• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan

Apa itu Rehabilitasi Psikiatri Indonesia

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2018

Membagikan "Apa itu Rehabilitasi Psikiatri Indonesia"

Copied!
16
0
0

Teks penuh

(1)

Apa itu Rehabilitasi Psikiatri?

Juga dikenal sebagai rehabilitasi psiko-sosial, rehabilitasi psikiatri adalah cabang ilmu yang bertujuan untuk memberikan segala macam cara yang diperlukan untuk menolong pasien yang mengalami gangguan mental seperti gangguan obsesif kompulsif, atau gangguan bipolar agar dapat kembali hidup di dalam masyarakat. Ini berbeda dengan rumah sakit jiwa di mana pasien yang mengalami gangguan metal tidak dibolehkan untuk meninggalkan rumah sakit atau institusi medis tersebut.

Rehabilitasi psikiatri memerlukan terapan dari berbagai macam disiplin ilmu agar dapat berhasil, di mana rehabilitasi menyangkut hal-hal berikut:

Penyembuhan – Salah satu tahap pertama dari rehabilitasi adalah untuk memastikan kesembuhan pasien. Meskipun sebagian dari mereka tidak akan sembuh sepenuhnya, rehabilitasi diharapkan dapat menolong para pasien untuk mengatasi gejala dari gangguan yang mereka alami dengan lebih efisien.

Menguasai Diri – Setelah pasien kembali hidup dalam masyarakat, mereka akan berhadapan dengan standar dan ekspektasi orang lain. Bagi kebanyakan pasien,

menghadapi hal-hal tersebut dapat menyulitkan, apalagi jika orang lain mengetahui latar belakang dan masalah pasien tersebut. Namun, jika pasien dapat menguasai diri mereka sendiri dan tetap termotivasi, mereka akan cenderung dapat bertahan dan bahkan dapat memenuhi ekspektasi tersebut.

Kolaborasi – Banyak ahli dari berbagai bidang yang terlibat dalam program rehabilitasi, menolong pasien agar sembuh, serta membantu mereka untuk melewati gangguan yang mereka alami. Bahkan, kebanyakan pihak yang menawarkan program rehablitiasi adalah organisasi dengan tim yang terdiri dari kumpulan psikiater, pekerja sosial, dan pekerja yang berada dalam suatu komunitas, dan lainnya.

Perawatan Khusus – Program rehabilitasi yang diberikan pada pasien dibuat berdasarkan serangkaian standar, acuan, dan juga metode yang telah ada yang dapat dimodifikasi tergantung dari keperluan, keahlian, kepribadian, dan pandangan pasien. Rehabilitasi tidak dapat berhasil tanpa ketertarikan dan partisipasi aktif dari pasien. Rehabilitasi dibuat dan difokuskan dalam membangun dan memperkuat kekuatan dalam diri pasien.

Pada akhirnya, tujuan dari rehabilitasi psikiatri adalah untuk memberikan harapan, motivasi, rasa hormat untuk pasien, serta keahlian sosial, ekonomi, dan keahlian lainnya yang mereka perlukan, agar pasien dapat kembali melanjutkan hidup di masyarakat dengan lebih efisien dan efektif.

Siapa yang Memerlukan Rehabilitasi Psikiatri & Hasil yang

Diharapkan

▸ Baca selengkapnya: aslam kerja apa

(2)

sebagai mana mestinya dalam komunitasnya. Pada saat yang sama, orang tersebut juga harus hidup di bawah stigma sebagai orang yang mengalami gangguan, yang dapat membuat pasien tersebut semakin tidak mau berhubungan dan menjauhi diri dari orang lain.

Tanda- tanda dan gejala yang berbeda dari kondisi mentalnya juga dapat meningkatkan kemungkinan munculnya perslisihan, konflik, dan komunikasi tidak efektif di dalam

perkumpulan tempat pasien tersebut berada. Menurut Psychiatry.org, seseorang yang mengalami gangguan mental biasanya cenderung berbuat beberapa tindakan seperti:

 Menjauhi dirinya dari masyarakat dan kehilangan minat terhadap orang lain

 Kehilangan kemampuan untuk berkonsentrasi atau memahami dirinya sendiri dan orang lain

 Merasakan ketidakcocokan antara dirinya dan lingkungannya  Menumbuhkan cara berpikir yang tidak logis

 Memunculkan kepercayaan yang tidak umum, imajiner, dan berlebihan  Merasakan rasa ketidakpercayaan dan kecurigaan terhadap orang lain

Tingkat kesuksesan dari rehabilitasi psikiatri berbeda-beda untuk satu orang dan yang lainnya, karena ada banyak faktor yang berpengaruh. Salah satunya adalah penerimaan pasien atau keterbukaan terhadap keahlian yang baru atau berbeda, dan juga kesempatannya untuk kembali hidup di masyarakat.

Meskipun demikian, pasien dapat berharap bahwa selama rehabilitasinya, mereka akan :

 Merasa dihargai

 Membentuk rasa kepercayaan diri yang baru terhadap kemampuan mereka untuk tumbuh dan belajar

 Merasakan pertumbuhan diri melalui bantuan dan pembelajaran yang terus-menerus  Dapat mencari pelayanan dan bantuan utnuk sembuh dengan cepat dan efektif

 Dapat bekerja dalam tim dengan anggota yang berbeda-beda yang akan memberikan tingkatan keperluan dan tantangan yang berbeda-beda

 Belajar untuk membuat keputusan sendiri dan dalam prosesnya, tumbuh menjadi orang yang dapat menguasai dirinya sendiri

 Membentuk grup yang mendukung dirinya di dalam sebuah komunitas, termasuk anggota keluarga, yang akan dibantu oleh tim rehabilitasi

 Mengalami pertumbuhan di berbagai hal dalam hidup mereka

Cara Kerja Rehabilitasi Psikiatri

Ada banyak pertimbangan bagaimana melakukan rehabilitasi psikiatri, seperti apa yang diperlukan dan tujuan dari pasien tersebut mengikuti rehabilitasi, pelayanan yang dapat ditawarkan oleh tim rehabilitasi, dan jenis gangguan mental yang dialami oleh pasien tersebut.

▸ Baca selengkapnya: apa itu skbm di sekolah

(3)

dari tim rehabilitasi adalah untuk memastikan bahwa pasien akan diarahkan untuk membuat tujuan bagi dirinya sendiri berdasarkan pengetahuan, kemampuan, dan penilaian dari pasien tersebut.

Tim rehabilitasi kemudian akan melanjutkan dengan membantu pasien untuk menentukan langkah-langkah yang perlu mereka ambil untuk mencapai tujuan yang mereka inginkan. Tim juga akan memberikan semua bahan dan apapun yang dapat membantu, yang tergantung kepada keadaannya (pendekatan individual).

Biasanya, program rehabilitasi psikiatri akan menawarkan hal-hal sebagai berikut:

 Bantuan untuk kesehatan dan kondisi tubuh, termasuk nutrisi dan pola makan  Mengurangi gejala yang muncul dengan cara konsumsi obat-obatan yang tepat  Mengurangi stress dan kesulitan yang dialami dengan teknik tertentu, termasuk

obat-obatan

 Memperkenalkan ke kelompok dukungan yang cocok dengan pasien

 Membangun kelompok dukungan pasien yang dapat terdiri dari pasien lain dalam rehabilititasi tersebut, keluarga pasien, teman, dan bahkan teman kerja.

 Pelayanan medis seperti konseling yang dilakukan untuk jangka panjang dan teratur dan juga perawatan dokter yang mudah diakses (termasuk perawatan gawat darurat)

 Bantuan hukum

 Pendidikan melalui sekolah kejuruan atau perkuliahan  Penempatan kerja

 Tempat tinggal, seperti di apartemen atau hidup dalam suatu grup

Tim rehabilitasi juga akan memberikan:

 Kemampuan bertahan hidup yang diperlukan, seperti perawatan diri, cara menjaga keamanan tempat tinggal, cara menjaga keamanan selama bepergian, dan perencanaan hidup

 Program dan terapi yang dapat meningkatkan keahlian sosial dan teknis pasien  Bantuan keuangan

 Bantuan lainnya yang mungkin diperlukan pasien, seperti yang berhubungan dengan hobi, asuransi kesehatan, dan rekening keuangan (contohnya, rekening bank)

Setelah bantuan dan keahlian yang diperlukan sudah diberikan dan diajarkan kepada pasien, tanggung jawab tim rehabilitasi berubah menjadi pengawasan. Komunikasi dan interaksi antara pasien dan tim rehabilitasi seharusnya terus berjalan untuk jangka waktu yang lama, dilakukan secara teratur, dan berkelanjutan. Kedua pihak harus dapat merubah pendekatan masing-masing untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.

Kemungkinan Terjadinya Komplikasi dan Risiko Lainnya

▸ Baca selengkapnya: apa itu sub judul dan contohnya

(4)

hal yang perlu ditingkatkan dan bahkan jika terjadi hanya satu kegagalan saja dalam tahap rehabilitasi ini, seluruh program bisa menjadi gagal.

Kemudian, pasien juga sangat bergantung kepada tim rehabilitasi selama tahap awal rehabilitasi. Namun, jumlah psikiater yang cukup banyak biasanya berada di banyak rumah sakit dan bukan di wilayah komunitas, yang membuat para pskiater tersebut tidak memiliki kemampuan yang tepat untuk menolong pasien sepenuhnya.

Rujukan:

 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.

 American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. 3rd edition. October 2010. Available at:

http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/mdd.pdf Accessed: March 10, 2014.

Psychiatric rehabilitation, also known as psychosocial rehabilitation, and sometimes simplified to psych rehab by providers, is the process of restoration of community functioning and well-being of an individual diagnosed in mental health or mental or emotional disorder and who may be considered to have a psychiatric disability. Society affects the psychology of an individual by setting number of rules, expectations and laws. Psychiatric rehabilitation work is undertaken by rehabilitation counselors (especially the individuals educated in psychiatric rehabilitation), licensed professional counselors (who work in the mental health field), psych rehab consultants or specialists (in private

businesses), university level Masters and PhD levels, classes of related disciplines in mental health (psychiatrists, social workers, psychologists, occupational therapists) and community support or allied health workers represented in the new direct support professional workforce in the United States (e.g., psychiatric aides).

 These workers seek to affect changes in a person's environment and in a person's ability to deal with his/her environment, so as to facilitate improvement in symptoms or personal distress and life outcomes. These services often "combine pharmacologic treatment (often required for program admission), independent living and social skills training,

psychological support to clients and their families, housing, vocational rehabilitation and employment, social support and network enhancement and access to leisure activities."[1]

There is often a focus on challenging stigma and prejudice to enable social inclusion, on working collaboratively in order to empower clients, and sometimes on a goal of full recovery. The latter is now widely known as a recovery approach or model.[2] Recovery is

a process rather than a outcome. It is a personal journey that is about the rediscovery of self in the process of learning to live with the debilitation's of the illness rather than being defined by illness with hope, planning and community engagement.[3]

 Yet, new in these fields is a person-centered approach to recovery[4][page needed] and client-centered therapy based upon Carl Rogers.[5][page needed] and user-service direction (as approved in the US by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services).

(5)

Psychiatric rehabilitation is not a practice but a field of academic study or discipline, similar to social work or political science; other definitions may place it as a specialty of community rehabilitation or physical medicine and rehabilitation. It is aligned with the community support development of the National Institute on Mental Health begun in the 1970s, and is marked by a rigorous tradition of research, training and technical assistance, and information dissemination regarding a critical population group (e.g., psychiatric disability)in the US and worldwide.[6] The

field is responsible for developing and testing new models of community service for this population group.[7][8][9][10][11]

The Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association (formerly the United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association) provides this definition of psychiatric rehabilitation:

Psychiatric rehabilitation promotes recovery, full community integration, and improved quality of life for persons who have been diagnosed with any mental health condition that seriously impairs their ability to lead meaningful lives. Psychiatric rehabilitation services are collaborative, person-directed and individualized. These services are an essential element of the health care and human services spectrum, and should be evidence-based. They focus on helping individuals develop skills and access resources needed to increase their capacity to be successful and satisfied in the living, working, learning, and social environments of their choice.[12]

This section requires expansion with: additional defnitions..

(February 2015)

History

From the 1960s and 1970s, the process of de-institutionalization meant that many more

individuals with mental health problems were able to live in their communities rather than being confined to mental institutions. Medication and psychotherapy were the two major treatment approaches, with little attention given to supporting and facilitating daily functioning and social interaction. Therapeutic interventions often had little impact on daily living, socialization and work opportunities. There were often barriers to social inclusion in the form of stigma and prejudice.

Psychiatric rehabilitation work emerged with the aim of helping the community integration and independence of individuals with mental health problems. "Psychiatric rehabilitation" and "psychosocial rehabilitation" became used interchangeably, as terms for the same practice.[13]

[page needed] These approaches may merge with or conflict with approaches based in the psychiatric survivors movement, including the concept of user-controlled personal assistance services.[14]

In the 1980s, the US Department of Education, National Institute on Disability Research and Rehabilitation, revised a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center program to meet the new needs in the community of special population groups. A priority center, published in the Federal Register, was the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Psychiatric Disabilities

(6)

Around 2005 the professional organization International Association of Psychosocial

Rehabilitation Services (IAPSRS) changed its name to United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association (USPRA) and the trend is toward the use of "psychiatric rehabilitation."[15][page needed]

Academic Discipline

In 2012, Temple University was funded in the field of psychiatric disabilities for a national center with the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), United States Department of Education, having this population group as a priority.[citation needed] Boston University's Center on Psychiatric Rehabilitation's director is President-Elect of the NAARTC program and Boston University College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (Sargent College) awards a Rehabilitation Science (ScD)Doctor of Science degree in the field in which it awards no separate mental health specialty degree (such as occupational therapy). Master' program in psychiatric rehabilitation was part of a MA degree in rehabilitation counseling in the School of Education, Syracuse University and courses were funded in part through the federal

Rehabilitation Research and Training Program of the US now part of National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research.

Theory

The theoretical base for psychosocial then psychiatric rehabilitation is community support theory as the foundational theory; it is aligned with integration and community integration theories, psychosocial theories, and the rehabilitation and educational paradigms. Its fluid nature is due to variability in development and integration into other essential fields such as family support theories (for this population group) which has already developed its own evidence-based parent education models.

The concept of psychiatric rehabilitation is associated with the field of community rehabilitation and later on social psychiatry and is not based on a medical model of disability or the concept of mental illness which is often associated with the words "mental health". However, it can also incorporate elements of a social model of disability as part of progressive professional

community field. The academic field developed concurrently with the formation of new mental health agencies in the US, now often offerring supported housing services.

The Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, then renamed the Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, traces the development of the field over a period of several decades. The academic discipline psychiatric rehabilitation has contributed new models of services such as supported education, has cross-validated models from other fields (e.g., supported employment), has developed the first university-based community living models for populations with "severe mental illness", developed institutional to community training and technical assistance,

developed the degree programs at the university levels, offers leadership institutes, and worked collaboratively to expand and upgrade older models such as clubhouses and transitional

employment services, among others.

(7)

assist both in deinstitutionalization (e.g., systems conversion) and in community development in the US. It represents the first Master's and Ph.D. classes in the US to specialize in a rehabilitation discipline focused on community versus institutions or campuses. In the US, it also represents a movement toward evidence-based practices, critical for the development of viable community support services.

Psychosocial services, in contrast, have been associated with the term "mental health" as part of community support movement nationwide since the 1970s which has an academic and political base. These services, which have roots in education, psychology and mental health (and

community services) administration, were basic funded services of new community mental health agencies offering community living and professionalized community support since the 1970s. Mental health service agencies or multi-service agencies in the non-profit and voluntary sectors form a critical delivery system for psychosocial services. In the 2000s, a sometime similar but sometimes alternative approach (variability and fidelity of provider implementation in the field) employs the concept of psychosocial recovery.

Psychiatric rehabilitation was promulgated in the US through Boston University's Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Psychiatric Rehabilitation led by Dr. William Anthony[16] and

Dr. Marianne Farkas,[17][page needed] as well as other professors and teachers such as Julie Ann Racino, Steve Murphy and Bonnie Shoultz of Syracuse University (1989-1991) who also support a generic community approach to education.[18] The concept has been integrated with a

community support approach, including supported housing/housing and support, recreation, employment and support, culture/gender and class, families and survivors, family support, and community and systems change.[19][page needed][20][page needed][21][22][23][24]

Problems experienced by people with psychiatric disabilities are thought to include difficulties understanding or dealing with interpersonal situations (e.g., misinterpreting social cues, not knowing how to respond), prejudice or bullying from others because they may seem different, problems coping with stress (including daily hassles such as travel or shopping), difficulty concentrating and finding energy and motivation. People leaving psychiatric centers after long-term hospitalizations, an outdated practice, may also have need to assist with injuries that may have occurred and community integration.

Psychiatric rehabilitation is distinct from the concept of independent living and consumer-controlled services which have been written about and promoted by psychiatric survivors.[25]

[page needed][26][27][28] The psychiatric rehabilitation concept is separated from the psychiatric survivor

concept, in education and training of individuals with psychiatric disorders, in that psychiatric survivors tend to operate services and control funding.

Services

(8)

(supervised and regulated options) were based upon the concept of instrumental and daily living skills as formulated in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition.

Psychiatric rehabilitation is illustrated by agency models which are offerred by traditional and non-traditional service providers, and may be considered to be integrated (e.g., dispersed sites in the community) or segregated (e.g., campus-based facilities or villages). (e.g., Fountain House Model of New York City, MHA Village in Long Beach, CA)or Transitional Living Services of Buffalo or Transitional Living Services of Onondaga County, New York. Agencies supporting integration may align with normalization or integration philosophy, as opposed to the older sheltered workshop or day care models which have been criticized for underpayment of wages at the US Congressional level in the late 2000s.

Agencies may deliver cross-field best practices (e.g., supported work), consumer voices (e.g., Rae Unzicker), multiple disabilities (e.g., chemical dependency), training of its own community residential, employment, education and support service professionals, rehabilitation outcomes, and management and evaluation of its own services.[29]

Core principles of effective psychiatric rehabilitation (how services are delivered) must include:

 providing hope when the client lacks it,

 respect for the client wherever they are in the recovery process,  empowering the client,

 teaching the client wellness planning, and

 emphasizing the importance for the client to develop social support networks.

[30]

Psychiatric rehabilitation (what services are delivered) varies by provider and may consist of eight main areas:

 Psychiatric (symptom management; relaxation, meditation and massage; support groups and in-home assistance)

 Health and Medical (maintaining consistency of care; family physician and mental health counseling)

 Housing (safe environments; supported housing; community residential services; group homes; apartment living)

 Basic Living Skills (personal hygiene or personal care, preparing and sharing meals, home and travel safety and skills, goal and life planning,

chores and group decisionmaking, shopping and appointments)

 Social (relationships, recreational and hobby, family and friends, housemates and boundaries, communications & community integration)

 Vocational and/or Educational (vocational planning, transportation assistance to employment, preparation programs (e.g., calculators), GED classes,

televised education, coping skills, motivation)

(9)

 Community and Legal (resources; health insurance, community recreation, memberships, legal aid society, homeownership agencies, community colleges, houses of worship, ethnic activities and clubs; employment

presentations; hobby clubs; special interest stores; summer city schedules)

As of 2013, it is expected that areas such as supported housing, household management, quality medical plans, advocacy for rights, counseling, and community participation be part of the available package of options for services. Modernization in these fields includes better health care, such as women and men's health (e.g., heart disease), public and private counseling services in mental health, integrated services (for dual and multiple diagnoses), new specialized

treatments (e.g., eating disorders), and understanding of trauma services and mental health. Psychiatric rehabilitation is typically associated with long term services and supports (LTSS) in the community[31][page needed] including post secondary education as supported education

(Anthony,1993; Mowbray, Brown, Furlong-Norma, & Soydan, 2002; Unger, 2002).[32][33][34]

Educational and professional organizations

This section requires expansion.

(February 2015)

Canada

In Canada, Psychosocial Rehabilitation/Réadaptation Psychosociale (PSR/RPS) Canada promotes education, research and knowledge exchange in relation to evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation and recovery-oriented practices for service-providers and those receiving services for mental health challenges. A framework of competencies for service providers (individuals and organizations) was developed and announced at the 2013 Annual National Conference in Winnipeg, Manitoba.[35]

United States

 Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation  United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association (USPRA)

References

1.

"Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services". Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon

General. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Health and Human

Services. ISBN 978-0-16-050300-9. OCLC 166315877.

  ""Social inclusion and recovery"" (PDF). Australian Department of Health and

Ageing.

(10)

  Rudnick, Abraham; Roe, David, eds. (2011). Serious Mental Illness: Person-centered Approaches. London: Radclife. ISBN9781846193064. OCLC1846193060.

  Raskin, Nathaniel J. (2004). Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books. ISBN 9781898059578.

OCLC 56955949.

  Dion, G.L. & Anthony, W.A. (1987). Research in psychiatric rehabilitation: A review of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Rehabilitation Counseling, 30: 177-203.

  Danley, K.S., Sciarappa, K., & MacDonald-Wilson, K. (1992). Choose-get-keep: A psychiatric rehabilitation approach to supported employment. In: R.D. Liberman, New Directions in Mental Health Services: Efective Psychiatric Rehabilitation (Vol. 53, pp.87-96). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  Anthony, W.A., Cohen, M. R., & Farkas, M.D. (1990). Psychiatric

Rehabilitation. Boston: Boston University., Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

  Cohen, M. R., Farkas, M.D., & Cohen, B.F. (1986). Psychiatric Rehabilitation Training Technology: Functional Assessment. Boston: Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

  Anthony, W.A. (1979). The Principles of Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

  Flexor, R.W. & Solomon, P.L. (1993). Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Practice. Boston: Andover Medical.

  "About PRA". PRA - Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association. Retrieved 15

February 2015.

  Pratt, Carlos W.; Kenneth J. Gill; Nora M. Barrett; Melissa M. Roberts (2002). Psychiatric rehabilitation. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN978-0-12-564431-0.

OCLC 64627515.

  Racino, Julie Ann (May 1995), "Personal Assistance Services in the Field of Psychiatric Disabilities", Personal Assistance Services (PAS): Toward Universal

Access to Support (Annotated Bibliography) (PDF), Washington, DC: National

Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), pp. 48–67 (PDF 53–

72), ERIC ED405705

  Salzer, Mark (2006). Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills in Practice: A CPRP Preparation and Skills Workbook. Linthicum, Maryland: United States Psychiatric

Rehabilitation Association. ISBN978-0-9655843-6-4. OCLC168391421.

  Anthony, William A. (2009). "Editorial: Psychiatric rehabilitation leadership.". Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 33 (1): 7–8. doi:10.2975/33.1.2009.7.

(11)

  Anthony, William A.; Cohen, Mikal; Farkas, Marianne; Gagne, Cheryl (2002). Psychiatric Rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation. ISBN978-1-878512-11-6. OCLC 48958329.

  Racino, 1999. Psychiatric survivors and the international self-help

movement. In: J. A. Racino, Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. London: The Haworth Press.

  Carling, Paul J. (1995). Return to Community: Building Support Systems for People with Psychiatric Disabilities. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 9780898622997.

OCLC 30979396.

  Racino, Julie Ann (2000). Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life: Toward Universal Approaches to Support. Springfeld, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

ISBN9780398070779. OCLC 43913226.

  Stroul, Beth A. (January 1989). "Community support systems for persons with long-term mental illness: A conceptual framework". Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 12 (3): 9–26. doi:10.1037/h0099536.

  Murphy, S., Racino, J. & Shoultz, B. (1991). "Rehabilitation of Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities: Course Curriculum." Syracuse, NY; Syracuse University, Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation.

  Shoultz, Bonnie (1988). "My home, not theirs: Promising approaches in

mental health and developmental disabilities". In Friedman, Steven J.; Terkelsen,

Kenneth G. Issues in Community Mental Health: Housing. Canton, MA: Prodist (for

Westchester County, NY Department of Community Mental Health). pp. 23–42.

ISBN9780881350531. OCLC 18625648.

  Carling, PJ (May 1993). "Housing and supports for persons with mental illness: Emerging approaches to research and practice". Hospital & Community Psychiatry 44 (5): 439–449. doi:10.1176/ps.44.5.439. PMID8509074.

  Chamberlin, Judi (1978). On Our Own: Patient-controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System. New York: Hawthorn Books. ISBN9780801555237.

OCLC 3688638.

  Deegan, Patricia E. (January 1992). "The independent living movement and people with psychiatric disabilities: Taking back control of our lives". Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 15 (3): 3–19. doi:10.1037/h0095769.

  Howie the Harp (May 1993). "Taking a new approach to independent living". Hospital & Community Psychiatry 44 (5): 413. doi:10.1176/ps.44.5.413.

PMID8509069.

  Stewart, Loralee (1992). "PAS for People with Psychiatric Disabilities". In Weissman, Julie; Kennedy, Jae; Litvak, Simi. Personal Perspectives on Personal

Assistance Services(PDF). Oakland, CA: World Institute on Disability. pp. 67–71 (PDF

(12)

  Spaniol, LeRoy; Brown, Mary Alice; Blankertz, Laura; Burnham, Darrell J.; Dincin, Jerry; Furlong-Norman, Kathy; Nesbitt, Noel; Ottenstein, Paul; Prieve, Kathy; Rutman, Irvin; Zipple, Anthony, eds. (1994). An Introduction to Psychiatric

Rehabilitation. Columbia, MD: International Association of Psychosocial

Rehabilitation Services. OCLC 32406183.

  "Principles of Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR)". PSR/RPS Canada.

  Racino, Julie Ann, ed. (2014). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

ISBN9781466579811. OCLC 898155148.

  Anthony, W.A. (1993, July). Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services, 17(1).

  Mowbray, C.T., Brown, K.S., Furlong-Norman, K. & Soydan, A.S. (2002). Supported Education and Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Linthicum (Columbia), MD: International Association of Pyschosocial Rehabilitation Resources.

  Unger, K.V. (1993, July). Creating supported education programs utilizing existing community resources. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 17(1): 11-23.

"Psychosocial Rehabilitation Association of Canada". PSR/RPS Canada.

Psychosocial Intervention

Psychosocial interventions and support services describe a wide variety of services, supports and strategies that aim to change behaviour and support people who are affected by alcohol and drug use. These are services which are provided within community settings.

These types of services provide a range of psychosocial (non-medical) interventions for people with alcohol and drug issues including assessment, counselling, case management, coordination of care, group work, information, community education and professional consultation to other service providers.

The Alcohol and Drug Service also provides a range of specialist targeted services in the following areas:

 Support for Youth  Outreach Services  Relapse Prevention

 Management of Complex Needs  Brief and Early Intervention  Smoking Cessation

(13)

The Alcohol and Drug Service employs specialist youth workers who work with young people affected by alcohol and drug use. These specialists also work closely with a range of youth services provided by community sector organisations.

Outreach Services

Outreach services are useful in providing services to clients who would otherwise be unable to access specialist alcohol, tobacco and other drug services in a timely and equitable manner.

Services are designed to provide: counselling; assistance with accessing other services; access to skilled and professional help; assistance with the development of strategies to reduce harm; and access to specialist advice and information. Services can be provided to individuals or in group settings.

Relapse Prevention

Relapse prevention is a collection of techniques that increase the client’s ability to control cravings and urges, and enhance coping skills for handling high-risk situations where lapse or relapse is a possibility. By combining the learning of specific skills with lifestyle changes, these interventions assist clients to manage lapses and prevent relapses.

Management of Complex Needs

A large proportion of clients who access alcohol, tobacco and other drug services are presenting with increasingly complex and multiple needs. In some cases, these clients also present with difficult (and at times high risk) behaviours. The needs of the client group can be complicated by the presence of coexisting mental health issues.

Brief and Early Intervention

Early intervention involves intervention at an early stage of a person’s alcohol and drug use to prevent the development of serious drug problems later on.

Early intervention focuses on service users who are engaged in patterns or contexts of drug use that have the potential to harm. Early intervention involves identifying drug use and assessing harm and intervening with service users who are consuming drugs in a potentially harmful way before problems become entrenched or dependence develops.

Smoking Cessation

Improving the health of Tasmanians by reducing the harm caused by tobacco in all its forms is the key policy objective of the Tasmanian Tobacco Action Plan 2006-2010.

(14)

sale restrictions are effective in both preventing uptake and promoting quit attempts. Advice and support provided by health professionals is also an essential component of increasing the rate at which people quit smoking.

Psychosocial Treatments

Psychosocial treatments include different types of psychotherapy and social and vocational training, and aim to provide support, education and guidance to people with mental illness and their families. Psychosocial treatments are an effective way to improve the quality of life for individuals with mental illness and their families. They can lead to fewer hospitalizations and less difficulties at home, at school and at work.

Check with your local NAMI affiliate, your community mental health center or health care provider to see what psychosocial services are available in your community and what may be provided under your health insurance plan.

Types of Psychosocial Treatments

Psychotherapy

Often called talk therapy, psychotherapy is when a person, family, couple or group sits down and talks with a therapist or other mental health provider. Psychotherapy helps people learn about their moods, thoughts, behaviors and how they influence their lives. They also provide ways to help restructure thinking and respond to stress and other conditions.

Psychoeducation

Psychoeducation teaches people about their illness and how they’ll receive treatment. Psychoeducation also includes education for family and friends where they learn things like coping strategies, problem-solving skills and how to recognize the signs of relapse. Family psychoeducation can often help ease tensions at home, which can help the person experiencing the mental illness to recover. Many of NAMI's education programs are examples of

psychoeducation.

Self-help and Support Groups

(15)

Psychosocial Rehabilitation

Psychosocial rehabilitation helps people develop the social, emotional and intellectual skills they need in order to live happily with the smallest amount of professional assistance they can

manage. Psychosocial rehabilitation uses two strategies for intervention: learning coping skills so that they are more successful handling a stressful environment and developing resources that reduce future stressors.

Treatments and resources vary from case to case but can include medication management, psychological support, family counseling, vocational and independent living training, housing, job coaching, educational aide and social support.

Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

Assertive community treatment (ACT) is a team-based treatment model that provides multidisciplinary, flexible treatment and support to people with mental illness 24/7. ACT is based around the idea that people receive better care when their mental health care providers work together. ACT team members help the person address every aspect of their life, whether it be medication, therapy, social support, employment or housing.

ACT is mostly used for people who have transferred out of an inpatient setting but would benefit from a similar level of care and having the comfort of living a more independent life than would be possible with inpatient care.

Studies have shown that ACT is more effective than traditional treatment for people

experiencing mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and can reduce hospitalizations by 20%.

Supported Employment

Work can be an essential step on the path to wellbeing and recovery, but challenges that come with mental illness can make it more difficult. There are programs, however, designed

specifically to help with work readiness, searching for jobs and providing support in the workplace.

Vocational Rehabilitation (VR)

VR provides career counseling and job search assistance for people with disabilities, including mental illness. VR program structures vary from state to state. To learn more about your specific state program, visit your state’s VR agency.

Individual Placement and Support (IPS) Supported Employment

(16)

provide continuous support to help the person succeed in the workplace. IPS Supported

Employment teams include employment specialists, health care providers and the individual with mental illness. If the individual agrees, family members or a significant other may be part of the team.

Clubhouses

Clubhouses are community-based centers open to individuals with mental illness. Clubhouse members have the opportunity to gain skills, locate a job, find housing, and pursue continuing education. Members work side-by-side with staff to make sure the program operates smoothly. Members also have the opportunity to take part in social events, classes and weekend activities.

Case Management

Living well with a complicated health condition (physical or mental) can require working with a number of medical providers and support resources. Case management can help individuals coordinate these services.

A case manager has knowledge of local medical facilities, housing opportunities, employment programs and social support networks. He or she is also familiar with many payment options, including local, state and federal assistance programs. This person can serve an important role in helping you or your family member get the best treatment possible.

A case manager will assess your needs and explain what resources are available in your area. He or she will explain the process of applying for services and help you collect the necessary

documents to prove eligibility. A case manager will then keep in touch with you to ensure that you continue to have your treatment needs met. How to fill out official forms, how to get transportation to appointments—these are all questions a case manager can help with.

Case managers are professionals with certification in case management or degrees in social work. They are typically employed by large health insurance companies or by local county and state governments. If you are staying in a hospital or your doctor has recommended a case manager, you may automatically receive a call from one. If you do not have a case manager and would like to, ask about the process of getting one. Your best bet is to call your state or county department of health, social services or aging.

Remember that your case manager is there to work with you for your benefit. Ask questions and if you don't understand the answers, ask again. A good case manager can't guarantee you'll get every resource you apply for, but he or she should definitely keep you informed and listen to your concerns.

Referensi

Dokumen terkait

Tahap-tahap yang umumnya dilakukan adalah sebagai berikut; (1) meneliti dan mengungkapkan nilai-nilai penting Cagar Budaya, (2) melindungi sebagian atau seluruh Cagar Budaya

Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum Nomor 14/PRT/M/2010 Tentang Standar Pelayanan Peraturan Mneteri PU ini menekankan tentang target pelayanan dasar bidang PU yang menjadi

Apabila di kemudian hari terbukti atau dapat dibuktikan skripsi ini hasil plagiasi, baik sebagian atau seluruhnya, maka saya bersedia menerima sanksi atas perbuatan

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh media CD interaktif dibandingkan dengan media konvensional terhadap keterampilan berpikir kreatif dalam

Sehubungan dengan uraian di atas, menunjukan bahwa penelitian tentang “ Pengaruh Utang Luar Negeri Dan Penanaman Modal Asing Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Indonesia

Panitia P2BJ pada Badan Kesbangpolinmas, Kantor Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan KB, Kantor Perpustakaan Arsip dan Dokumentasi, Kantor Satpol PP, dan Kantor Pelayanan Perizinan

Pada hari ini Senin Pukul 16.05 WIB tanggal empat belas bulan Agustus tahun Dua Ribu Tujuh Belas, kami Kelompok Kerja Unit Layanan Pengadaan Kota Tangerang Selatan menyatakan bahwa

[r]