Rumah Susun Romokalisari adalah rumah susun yang terletak di kota Surabaya dan berdiri sejak tahun 2015. Walaupun masih termasuk baru, rumah susun ini memiliki beberapa permasalahan dikarenakan tidak adanya pengolahan air limbah grey water yang memadai. Selain itu air buangan dari tangki septik rumah susun yang tidak diolah dapat membahayakan kualitas air tanah di sekitar rumah susun. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya unit pengolahan limbah tambahan untuk mengolah kedua air buangan tersebut. Perencanaan ini memberikan dua alternatif unit yang akan digunakan yaitu AnaerobicBaffledReactor dan AnaerobicFilter. Kedua unit ini dipilih karena biaya pembangunan dan perawatannya yang murah serta operasionalnya yang mudah, berdasarkan literatur dan penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya.
UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) merupakan salah jenis reaktor anaerobik yang paling banyak- diterapkan untuk pengolahan berbagai Jenis limbah cair. Berbeda dengan proses aerobik, dimana bahan organik dikonversi menjadi produk akhir berupa karbon dioksida dan air, pada proses anaerobik sebagai produk adalah gas metana dan karbon dioksida. Reakator UASB merupakan reaktor anaerobik, dimana influen dialirkan dari bawah menuju ke atas, Akibat pertumbuhan m1kroorganisme, pada bagian bawah reaktor terbentuk lapisan biomassa (sludge). Pendukan media terjadi akibat aliran influen dan aliran gas yang terbentuk. Sistem UASB dilengkapi dengan fasilitas pengeluaran gas, yang sekaligus berfungsi sebagai unit pemisahan biomassa.
lebih efisien, sehingga anaerobicfilter dapat menerima organic loading yang lebih tinggi. Akan tetapi kekurangan dari proses ini adalah bertambahnya biaya pembuatan karena adanya media. Selain itu adanya resiko penyumbatan dibagian reaktor yang diisi media, jika terlalu banyak mikroba atau influent mengandung banyak suspended solid. Untuk mengontrol konsentrasi mikroba dan padatan yang lain dalam bagian agar menghindari penyumbatan, dilakukan back wash secara periodik. Sistematika anaerobicfilter dapat dilihat di Gambar 2.5.
Rusunawa Tanah Merah II was built in 2009 with totally 2 twin blocks and 192 units included its wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP in Rusunawa Tanah Merah II contains of anaerobicbaffledreactor (ABR) and anaerobicfilter with coral media. Both of units were built at each of twin block. Having been operated for about 5 years, there was no any former examination to evaluate WWTP performance. Therefore, the evaluation is needed to analyze the process of the treatment along with its obstacles. The analysis started by examining the wastewater samples which taken on WWTP in both of blocks. Then it compared to Governor Rule of East Java Number 72, 2013. Wastewater quality parameters in the analysis comprise BOD, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease. The removal efficiency in both ABR reached 40-86% for BOD, 41-86% for COD, 11-90% for TSS, and 69-98% for oil and grease. Whereas in both anaerobic biofilter reached 11-57% for BOD, 10-57% for COD, 21-73% for TSS, and up to 100% for oil and grease.
Referring to the targets to be achieved from this program where the goal is a society, for the first we are conducted counseling so that the people understanding about biogas, benefits and potential water hyacinth is converted to biogas, decrease spread of water hyacinth on Rawapening lake, the economic potential of liquid fertilizer is produced from biodigester, the area and the time to “mesophilic anaerobic digestion reactor “ build, the material for construction is required, source of funds and community participation in the development of biogas units, practice building biogas unit and operate it.
 A.E. Ghaly, D.R. Ramkumar, S.S. Sadaka, J.D. Rochon. (2000) . “ Effect of Reseeding and pH Control on The Performance of a Two-Stage Mesophilic Anaerobic Digester Operating on Acid Cheese Whey ”, Canadian Agricultural Engineering, vol 42, no.4, hal: 173 – 183.
Mohan. Venkata S (2008), “ Effect of Various Pretreament Methods on Anaerobic Mixed Microbiflora to enhance Biohydrogen Production Utilizing Dairy Waste Water as Substrate”, Bioengineering and Enviromental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, India. Bioresource Technology 99. 59-67. Science Direct, Elsevier.
So far, there are still very few researches to study the performance of anaerobic digestion, using POME as the raw material. Therefore, this paper will discuss the biogas properties and emission pattern of POME anaerobic digestion using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). To provide better insight, properties of POME used were preliminarily analysed. Main variables used as performance criteria were specific methane production, volatile solid decomposition and volumetric composition of biogas.
concentration of 5000mg TOC l-1) and stable methane production, i.e. 0.901 CH4 g-1 of TOC removal, at the early stages of start-up process. The strategy based on maximum substrate loading controlled by reactor pH significantly shortens the start-up regime. In this case, the reactor attained steady state conditions approximately 140 days after start-up. On the other hand, a start-up time of 200 days was required when a strategy based on maximum substrate utilization was adopted. The biomass loss in anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was found independent with respect to start-up of the reactor. The experimental studies (Gorris et al., 1988; Morgan, 1991; Liang et al., 1993; Araki and Harada, 1994) conducted on brewery, synthetic wastewater and ice-cream wastewater evaluated the efficiency of treatment and changing microbial activities, leading to methanogenic biofilm formation during start-up of reactor. The COD removal efficiency reached 85 per cent at volumetric loading of 27- 30kg COD m ±3 day ±1 with methane content up to 72 per cent in the biogas. Upflow velocities (4-25 mh ±1 ) caused a prominent difference in the pattern of initial biofilm formation. Microbial activities with respect to acetate production, hydrogen utilizing and acetate utilizing methanogenesis increased up to 3-4 times as that of suspended growth sludge. A comparative start-up performance of anaerobic reactors including fluidized and expanded bed, was reported (Balaguer et al., 1997) for high strength wastewater at 37 o C and for different support materials.
The most common techniques for POME treatment is usually performed by a series of anaerobic, facultative and aerobic ponds system. This system has several drawbacks such as the requirement of a wide land area for the lagoons and extra cost for handling the sludge in the bottom of the lagoons. The treated effluents are then discharged to river or to land application, while upper product includes biogas mixture having 65% CH 4 , 35% CO 2 and traces of H 2 S are
Lack of physical activity leads to increase many health problems. The World Health Organization noted that lack of physical activity is the fourth death factor (6% of deaths worldwide) (WHO, 2010). Based on its metabolism, there are two types of physical activity, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic exercise is a physical activity that uses ATP from the oxidative phosphorylation of glycogen and free fatty acids which depends on the availability of oxygen. In contrast, anaerobic exercise uses ATP from glycolysis which no need of oxygen (Astrand et al., 2003).
Fed-batch fermentations were conducted in 1 l-fermenter under the same condi- tions as the batch fermentation. After one batch culture, fermentation broth was pumped out of fermenter vessel leaving 10% volume for inoculum when the batch culture reached the stationary phase, and then the fed-batch fermentation started with feeding. Feed was pumped into the fermenter by a peristaltic pump by three feeding pattern (linear, exponential, and sigmoidal). The pH, temperature, and foam were controlled in the same way as the batch fermentation. In order to maintain anaerobic conditions inside fermenter the feed medium was flushed with O 2 -free
This paper presents the suitability of anaerobic treatment of PEG-containing wastewater as a pre-treatment in order to recover the potential energy in the form of biogas. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are polymers composed of repeating sub-units of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. PEGs are liquid or low-melting solids, depending on their molecular weights. It is prepared by polymerization of ethylene oxide. PEGs are non-toxic and are widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics, water-soluble lubricants, antifreeze agents for automobile radiators, and pharmaceutical, in the conservation treatment of ancient wood and in the production of non-ionic surfactants. Therefore, millions of tons of PEGs are manufactured or involved in industrial processes worldwide every year. Most of them reach conventional wastewater treatment systems after industrial utilization.
Two UASB-Reactors (packed and unpacked) were operated in parallel. Dimensions and operating conditions are shown in Table I. The two systems were fed continuously with wastewater. A schematic diagram of the UASB- reactor is shown in Figure 2. A bionet-structured tubular plastic medium is used as a packing material.
 Irvan, Bambang Trisakti, Vivian Wongistani and Yoshimasa Tomiuchi. Methane Emission From Digestion Of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) In A Thermophilic AnaerobicReactor. Internat. J. of Sci. and Eng Vol.3 No.1 ISSN: 2086-5023 April 2012 page : 32-35
which are membrane bioreactors, combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment system, integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment will be discussed as biological approach system to treat such emerging contaminants, whereas advance oxidation processes as non-biological approach are also discussed for the same issue. The hybrid system has been known to be a less energy extensive process.
The characteristics of solid wastes determine the successful anaerobic digestion process ( high biogas production potential and degradability). In municipal solid waste, substrate characteristics may vary due to the method of collection, weather season, cultural habits of the community . Substrate characteristics such as its composition, C/N ratio and particle size will be briefly discussed in this sub chapter. The degradability and biogas production potential from solid waste in an anaerobic digester are dependent on the amount of the main components: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicelluloses as well as lignin (Hartmann and Ahring, 2006). Among them lipids are the most significant substances in the anaerobic digestion, since the methane yield from lipids is higher than from most other organic materials. The theoretical gas yield of glyceride trioleate is, for example, 1.4 m 3 per kilogram of oil with a methane content of 70% (Hanaki , 1981; Angelidaki ., 1990). Although organic waste with a high content of lipids is an attractive substrate for biogas production, Neves (2008) reported that the lowest hydrolysis rate constants were obtained in the assays fed with kitchen waste that contained an excess of lipids. This was presumably due to a synergetic effect on the degradation of the other components since lipids adsorb onto solid surfaces and may delay the hydrolysis process by reducing the accessibility of enzyme attack. Lignocellulosic (cellulose and hemicelluloses which are tightly bound to the lignin) waste can be found in abundant amount in the form of garden waste, paper residue or agricultural waste. Due to the presence of lignin, lignocellulosic waste is considered to be quite resistant to anaerobic digestion and hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the overall process. In order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose in lignocellulosic waste, several pretreatment methods such as thermal (steam or hot water), chemical (acid, lime or ammonia addition) or combination of both methods were proposed by several authors (e.g. Mosier ., 2005; Fernandes . 2009).
Limbah Domestik merupakan jumlah pencemar terbesar yang masuk ke perairan yang berasal dari air bekas cucian, kamar mandi, dapur, dan buangan eksreta yang dipandang berbahaya karena dapat menjadi penyebaran penyakit.Penulisan tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk merencanakan pengolahan limbah domestik secara komunal menggunakan metode ABR (anaerobicbaffledreactor). Jika dirancang dengan baik, ABR dapat berfungsi mengendalikan potensi rembesan tinja ke sumber air tanah, dan menurunkan kandungan organik air limbah domestik sehingga air dapat digunakan untuk kebutuhan mahluk hidup. Batasan masalah yang ditinjau dari penulisan tugas akhir ini adalah perkiraan debit limbah dari kawasan perumahan Royal Sumatra, Serta tinjauan penurunan kandungan BOD air limbah domestik sesuai baku mutu.