The state’s possession right regime has, in its application, brought up variety of interpretations. In relation with the implementation of agrarians reform in Indonesia, it is initially driven and led to be a primary instrument supporting such program. This research based on the fact that the state’s possession right nowadays is not appropriately or properly used within the agrarianreform. One of the causes of such situation is the vagueness of the authority basis of the state’s possession right. Up to now, the implementation of the agrarianreform as major agenda is still uncompleted. since new order ruling government, many regulations enacted are incompatible with the article 33 of Indonesian constitution of 1945, act of agrarian and act of land reform. Today, government has set up a national agrarianreform program which is basically and contextually different from which act of agrarian and act of land reform mandate. The huge thing to which people focusing their attention is both the interpretation and application of the state’s possession right to assume has been employed in the wrong track, i.e. for the sake of investment, mining, industry and forestry.
The discussion frequently related to the movement of the land (re)claiming is the agrarian conflicts. Agrarian conflicts (in a broad definition) are frequently viewed as the impact of imbalance agrarian matters, which, in turn, has triggered the land (re)claiming, although the conflicts occurring do not always result in the land (re)claiming. For this matter, Sadikin, a researcher of the agrarian field, has put forward the argument that conflicts are parts of the strategy and tactics of the peasants' struggle in order to make the land reform come true. Thus, conflicts do not necessarily have to be terminated, but should be managed in order to become the power to boost the agrarianreform from the grass root level (agrarianreform by leverage). The writer has strengthened his argument through a
When I applied as an agrarianreform program technologist in the Department of AgrarianReform Compostela Valley Province, I started to research its vision and mission as leading agency on Comprehensive AgrarianReform Program, how did it start and all about the department. Because I believe that, during the deliberation the panels will ask me what I knew about the department, but it was just a presumption but at least I prepared.
decided to conduct an agrarianreform on its Salinas estates: during the 1960s, the Catholic Church provided low-interest credit to peasants who bought the Church's 15,000 ha (more than a third of the parish's 40,000 ha area) in lots of 15±30 ha. During the following decades, the Cordobez family also sold much of its property to individual peasants or to community groups which had bene®ted from activities sponsored by the Salesian Mission, which arrived in the parish in 1971, and the Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Progressio (FEPP), which was established in Quito in 1972. Meanwhile the Commune of Matiav õ Salinas, whose legal status as a corporate political and land-owning institution dated back to the Spanish colonial period, remained in control of about half of the parish territory (in theory, collectively but, in practice, increasingly under private ``titles'' granted to Commune members). Thus a parish where the Church had rented its estates to powerful landlord families that controlled labor and markets was transformed into an area of small and medium-scale property owners with support services provided by progressive sectors of the Catholic Church.
Delineation of summer irrigated lands was relatively easy using the EVI. The EVI gives a good first approach to these lands. The mean (2000-2011) summer EVI raster was used to delineate summer irrigated lands. The resulting shape file was then compared with high resolution Google Earth imagery available for the summer seasons between 2000 and 2011, and fine-tuned where necessary. The delineated irrigated lands were comparable with the average of total irrigated lands stated by the MOAAR over the period 2000-2011 in each political unit. The statistical department in the Syrian Ministry of Agriculture and AgrarianReform (MOAAR) published, since 2000, annual reports about summer crops and vegetables production and areas in all Syrian governorates (Ministry of Agriculture & AgrarianReform in Syria, 2014). Two years of record are excluded from analysis (2005 and 2006) due to missing/discrepant data.
articles which covers views from various parties related to agrarian resource as well as observer. Articles on this edition specifically focus on the policy of agrarian resources management. The discussion on policy as a product of law- in a context of agrarian resource management b e c o m e s i m p o r t a n t t o b e examined more comprehensively in order to view or predict the current and future condition of the agrarian problem. More specifically, the writers' views focus on 1945 Constitution studies as a basis of state constitution which has been amended and its implications towards UUPA 1960 as a pure law product of 1945 Constitution. The studies is also to anticipate UUPA 1960 revision, AgrarianReform policy, possible change of legislation due to enormous agrarian conflicts, agrarian policy after Parliament Decree (TAP M P R ) N o . I X / 2 0 0 1 a n d empowerment of peasants' organization in agrarianreform context.
2001 regarding AgrarianReform and The Management of Natural Resource, it is stated that " The resources of agrarian/natural resources including land, water, space and natural resources contained therein as grace of God Almighty to the Indonesian people is a national wealth that must be grateful. Therefore, it must be managed and used optimally for present and future generations in framework of achieving just and prosperous society" .
Since the globalization draws people together through information technology, individuals' and groups' existence is at stake due to various conflicts, which create various tensions. The following are the seven tensions to be overcome by all people in the 21st century: (1) the tension between the global and the local; (2) the tension between the universal and the individual; (3) the tension between the tradition and modernity, (4) the tension between long-term and short-term considerations; (5) the tension between the extraordinary expansion of knowledge and human beings' capacity to assimilate it; (6) the tension between the spiritual and the material, and (7) the tension between, on the one hand, the need for competition, and on the other, the concern for equality of opportunity. For lifelong education, which is also stressed in the education reform in Indonesia mentioned above, to be effective three forces should be reconciled: competition, which provides incentives; co-operation, which gives strength; and solidarity, which unites. In the process of decentralization in Indonesia, these tensions can in fact already be observed. Skills in resolving conflicts (see Lewellyn, M. (1997; Pmet and Cooley, 1997; Duhon-Sells, Sells, and Mouton, 1997) seem to be new skiils to be developed in every Indonesian citizen.
The principles and purpose of health reform as understood in the above definition are used as guiding principles in formulating a Reform Agenda supported by the AIPHSS program. It is stated in the AIPHSS program document that the expected impacts of AIPHSS are (a) the reduction of maternal mortality and (b) improved health services for the poor and near-poor (in terms of access and quality of service). The impacts will be achieved by strengthening the three elements/functions of health systems (HR, Financing and Primary Health Care) at four levels (Central, Province/District, Puskesmas and Poltekkes).
dalam usulnya tentang “Perombakan hak tanah dan penggunaan tanah menyatakan, bahwa land reform bertujuan: “agar masyarakat adil dan makmur dapat terselenggara dan khususnya taraf hidup tani meninggi dan taraf hidup seluruh rakyat jelata meningkat” .
(1) Land rights providing their holders with powers as meant in, or similar to those as meant in, Article 20(1) --i.e. such land rights as hak agrarisch eigendom, milik, yayasan, andarbeni, hak atas druwe, hak atas druwe desa, pesini, grant Sultan, landerijenbezitrecht, altijddurende erfpacht, hak-usaha atas bekas tanah partikelir, and other land rights by any names which are to be subsequently confirmed by the Minister of Agrarian Affairs-- which already exist at the time this Act comes into effect shall, at the time this Act comes into effect, become a hak milik as meant in Article 20(1), except in the case where the holder does not meet the criteria as meant in Article 21.
land tenure reforms of the 1980s, which helped position Viet Nam as one of the world’s top rice exporters, provided further impetus for forest tenure reform. Beginning in the early 1990s, Viet Nam’s forestry sector sought to involve both state and non-state stakeholders in forest management. he Forest Protection and Development Law, passed in August 1991, provided a legal framework for allocating forest resources to a diversity of stakeholders (including organizations and individuals) for management, protection, and commercialization. It also provided a legal basis for establishing management boards for protection forest (MB-PFs) and special use forest (MB-SUFs). In July 1993, a Land Law was passed, allowing land users to have long-term, renewable land-use titles, also known as Red Book Certiicates (RBCs) for its color page. In addition, the law oicially gave the titleholder ive rights: rights to exchange, transfer, inherit, mortgage, and lease. hese two laws laid down the basic framework for the emergence of novel forest management arrangements.
The Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR) is an independent research institution that is focusing on criminal law reform, criminal justice system reform and Indonesian legal reform at large. One of the crucial problems that Indonesia faced during the present transition era is in reforming criminal law and its judiciary system in a democratic way. Previously, criminal law and its judicial system are used as braces for the authoritarian regime, as well as being used for the tool of social engineering. Nowadays, the orientation and instrumentality of criminal law as a supreme power have been modified for a better of democratic political system and respect of human rights. This is the challenge that must be resolved in order to reshape the legislation and criminal justice system in Indonesia.