Anaerobic Digester

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Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on Biogas Production from Cow Dung in A Semi Continuous Anaerobic Digester

Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on Biogas Production from Cow Dung in A Semi Continuous Anaerobic Digester

ABSTRACT. The efficiency of biogas production in semi-continuous anaerobic digester is influenced by several factors, among other is loading rate. This research aimed at determining the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biogas yield. Experiment was conducted using lab scale self-designed anaerobic digester of 36-L capacity with substrate of a mixture of fresh cow dung and water at a ratio of 1:1. Experiment was run with substrate initial amount of 25 L and five treatment variations of HRT, namely 1.31 gVS/L/d (P1), 2.47 gVS/L/d (P2), 3.82 gVS/L/d (P3), 5.35 gVS/L/d (P4) and 6.67 gVS/L/d (P5). Digester performance including pH, temperature, and biogas yield was measured every day. After stable condition was achieved, biogas composition was analyzed using a gas chromatograph. A 10-day moving average analysis of biogas production was performed to compare biogas yield of each treatment. Results showed that digesters run quite well with average pH of 6.8-7.0 and average daily temperature 28.7-29.1. The best biogas productivity (77.32 L/kg VS removal ) was found in P1 treatment (organic loading rate of 1.31 g/L/d) with biogas yield of 7.23 L/d. With methane content of 57.23%
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ANALYSIS OF SUBSTRATE LEVEL INFLUENCE ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SCALE LABORATORY FOR METHANE PRODUCTION

ANALYSIS OF SUBSTRATE LEVEL INFLUENCE ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SCALE LABORATORY FOR METHANE PRODUCTION

The impact of substrate level on laboratory scale anaerobic digester for methane prodoction has been investigated. The substrate consist of mixture cow manure and tofu wastewater with volume ratio of 2:1. The investigation was condacted for substrate level of 65%, 75% and 85% of the total digester volume. The substrate was maintained in the ranges temperatur 28 – 35 o C and ranges ph of 6,8 – 7. The trapezoidal methode is used to calculate the amount of methane. The maximum production of methane was found in 75% substrate level resulted in 160,93 unit area mililitesr. Other results showed that Hidrolic Retention Time (HRT) on the substrate level variation of 65% and 75% of the total volume of the digester is faster than 85% of substrate level is at day 25.
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KONTROL pH PADA REAKTOR TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTER) BAGIAN REAKTOR HIDROGEN TERMOFILIK CONTROL OF pH IN THE TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTER) REACTOR THERMOPHILIC HYDROGEN REACTOR SECTION

KONTROL pH PADA REAKTOR TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTER) BAGIAN REAKTOR HIDROGEN TERMOFILIK CONTROL OF pH IN THE TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTER) REACTOR THERMOPHILIC HYDROGEN REACTOR SECTION

Nilai pH pada percobaan tanpa kontrol pH mengalami penurunan, maka perlu ditambahkan larutan basa agar pH substrat dapat dikontrol pada rentang pH yang dibutuhkan proses yaitu pada renta[r]

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ANALISIS PRODUKSI HIDROGEN DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH KACANG KEDELAI MENGGUNAKAN DIGESTER ANAEROBIK ANALYSIS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN THE PROCESSING OF SOYBEAN WASTE USING ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

ANALISIS PRODUKSI HIDROGEN DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH KACANG KEDELAI MENGGUNAKAN DIGESTER ANAEROBIK ANALYSIS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN THE PROCESSING OF SOYBEAN WASTE USING ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

Skin and liquid waste of soybean contain various type of carbohydrate. The waste can be used as biomass material. Anaerobic dark fermentation of biomass can produce hydrogen gas. The purpose of the research was to investigate biogas potential of soybean waste. Skin and liquid waste of soybean was investigated. Fermented sludge used as bacterial culture. The result show that hydrogen gas of substrate comprising mixture of soybean skin waste and fermented sludge is very low, while mixture of liquid waste and fermented sludge is high. Substrate comprising mixture of soybean liquid waste and fermented sludge was produced biogas with cumulative volume is 14,026 liters and average biogas production is 1,275 liter/day.
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Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production

Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production

The characteristics of solid wastes determine the successful anaerobic digestion process ( high biogas production potential and degradability). In municipal solid waste, substrate characteristics may vary due to the method of collection, weather season, cultural habits of the community . Substrate characteristics such as its composition, C/N ratio and particle size will be briefly discussed in this sub chapter. The degradability and biogas production potential from solid waste in an anaerobic digester are dependent on the amount of the main components: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicelluloses as well as lignin (Hartmann and Ahring, 2006). Among them lipids are the most significant substances in the anaerobic digestion, since the methane yield from lipids is higher than from most other organic materials. The theoretical gas yield of glyceride trioleate is, for example, 1.4 m 3 per kilogram of oil with a methane content of 70% (Hanaki , 1981; Angelidaki ., 1990). Although organic waste with a high content of lipids is an attractive substrate for biogas production, Neves (2008) reported that the lowest hydrolysis rate constants were obtained in the assays fed with kitchen waste that contained an excess of lipids. This was presumably due to a synergetic effect on the degradation of the other components since lipids adsorb onto solid surfaces and may delay the hydrolysis process by reducing the accessibility of enzyme attack. Lignocellulosic (cellulose and hemicelluloses which are tightly bound to the lignin) waste can be found in abundant amount in the form of garden waste, paper residue or agricultural waste. Due to the presence of lignin, lignocellulosic waste is considered to be quite resistant to anaerobic digestion and hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the overall process. In order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose in lignocellulosic waste, several pretreatment methods such as thermal (steam or hot water), chemical (acid, lime or ammonia addition) or combination of both methods were proposed by several authors (e.g. Mosier ., 2005; Fernandes . 2009).
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Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

Abstract.The Empty fruit bunches are one of the palm oil industry wastes, which can be used for mushroom cultivation. Post-cultivation of mushroom from former EFB-mushroom media (EFBMM) has the potential to be processed into biogas. The purpose of this research was to examine optimum co-digestion conditions for biogas production of EFBMM.The research was carried out in an anaerobic digester with three different conditions - dry fermentation (Water content (WC)/Total Solid (TS) ratio 1.5 - 3.5), semi-wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio = 4.0 - 5.7) and wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio> 9.0) conditions. Digester of capacity 50L was used. Fermentation was done using 20% cow feces as inoculum which then added with circulation system for 70 days. The results showed that optimum biogas production were produced in semi- wet fermentation conditions (WC/TS ratio = 4). It was produced 37.462 liters (2.420 liters CH 4 /Kg
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Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Rice Straw to Produce Biogas using Semi-Continuous Flow Digester: Effect of Urea Addition

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Rice Straw to Produce Biogas using Semi-Continuous Flow Digester: Effect of Urea Addition

Abstract. The objective this research was to investigate the effect of urea addition on the biogas yield from co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung using semi-continuous anaerobic digester. The experiment was conducted by using self-made semi-continuous anaerobic digester having a working volume of 30 L. Cow dung was provided from Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Lampung; while rice straw was collected from farmer at Way Galih, Tanjung Bintang, South Lampung. Rice straw was sun-dried to about 12% of moisture content and then ground into fine particles. Cow dung and ground straw were mixed at a dung-to-straw ratio of 3:1 based on total solid (TS) and four different urea additions (0, 0.25, 0.65, and 1.30 g/L) were applied to have a C/N ratio between 20 and 30. The mixture was diluted with water to create TS content of 10%. As much as 30 L of the substrate mixture was introduced into the digester as a starting load. The same substrate was added daily at a loading rate of 0.5 L/d. The experiment was made in triplicate and observation was performed for two months. Total and volatile solids of influent and effluent and daily biogas production were observed. The biogas quality was measured by its methane content using gas chromatography. Results showed that urea addition influenced the biogas yield and its quality. Substrate mixture with urea addition of 0.25 g/L (C/N ratio of 27.3) was the best in terms of biogas yield (434.2 L/kgVSr), methane content (50.12%), and methane yield (217.6 L/kgVSr).
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Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was employed in this study. In complete mix systems, digested slurry is settled in an external clarifier, and the microbe-rich sludge is recycled back to the digester. Mass balance of recycle sludge in the anaerobic digester was analyzed. Schematic drawing of anaerobic digester with recycle sludge is shown in Figure 1. It identifies which variables are associated with the streams, such as: influent volumetric flow rate Q In (L/day), effluent volumetric flow rate Q Out (L/day),

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Telemonitoring Temperature and Humidity at Bio-energy Process using Smart Phones

Telemonitoring Temperature and Humidity at Bio-energy Process using Smart Phones

Bio-energy from biogas can be produced through anaerobic digestion of either organic solid waste or wastewater. Energy production process in the digester is however sometimes hard to be monitored due to manual measurement, otherwise it needs a high technology requiring a high cost budget. This paper presents a low cost technology to monitor the process by using Android based smart phones which can easily be integrated in human daily activity. A program was built by using Eclipse in order to give send/receive command to/from the hardware and display the measurement data on the registered smart phones. The measurement controller was put at the anaerobic digester to record temperature and Relative Humidity (RH) data to memory card and to transmit the data to smart phones. In the experiment with 20 data samples, mean errors were repectively -0.317 o C, 0.932 o C, and 1,378 % for temperature sensor LM35, and temperature and RH sensor using SHT11. Mean squared error for LM35 was 0.373 o C and for SHT11 was 1.117 o C and 2.629 % for temperature and RH respectively. The system has been also implemented in the real anaerobic digester. Electrical energy consumption was 0.623 Wh with 30 minutes cycle time and one minute sampling time.
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Rancang Bangun Alat Penghasil Biogas dari Plastik Polietilen

Rancang Bangun Alat Penghasil Biogas dari Plastik Polietilen

Biogas merupakan salah satu jenis energi yang dapat dibuat dan dibakar yang diproduksi melalui fermentasi anaerobik bahan organik seperti kotoran ternak, kotoran manusia, limbah pertanian di dalam suatu ruang pencerna (digester). Biogas dalam penelitian ini berasal dari bahan campuran kotoran sapi dan jerami padi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang alat penghasil biogas dari plastik polietilen yang mudah dirakit, murah dan dapat berkinerja dengan baik. Penelitian ini menghasilkan digester yang berbahan dasar dari plastik polietilen dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut: biodigester dengan kapasitas digester 0,25 m 3 , bahan isian 0,2 m 3 , waktu proses 68 hari, tekanan total 6,6350 psi, volume total gas 0,6216 m 3 , lama nyala api 9135 detik (152,3 menit atau 2,5 jam), dan analisis biaya produksi biogas Rp 94,6 /liter. Biogas yang dihasilkan dapat diaplikasikan ke kompor gas yang dapat digunakan untuk memasak.
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S FPTK 1106543 Chapter (3)

S FPTK 1106543 Chapter (3)

Dalam menentukan besarnya volume digester yang dibutuhkan, ada beberapa faktor yang harus diperhatikan yaitu denah tempat yang akan digunakan, volume gas yang dibutuhkan untuk menyalakan generatorset, volume digester, bahan digester yang digunakan, dan alasan memakai disain digester 3.1. Denah Tempat

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Cara Mudah Membuat Digester Biogas

Cara Mudah Membuat Digester Biogas

Volume digester yang akan dibangun adalah 2 m3, sehingga volume biogas yang dihasilkan per harinya adalah 7,92 m3 (Note – ganti nilainya sesuai keadaan di lapangan. Nilai ini untuk menghitung minyak tanah yang tergantikan (dalam liter)). Dari jumlah biogas yang dihasilkan dapat diketahui jumlah minyak tanah yang dapat terganti oleh biogas setiap harinya berdasarkan pada kesetaraan nilai kalori biogas dengan minyak tanah. Tabel diatas adalah tabel Nilai Kalori Beberapa Bahan Bakar (Suyati, 2006)

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PERANCANGAN ALAT PERAGA (PROTOTYPE) DIGESTER SAMPAH

PERANCANGAN ALAT PERAGA (PROTOTYPE) DIGESTER SAMPAH

Prototype is designed and made based on Pahl and Beitz principle consist of planning and explaining digester, digester specification, developing main solution by identifying problem in digester, digester concept, developing digester structure by selecting layout in form of sketch and create product document in form of work image design into a tool. Final step, testing the tool functionality.

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Parancangan dan Evaluasi Kinerja Reaktor Hidrolisis-Acidogenesis pada Pembuatan Biogas dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

Parancangan dan Evaluasi Kinerja Reaktor Hidrolisis-Acidogenesis pada Pembuatan Biogas dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

LAMPIRAN A PERHITUNGAN BIOREAKTOR ANAEROBIC BAFFLE REACTOR Perancangan anaerobic baffle reactor disesuaikan dengan karakteristik limbah cair kelapa sawit adalah diperlihatkan oleh Ta[r]

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II. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA  PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN CAIRAN RUMEN TERHADAP PRODUKSI GAS BIO DARI FESES SAPI.

II. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN CAIRAN RUMEN TERHADAP PRODUKSI GAS BIO DARI FESES SAPI.

Hewan-hewan ternak tersebut dipelihara baik dalam jumlah besar di peternakan maupun dipelihara secara individu dalam jumlah yang kecil oleh rumah tangga. Menurut Junus (1995), dalam membuat gas bio petani cukup mempunyai dua atau tiga ekor sapi saja, sedangkan ternak lain seperti ayam, itik dan kelinci perlu diperhitungkan jumlahnya agar memenuhi kebutuhan untuk pengisian digester gas bio. Menurut Kasmidjo (1991), feses sapi merupakan bahan yang memiliki ketersediaan melimpah dan mudah dicampur menjadi bubur serta memungkinkan diproses secara kontinyu.

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PENGARUH PENGADUKAN PADA DIGESTER BIOGAS

PENGARUH PENGADUKAN PADA DIGESTER BIOGAS

yang sangat kuat, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh Sarwono (2011) yaitu sebesar > 0,75 – 0,99. Hubungan antara nilai VS reduction dengan jumlah produksi metan yang sangat kuat ini disebabkan adanya perlakuan pengadukan pada digester yang dapat memungkinkan terjadinya kontak langsung antara mikroorganisme dan bahan organik menjadi lebih efektif sehingga nilai yang dihasilkan menjadi tinggi. Semakin banyak bahan organik yang dapat dicerna oleh mikroorganisme maka semakin banyak pula produksi gas metan yang dihasilkan. Pengadukan juga dapat mencegah terjadinya buih pada permukaan digester yang dapat menyebabkan terhalangnya gas yang akan keluar dari digester. Pengadukan sangat penting dilakukan dalam pembuatan biogas, untuk menghindari pembentukan scum (pengendapan) pada digester yang dapat menghambat produksi biogas Anggakara et al. (2013).
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Perencanaan Desain Alternatif IPAL Dengan Teknologi Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Dan Anaerobic Filter Untuk Rumah Susun Romokalisari Surabaya - ITS Repository

Perencanaan Desain Alternatif IPAL Dengan Teknologi Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Dan Anaerobic Filter Untuk Rumah Susun Romokalisari Surabaya - ITS Repository

Rumah Susun Romokalisari adalah rumah susun yang terletak di kota Surabaya dan berdiri sejak tahun 2015. Walaupun masih termasuk baru, rumah susun ini memiliki beberapa permasalahan dikarenakan tidak adanya pengolahan air limbah grey water yang memadai. Selain itu air buangan dari tangki septik rumah susun yang tidak diolah dapat membahayakan kualitas air tanah di sekitar rumah susun. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya unit pengolahan limbah tambahan untuk mengolah kedua air buangan tersebut. Perencanaan ini memberikan dua alternatif unit yang akan digunakan yaitu Anaerobic Baffled Reactor dan Anaerobic Filter. Kedua unit ini dipilih karena biaya pembangunan dan perawatannya yang murah serta operasionalnya yang mudah, berdasarkan literatur dan penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya.
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KINETIKA PEMBUATAN BIOGAS DARI SUBSTRAT KULIT KOPI DENGAN MIKROORGANISME KOTORAN SAPI DAN RUMEN

KINETIKA PEMBUATAN BIOGAS DARI SUBSTRAT KULIT KOPI DENGAN MIKROORGANISME KOTORAN SAPI DAN RUMEN

KS, JP-KS, KK-PT-KS+R dan KK-PT-KS. Dari grafik dapat dilihat bahwa perbandingan pada digester tersebut didapatkan konsentrasi metana yang cukup berbeda. Digester yang berisi substrat jerami padi dengan penambahan mikrorganisme campuran yaitu sebesar 19,6% lebih tinggi daripada digester tanpa pretreatment dan dengan pretreatment dengan penambahan mikroorganisme campuran yang hanya mencapai berturut-turut sebesar 15,77% dan 16,02%. Hasil kadar metana ini berbeda dengan hasil kadar metana jefri (2016) pada substrat kulit kopi dengan pretreatmen,dengan penambahan mikroorganisme campuran sebesar 26,65%. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kandungan kulit kopi yang berbeda, kandungan inhibitor pada kulit kopi yang digunakan lebih besar dibandingkan dengan Jefri (2016) sehingga akan mempengaruhi substrat yang dapat didegradasi oleh mikroorganisme untuk mengahasilkan kadar metana. Dapat dilihat dari grafik bahwa peningkatan produksi biogas hanya terjadi sampai nilai tertentu, setelah itu mengalami penurunan. Hal ini dapat dikarenakan substrat yang telah habis, atau dapat disebabkan oleh faktor lingkungan terutama pH dan suhu (Fransiska, 2014). IV.5 Parameter Kinetika Pembentukan Biogas
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EFFECT OF ANAEROBIC, Dr. Rostika

EFFECT OF ANAEROBIC, Dr. Rostika

Lack of physical activity leads to increase many health problems. The World Health Organization noted that lack of physical activity is the fourth death factor (6% of deaths worldwide) (WHO, 2010). Based on its metabolism, there are two types of physical activity, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic exercise is a physical activity that uses ATP from the oxidative phosphorylation of glycogen and free fatty acids which depends on the availability of oxygen. In contrast, anaerobic exercise uses ATP from glycolysis which no need of oxygen (Astrand et al., 2003).

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BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING ANAEROBIC BIODIGESTER

BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING ANAEROBIC BIODIGESTER

Universitas Diponegoro BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING ANAEROBIC BIODIGESTER FROM CASSAVA STARCH EFFLUENT Budiyono1, Siswo Sumardiono1, and Sunarso2 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, [r]

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