

is not the same with building a foundation on students since a foundation is a

permanent structure that becomes a base before going further to the next process

of learning. Scaffolding can be modified, based on the condition and the situation

happen around the students and along the process of learning. Scaffolding is

flexible by following the happening moment and it will not destroy the structure.

On the other hand, scaffolding will develop the base.

c. Scaffolding as a Teaching Technique

Sometimes students find difficulties in completing their tasks by their own.

(35)

mastering some skills in a collaboratively way. This idea becomes the strategy of

scaffolding. According to Herber and Herber, as quoted by Lange (1993), there

are processes to be applied in the use of scaffolding. The instructor (to call

someone who assists a student or students in their learning) initially comes with

extensive instructional support. The instructor then continues with some

assistance in building students’ understanding of new content and process. When

these processes have been done, the instructor is no longer assisting the students

since they internalize the content and the process and later they are assumed to

have full responsibility for controlling the progress of a given task. It means that

the instructor has removed the temporary scaffolding and shifts to build the

permanent structure of students understanding (pp. 138-9).

Turnbull et al. shares the similar idea with Herber and Herber in relation to

scaffolding processes. According to Turnbull et al., scaffolding involves two

major steps. The first step is the instructional plans to lead the students to

associate the knowledge they have already known and possessed with the new

material in order to acquire deeper understanding. Thus, they can perform the

progress of the learning process in the future. The second step is the fulfillment of

instructor presenting support for the students while completing every step to be

taken in the learning process (as cited in Lange, 1999).

The significance of scaffolding is the adult’s direct contribution in

assisting and monitoring students learning process. Teachers or instructors must

provide all information that students need to complete given tasks in order to

(36)

direction of the students’ attention, and watch the sequence of students’ activities.

These are necessary in order to perform students’ ability within the scaffolded

teaching environment. Jones states that “gradually, with scaffolding, children are

able to direct their own attention, plan, and control their activities” (as cited in

Henry).

According to Roehler and Cantlon (1997), there are five different types of

scaffolding, yielded from the research they had established. They are (pp. 16-7):

1) Offering explanations

The first type of scaffolding consists of explanations. To contribute the

scaffolding in teaching learning process, the teacher provides detail and explicit

explanations to the students about the knowledge they are learning, the purpose of

the learning, when they can apply the knowledge, and also the application of the

knowledge. It is to prepare the students to go further and deeper to the material

they will learn.

Explanations are explicit statements adjusted to fit the learners’ emerging scaffoldings about what is being learned (declarative or prepositional knowledge), why and when it is used (conditional or situational knowledge), and how it is used (procedural knowledge) (p. 17).

2) Inviting students participation

The second element of scaffolding that teacher can use in the classroom is

inviting students participation. Through this type of scaffolding, teacher can

explicitly or implicitly allow the students to be involved in the process of

learning. To accommodate the students to feel invited, teacher firstly gives them

(37)

task. Being given the activity, students are provided a time to comprehend the

knowledge.

In this type of scaffolding, learners were given opportunities to join in the process that was occurring. After the teacher provided illustrations of some of the thinking, feelings, or actions that were needed to complete the task, the learners had opportunities to fill the pieces they knew and understood.

3) Verifying and clarifying student understandings

This type of scaffolding is also the important element to apply. Teacher

has to check the students’ understanding that appears when the learning process is

in progress. There is a condition when students present their understandings and it

seems to be reasonable. Teacher’s duty is to confirm that their thoughts are

acceptable. If students say their understanding but it seems unreasonable, the

teacher can clarify their responses.

Teachers checked the students’ emerging understandings. If the emerging understandings were reasonable, the teacher verified the students’ responses. If the emerging understandings were not reasonable, the teacher offered clarification.

4) Modeling of desired behaviors

Duffy, Roehler, and Hartman state that “modeling was defined as a

teaching behavior that showed how one should feel, think, or act within a given

situation” (as cited in Roehler and Cantlon, 1997, p. 20). A teacher is the role

model that teaches the students such required behavior. Later on, students are

expected to follow, imitate, and process the feeling, thought, and action like what

they are modeled. The teacher demonstrates how to make a process of thinking

aloud in order to accomplish the task. Hereby, the students are given such model

(38)

The modeling, based on Roehler and Cantlon analysis, are broken down

into two main functions. The first function is called making thinking visible,

including thinking aloud. It occurs when the teacher models how to think

sequentially to construct own understanding. The students follow the same way in

order to attempt to solve an issue. Indeed, this process is difficult since it can be

obtained usually after a number of students contribute clues. The second type of

modeling is found as question and comment generation. It can be categorized as

talk-aloud modeling.

5) Inviting students to contribute clues

In the learning process, the teacher should give students motivation and

stimulation to contribute clues when completing the task given. When few

students can take part in contributing clues, the teacher can help them interpreting

their opinion and verbalizing them. While the process is taking place, the teacher

encourages the students to say aloud about what clue they are trying to reveal.

The fifth type of scaffolding was one in which several students contributed clues for reasoning through the issue or problem. In this form of scaffolding, learners were encouraged to offer clues about how to complete the task. Together, the teachers and students verbalized the process (27).

Having learned the types of scaffolding, the writer hereby managed a

study to identify the occurrence of those five types of scaffolding and figure out

what functions are obtained from the use of scaffolding during the English

conversation class best fitted. This theory is used to seek the answer of the first

(39)

According to Henry (2002), scaffolding is not an isolated teaching

technique. Instead, teacher should employ scaffolding technique by increasing the

difficulty constantly. In other words, scaffolding should be rotated in the use.

Nevertheless, student centered is the majority of the instruction, yet, the presence

of the teacher to support the students is essential.

According to Bransford, Brown, and Cooking (2000), the scaffolding

provided in learning process exists for kind of activities and tasks that:

1) Motivate or enlist the child’s interest related to the task

2) Simplify the task to make it more manageable and achievable for a child

3) Provide some direction in order to help the child focus on achieving the goal

4) Clearly indicate difference between the child’s work and the standard or

desired solution

5) Reduce frustration and risk

6) Model and clearly define the expectations of the activity to be performed

Van Der Stuyf quotes Hartman’s statement that scaffolding in the

educational setting may include models, cues, prompts, hints, partial solutions,

think-aloud modeling and direct instruction. A teacher can also use a problem and

complete a task. The teacher will get various responds from the students after

giving questions. The correct answers must be expected, but the fact is, the

answer can always be wrong. Therefore, the teacher can increase the level of

questioning or specificity until the students are able to provide a correct response.

This kind of scaffolding is presented in the following example. According to

(40)

“… if you receive no response or an incorrect response after asking the question, ‘How do we change lady to ladies?’ you should proceed with a more intrusive verbal prompt, ‘What is the rule?’ to remind the student that there is a rule. If necessary, continue with, ‘What do we do when a word ends in y to make it plural?’ to give the student a part of the rule.”

When the teacher observes that the students’ comprehension have evolved,

the amount of questions should be decreased step by step until students can do the

task independently without prompting.

As the consequences of following scaffolding technique, a teacher can

have their students working collaboratively. It means that students do their task

within their groups as well as individually, but still with teachers’ assistance.

Hartman states that, “this can serve as a step in the process of decreasing the

scaffolds provided by the educator and needed by students” (as cited in Van Der

Stuyf, 2002).

According to McKenzie (2000), there are eight characteristics of

scaffolding:

1) Provide clear directions

A teacher provides step-by-step instructions that give clear explanation

about what students must do to complete their task and to reach the goal. It is

done in order to avoid problems or misunderstanding that students might

encounter during the learning process. Through scaffolding, teachers reduce

students’ confusion. Avoiding the confusion can support the effort to achieve

(41)

2) Clarify purpose

A teacher explains the learning purpose and keeps students’ motivation

during the lesson. By using scaffolding, the teacher helps students to understand

the meaning and the worth of the lesson. Students are led to consider about why

they are doing the work and why it is important. With understanding the purpose

of the lesson clearly, the students can be motivated to do the process as they keep

in mind about where they will go and what they will achieve.

3) Keep students on task

According to McKenzie (2000), scaffolding is “somewhat like the guard

rail of a mountain highway.” Scaffolding provides pathway for the learners to

keep on track. When the teacher provides clear directions, they are more than just

directions, but also structure and guidance, which provide steps to keep students

on the designated task. There will be more than one step to choose, but students

will not be lost because they are controlled while the activities are in progress.

Along the process of the scaffolding, the presence of the teacher is essential to

guide the students, until there is a right time to let students learn without the

teacher assistance, but the teacher keep watching them ever since.

4) Offer assessment to clarify expectations

Assessment is one important aspect in teaching learning process. From the

very beginning, the teacher has given examples of work quality done by others.

The examples given are the way the teacher offers the assessment. The teacher

shows standards that define expectations. Students accept the standards so they

(42)

clarified. In the end of the teaching learning process, the expectations are fulfilled

by students, as well as by the teacher.

5) Point students to worthy sources

In order to complete a task, a teacher provides sources to avoid students

from being confused and frustrated. The sources are also useful to shorten the

time in carrying out the task given. Provided by sources, students are about to

decide which sources they will use.

6) Reduce uncertainty, surprise and disappointment

A teacher examines every step taken by students during the lesson to see

what possibly goes wrong. It is to reduce frustrations within students so the

learning process can be effective and efficient. Then, the teacher refines the lesson

to eliminate the difficulties that might happen. The teacher hereby watches the

students to carry out the activities, in which they gain new insights of what they

have carried out.

7) Deliver efficiency

Since scaffolding used in the lesson shows focus, clarity, and time on task,

scaffolding offers efficiency because students are channeled to their task in such

good ways. “Scaffolding lesson still require hard work, but the work is so

well-centered on the inquiry”. Scaffolding encourages students to create work effort in

order to do tasks and activities given in the class.

8) Create momentum

“The channeling achieved through scaffolding concentrates and directs

(43)

are provoked and inspired to have thoughts in their mind and to accumulate

insight and understanding.

2. English Conversation Class

Since this study is conducted in English conversation class, the

understanding of its aspects is important in order to understand deeper the

purposes of why this class or program is held.

a. The Nature of Conversation

From its name, the primary aspect to concern is conversation.

Conversation has its own characteristics. First, according to Hymes, conversation

is “a type of speech event” (as cited in Richards, 1980, p. 14) which is different

from lectures, interviews and courtroom trials. Richards (1980) points out that

conversation involves cooperative construction which based on contributions,

assumptions, expectations, and interpretations of the participants’ utterances (p.

414). Therefore, conversation, according to Nunan (1999), becomes negotiated

and self-regulated process (226). Thornbury and Slade (2006) state that

conversation is fragmented and constructed through short, frequent turns that

consist of phrases and clauses (p. 13). The varying levels existing among the

students tend to inhibit conversational flow in English conversation class.

Second, according to Dornyei and Thurrell (1992), conversation is

characterized as a cooperative discourse that is managed by interactive rules and

routines (p. 3). It means that there are turn-taking mechanisms which exist in

conversation and are done frequently. Third, Thornbury and Slade (2006) affirm

(44)

social element such as, mutual relationship and agreement, phatic language, the

maintaining and modification of social identity, and the involvement of

interpersonal skills (p. 17). This social element is expressed through wishes,

feelings, attitudes opinions and judgments, which will influence the formal nature

of the classroom when teaching English conversation. As stated by McLuham,

conversation is also multi-sensory (as cited in Cane, 1998, p. 32). It consists of

features which influence the conversational flow, such as eye contact, facial

expressions, body language, tempo, pauses, voice quality changes, and pitch

variation. There is also culture that seems to integrate in the construction of

conversation and will affect the way English conversation is taught and learned.

According to Nunan (1999), conversation is a way to communicate

verbally for interactional and transactional purposes (p. 228). Interactional

language is purposed to use in social interaction, while transactional language is

for service encounters like ordering food or buying tickets. Conversation is also

used to do some speech acts or speech functions, such as apologizing, promising,

and inviting. Another function of conversation is to remark relationships, which

suspend social distance, status, and power as stated in Richards and Sukwiwat

(1983, p. 117). These functions must be present in English conversation class.

b. English Conversation Class in SMAN 1 Kalasan

Related to this study, English conversation class is an extracurricular held

by SMAN 1 Kalasan. English conversation is a special program that aims to effectively improve students’ spoken English in conversation. Through English

(45)

English confidently and rapidly. The teachers are demanded to create materials

and activities that suitable to meet the needs of the students.

In order to come up with the answers, a study was conducted. The

teaching-learning process was conducted on learning English conversation in the

classroom within some literacy activities, namely, reading, writing, listening, and

speaking, with the topic of drama. The material used in the teaching learning

process is suggested by Maley and Duff (2005). They state that drama can

integrate both verbal and non-verbal communication and it can make the

classroom situation alive (p. 1). Moreover, Maley and Duff suggest techniques

and activities that will be substantially useful to the development of students’

language ability, especially English spoken ability. The essential part that teachers

can take is that teachers do not need to be a trained drama expert to introduce and

offer the whole drama materials. Teachers need to be convinced when doing the

activities so the students will not sense any nervousness. Teachers can be the key

to the success of the activities (p. 4).

To create and build students’ eagerness in order to start the new topic, the

writer led the students to do some preparation. It was a warming-up activity,

which was done within a pair for getting ready to the main activity. It was done

for more or less ten minutes or whenever the teacher felt enough. After the

warming-up activity was finished, the teaching-learning process was started. The

first teaching-learning experience was initiated through a discussion in which the

students were encouraged to be involved in a brainstorming session about their

(46)

motivated to contribute and speak up their ideas about words and elements they

already know, in relation to drama. It was to prepare and direct students’

enthusiasm to go to the topic, which was about drama. Along this activity, the

investigation of the occurrence of scaffolding and its types had been started. After

the introduction about the topic was done, the students were going to the next

activity, which was called working from scenarios or scripts, as suggested by

Maley and Duff (2005, p 207- 208). The students worked in pairs. Each pair was

given a same short dialogue that was a part of scenario or scripts. They were

asked to interpret the same short dialogue. The determined scripts were the words

to be spoken, and the students were given the opportunity and time to think about

the detailed description of the characters and the way they moved and spoke, and

even the setting that might happen, according to the given scripts. With the same

dialogue given to all of the students on each time, each pair would have their own

interpretations, event though they were circumscribed by the script. Along this

activity, the teacher provided her support and assistance whenever the students

needed it. In the end, the students were going to perform the short dialogues in

front of the class. There were various stories that were performed, as the results of

their own interpretations.

3. The Second Grade Students of High School

In this study, the writer took second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan to

be the participants. Hence, it is important to understand about the second grade

high school students’ characteristics as human beings and as learners. According

(47)

adolescence. This period of life is generally considered to run from age ten to age

twenty-five. This period is said to be a time of “storm and stress” (as cited by

Eccles, 2002, p. 8). Adolescence is a time when an individual faces significant

change on many levels of human being. This includes the change of the shape of

the body, the increasing of hormones, and the change in brain architecture. Since

the study focused on the second grade students of senior high school, it is

important to recognize their characteristics.

Adolescence is a period when individuals start making choices in life and

involving in developed behaviors as they can influence their future lives. For

instances, adolescents decide where high school to go, which courses to take,

which major to choose, which after-school activities to participate in, and which

groups to join. These are in line with their plans to prepare their future education

and occupation.

Erikson explains that the key challenges for the adolescence period of life

are developing a sense of mastery, a sense of identity, and a sense of intimacy (as

cited in Eccles, 2002, p. 8). Furthermore, Eccles hypothesizes these challenges

into more specific tasks:

“(1) changing the nature of the relationship between youth and their parents so that the youth can take on a more ‘‘mature’’ role in the social fabric of their community; (2) exploring changing social-sexual roles and identities; (3) transforming peer relationships into deeper friendships and intimate partnerships; (4) exploring personal and social identities; (5) focusing some of this identity work on making future life plans; (6) and participating in a series of experiences and choices that facilitate future economic independence or interdependence” (p. 8).

Change in cognition is one specific change that happens during

(48)

well as it is real. They are able to engage in more complex and elaborate

information and strategies, consider multiple problems all at once, and think on

one’s self and on complicated problems. It is found that in their time, adolescents

are going on a stable increase in learning strategies, knowledge of various topics

and subject areas, the ability to apply their base or prior knowledge to the new

situations of learning, and being aware of their strengths as well as their

weaknesses as learners.

Considering the special characteristics of adolescents, the writer believed

that the second grade students of high school are able to achieve the material and

activities provided because they can evolve by connecting their prior knowledge

with the new learning. The students of this age could process and increase

learning strategies, therefore, they could encounter the implementation of

scaffolding in English conversation class. Recognizing the characteristics of

students of their age also helps to determine and to design the suitable materials

and activities to best meet the learning objectives in English conversation class.

Many theories say that the adolescence period is a transition from child to

more mature person, called as adolescent. As adolescent, he or she is in the

process of finding his or her self-concept, starting to think about future life, and

understanding others. In relation to future life, in this time, adolescents consider

being focus in life planning issues, which connected to educational, occupational,

recreational, and marital options (p. 9). Based on those facts, the writer hopes that

(49)

determined for the English conversation class. They could process in mind that

every attempt to learn would bring benefit to their life.

In fact, the second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan reflected several

characteristics that are described by Erikson (as cited in Eccles, 2002, pp. 8-9).

They were in the period where they were changing their behaviors from children

to be adults. Here, the writer observed that most students in this year were trying

to build their characters to get a self-image. Several behaviors were following the

process of characters building, such as, such behaviors that show about them

being creative, whether being passionate or even ignoring learning, being

sensitive about surroundings, showing desire of some aspects of life, looking for

more attention, and wanting to be acknowledged. Hence, the teacher’s

contribution played an important role to support their characters building. They

preferred to build friend relationship with their teachers. Teachers whom they

thought knowing much about ‘teenage world’ would be more acceptable. It would

be useful to influence the learning atmosphere in class.

Since SMAN 1 Kalasan is well known as one of favorite public schools in

Sleman, they make high standard for the students especially in academic and

non-academic field. The students are demanded to fulfill and achieve the set standards.

They are demanded to work harder to get a good achievement in academic and

non-academic field. The writer noticed that sometimes that high expectation

coming from the school pressed students. Having tight schedule and the

expectation to get a good achievement, sometimes some students started to

(50)

benefits to their final score. One of things they considered unimportant was

related to some extracurricular subjects, such as English conversation class. Since

English conversation class was an extracurricular subject, score they got from this

class would not affect their final score reported every semester. Some students

who ignored the important goal of English conversation class did not take this

lesson seriously. It showed that sometimes students assumed that the score was

everything. The process of absorbing knowledge was forgotten. This fact

challenged the English conversation class teachers to provide suitable techniques,

tasks, and activities that could help students to understand the importance of

learning.

B. Theoretical Framework

In this study, there are three problems to be formulated. In order to answer

the first research problem, which is proposed to address the types of scaffolding

teaching techniques, the writer uses the theory from Roehler and Cantlon (1997).

They propose five types of scaffolding, namely, offering explanations, inviting

students participation, verifying and clarifying student understandings, modeling

of desired behaviors, and inviting students to contribute clues (p. 16).

After knowing and understanding the five types of scaffolding, the study is

continued to seek the answer of the second research problem, which is formulated

to identify the occurrence of the five types of scaffolding during the English

conversation class. In order to answer the second research problem, the writer

(51)

scaffolding and its five types are useful to understand the scaffolding teaching

technique. In this study, the five types of scaffolding were used as teaching

technique to teach second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan. Scaffolding, which

was first promoted by Bruner, is defined as the temporary supporting process that

is presented by an expert to assist learners to associate the existence space

between the area that they have known and can do and the area they must achieve

and accomplish so that they can be successful in the learning process. The

understanding of scaffolding and its five types, proposed by Roehler and Cantlon,

is useful to recognize each types that occurs in English conversation class. After

recognizing each type, the writer can identify when the types of scaffolding occur

during the teaching learning process. To identify the scaffolding occurrence, the

one essential aspect to consider is teacher support as the concept of scaffolding.

The theory of second grade students of high school helps the writer to

consider about what way of teaching is best implemented in teaching students

who are in the period of adolescence. According to Erikson (2002), second grade

students of senior high school are in the period of adolescence. This period of life

is generally considered to run from age ten to age twenty-five. It is said to be a

time of “storm and stress” (as cited by Eccles, p. 8). The theory is considered as

the supporting theory. This theory is also applied in considering the material and

activities that suitable with the students’ needs. Thus, students are interested,

which are good to boost their passion and motivation in the learning process. The

materials and activities are prepared. They are designed by Maley and Duff

(52)

  33 CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology used in conducting the research.

The methodology covers research method, research setting, research participants,

instruments and data gathering technique, data analysis technique, and research

procedure.

A. Research Method

The study was conducted by employing qualitative descriptive research. It

was due to the reason that this study allowed the writer to observe a phenomenon

naturally in a particular setting. According to Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2012),

“Research studies that investigate the quality of relationships, activities, situations,

or materials are frequently referred to as qualitative research” (p. 426). It is

qualitative research since this study did not use any statistical data. It is

descriptive research because this study discussed “what goes on in a particular

activity or situation” (p. 426). To be exact, this study was conducted to investigate

the use of scaffolding technique during the process of English conversation class

to seek the answers of the advantages of implementing scaffolding and its types in

English conversation class.

When the study was accomplished, it was presented in a descriptive

explanation. Ary, et al. (1990) state that “descriptive research is designed to obtain

(53)

 

determine the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study which has a

purpose to tell what it is” (p. 381). Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2012) state that

the data in qualitative research are gathered from interview, transcripts, field

notes, photographs, audio recordings, videotapes, diaries, personal comments,

memos, official records, textbook passages, and anything else that can support

people’s action and utterances (p. 427). Meanwhile, the data of this study were

gathered from interviews, observation checklist, field notes and video recording.

The writer analyzed the data into descriptions in which it presented the sequence

of the process, the activities and the results, in a form of paragraphs.

B. Research Setting

The research was conducted in SMAN 1 Kalasan, Yogyakarta in XI IPS 2

class. The research was conducted during the English conversation class. The

allocation time of this lesson was one hundred minutes. The research was

conducted on November 4, 2011 since the materials and activities were

accomplished in one meeting.

C. Research Participants

The participants were the subjects who took part in the research.

Therefore, the writer had decided to have the English conversation teacher and

second grade students of SMAN 1 Kalasan to be the participants. The participants

consisted of the teacher and the students from XI IPS 2 in the first semester of

(54)

 

directly the materials in classes where the study was conducted. Meanwhile, the

participants of XI IPS 2 consisted of twenty-seven students who attended the

English conversation class on November 4, 2011. The second grade students were

chosen to be the participants since they were not in the condition of adapting the

new environment like what the first grade students experienced, and they were not

busy preparing the final examination like what the third grade students did.

Since this study employed qualitative research, the sample that becomes

the subject of the study was purposive sample. According to Fraenkel, Wallen,

and Hyun (2012), the sample in purposive sampling is selected based on personal

judgment of the researcher. The researcher is assumed to have worth knowledge

that conveys whether or not the selected sample will be the representative of the

study (p. 100). In this study, second grade high school students were selected to

be the subject of this study since they experienced the second year of attending

English conversation class. It means that English conversation class was not a

new program for them in which they had more experience about the teaching

learning process that occur in this class. XI IPS 2 students were specifically

selected to be the participants of this study because they were assumed to

represent the characteristics of second grade high school students. Moreover, they

showed the condition where there was different level of intelligences,

understanding, and motivation among the students seemed in the learning process

of English conversation. In this condition, scaffolding and its types could take a

role. Therefore, the writer expected that scaffolding and its types that occur in the

(55)

 

D. Research Instruments and Data Gathering Techniques

To conduct a study, instruments are needed so the study will be easily

managed and the information or the data will be obtained and well organized.

There were four types of instruments used in this study, namely interview,

observation checklist, field notes, and video recording.

1. Interview

The writer applied interview as the first instrument. Ary, et al. (1990)

states that interview is a flexible instrument in conducting research because the

interviewer can observe the subject as well as the whole situation where he or she

can respond directly (p. 418). By interviewing, the writer is able to avoid

misinterpretation. If there is an unclear question, the interviewer is able to explain

it again to the interviewee. There are two types of questions in the interview,

namely open-ended and closed questions (p. 418). In the open-ended questions,

the interviewee is free to provide answers. Whereas, closed questions limit the

interviewee since the answers or the alternatives are already provided to choose.

According to Hopkins (2008), the uses of interview are to focus on a

specific aspect of teaching, and to provide general diagnostic information (p. 112).

In this study, open-ended interview was employed to obtain information about the

occurrence of scaffolding and its types proposed by Roehler and Cantlon (1997).

This was essential to determine if the scaffolding can be the appropriate technique

in teaching English conversation class and presented their functions in the

(56)

 

In this study, the writer used guided-interview. It means that the questions

had been prepared before so the interviews would go effectively and could be

focused to the expected answers. The writer asked three students to be

interviewed. The interview conducted right after the class was over. Those three

students were chosen randomly among twenty-seven students. Based on the result

of the interview, the students’ opinions were representative because those three

students showed that they did well during the activities in class just the way most

of their friends did. The conclusion was drawn since the writer and partner’s who

acted as the observer shared the same opinion that the atmosphere built during the

process was positive. It means that most of the students played their role actively

when carrying out the activities and given tasks. The questions would be

presented in the following table:

Table 3.1 Questions for Interview

No. Questions Data Obtained

1. Did you feel enthusiastic in doing all activities and in

completing the given tasks? Why? The advantages of

implementing scaffolding and

its types (research problem no.

3)

2. How far did you feel assisted/supported by the teacher

in carrying out the tasks today?

3. How far did you feel actively involved in carrying out

the tasks today?

2. Observation Checklist

The writer also employed observation checklist that was given to the

teacher assistant in the meeting (see Appendix B). Since there were always two

(57)

 

presence of the teacher assistant as an observer was no longer a matter for the

students. Hence, the natural process of the observation could be kept along the

activities. The observation checklist was done to minimize the subjectivity

resulted from the writer’s point of view in interpreting the data later. Checklist

was provided when the study was conducted in classroom. According to Hopkins

(2008), checklist should give the information that the researcher needed (p. 87).

Checklist could be the effective way of monitoring. Besides, it did not make

students feel inhibited when being observed. They could act as natural as possible

when the observation was taking place.

In this study, the writer had prepared the observation in the form of list

presented in the table (see Appendix B). The observation checklist gave several

technical variables related to scaffolding teaching technique that the writer did

when she was teaching. Those technical variables were categorized into five types

of scaffolding proposed by Roehler and Cantlon (1997). The observer was to

check in the available column the variable occurred during the observation. The

writer’s partner observed while the writer was teaching. It was done so because it

was difficult to teach and do the observation at the same time. This technique was

used in order to get another’s perspective about the activities, instead of the

writer’s, to avoid a bias and to reduce subjectivity. The observation was

conducted during the teaching learning process, in order to identify teacher’s

teaching technique related with the types of scaffolding technique and their

occurrences, and students’ reaction and behavior during the teaching-learning

(58)

 

3. Field Notes

In this study, field notes were employed to collect and record the data

during the teaching learning activities, in a form of descriptive and reflective

written (see Appendix C). It is to say that field notes were written to verbalize the

result of the observation and what happened during the teaching learning process

in the classroom. Thus, field notes should be made as soon as possible so what

had been recorded was still fresh in mind. The successful study relied on detailed,

accurate and extensive field notes.

According to Ary (2002), field notes have two components, namely the

descriptive part and the reflective part (p. 431). The descriptive part included the

description of setting, participants and their reactions, and accounts of events. On

the other hand, the reflective part included the observer’s personal feelings or

impressions of the events, and speculations about the data analysis.

Hopkins (2008) lists four uses of field notes in classroom research, they

are: 1) focusing on a particular issue or teaching behavior over a period of time, 2)

reflecting general impressions of the classroom and its climate, 3) providing a

constant description of students that are responsive to interpretation and use in

case study, 4) recording the development of the teacher (p. 105).

In this study, the writer took the notes directly after the study was

conducted. Field notes referred to descriptive part and reflective part. In the

description part, the writer described the setting of the research, the participants

and their responses, and the events and occurrences during the English

Figur

Table 3.1 Questions for Interview

Table 3.1

Questions for Interview p.56
Table 3.2 Data Gathering Techniques

Table 3.2

Data Gathering Techniques p.60
Table 4.1 Role Play Evaluation Rubrics

Table 4.1

Role Play Evaluation Rubrics p.76

Referensi

Memperbarui...