Anaerobic digestion

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EVALUASI SISTEM ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PADA

EVALUASI SISTEM ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PADA

Gambar 6 menunjukkan gabungan nilai antara hasil penilaian tingkat kepentingan dari stakeholder, penilaian kondisi lapangan dan kemungkinan keberlanjutan. Nilai minimal dari feasibility dan uncertainty range dan biru adalah 0 (netral). Nilai positif menunjukkan operasional lebih baik dari kondisi minimal dan dapat berlanjut. Komponen teknis, lingkungan dan sosial budaya yang bernilai positif di kedua kategori artinya komponen tersebut telah mendapat perhatian cukup baik dari operator pelaksana maupun dari stakeholder. Untuk keberlanjutan program, 3 komponen tersebut perlu dipertahankan. Komponen institusional, ekonomi memiliki nilai minus sehingga perlu dilakukan perbaikan pada sektor tersebut. Saat ini belum ada peraturan khusus dalam hal anaerobic digestion tetapi bila disusun peraturan yang tepat dan dapat dijalankan dengan bertanggung jawab maka kemungkinan keberlanjutannya justru paling besar.
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Characterization of modified zeolite as microbial immobilization media on POME anaerobic digestion

Characterization of modified zeolite as microbial immobilization media on POME anaerobic digestion

As the world’s biggest palm oil producer, Indonesia generates also huge amount of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) wastewater and causes serious problem in environment. In conventional method, POME was converted into biogas using lagoon system which required extensive land area. Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) proposes more effective biogas producing with smaller land area. In the proposed system, a immobilization media would be main factor for enhancing productivity. This research studied on characterization of Lampung natural zeolite as immobilization media in the AFBR system for POME treatment. Various activation method such as physical and chemical were attempted to create more suitable material which has larger surface area, pore size distribution as well as excellent surface structures. The physical method was applied by heating up the material till 400 o C while HCl was used on the chemical activation. Based on the result, the chemical activation increased the surface area significantly into 71 m 2 /g compared to physical as well as original zeolite. The strong acid material was quite effective to enforce the impurities within zeolite pore structure compared to heating up the material. According to distribution data, the Lampung zeolite owned the pore size with the range of 3 – 5 μm which was mesopore material. The pore size was appropriate for immobilization media as it was smaller than size of biogas microbial. The XRD patterns verified that chemical activation could maintain the zeolite structure as the original. Obviously, the SEM photograph showed apparent structure and pore size on the modified zeolite using chemical method. The testing of modified zeolite on the batch system was done to evaluate the characterization process. The modified zeolite using chemical process resulted fast reduction of COD and stabilized the volatile fatty acid as the intermediate product of anaerobic digestion, especially in the beginning of the process. Therefore, the chemical activation process was most suitable to produce the immobilization media from Lampung natural zeolite for POME waste treatment
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The effect of mixed-enzyme addition in anaerobic digestion on methane yield of dairy cattle manure - Diponegoro University | Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR)

The effect of mixed-enzyme addition in anaerobic digestion on methane yield of dairy cattle manure - Diponegoro University | Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR)

Manure has great potential as a substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) in Europe.[1] AD is a multistep process that consists of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis stages.[2] Hydrolysis, the first step of AD, is known as a limiting step when solid waste or animal slurry with high fibre concentration is treated.[3,4] Moreover, the degradability of manure under anaerobic conditions is only around 40–50% of the total solids (TS) due to its high fibre content.[5] There are several pre-treatment methods to increase the biodegradation rate of organic mate- rial, including physical pre-treatment, physico-chemical pre-treatment, chemical pre-treatment and biological pre- treatment.[6] Biological pre-treatment, such as enzyme application, has many advantages, such as a low energy input, no chemical requirement, and it is also environmen- tally friendly.[6]
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Effect of Agitation on Acidogenesis Stage of Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) into Biogas

Effect of Agitation on Acidogenesis Stage of Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) into Biogas

POME as feedstock utilization of biogas through methanogenic anaerobic digestion process has been widely reported by the researchers. Furthermore, it has been applied at commercial scale of several POMs in Malaysia and Indonesia [6]. However, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the process is still high enough, so that high investment are needed to build this process [7].

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CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND DALAM SISTEM TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION DENGAN SUBSTRAT LIMBAH MAKANAN EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PH ANALYSIS ABOUT DECREASED LEVELS OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND IN TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION SYSTEM WITH WASTE FO

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND DALAM SISTEM TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION DENGAN SUBSTRAT LIMBAH MAKANAN EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PH ANALYSIS ABOUT DECREASED LEVELS OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND IN TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION SYSTEM WITH WASTE FO

Untuk itu dilakukan langkah pencegahan, penanggulangan, dan pengelolaan. Salah satu cara pengolahan limbah yaitu menggunakan sistem Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) yang menghasilkan biogas. Parameter yang digunakan untuk mengukur limbah adalah chemical oxygenn demand (COD). Pada penelitian ini dilakukan uji kadar COD pada tangki hidrolisis dalam sistem TPAD. Uji dilakukan dengan mengubah variabel bebas yaitu suhu dan pH. Ada lima jenis penelitian yaitu sebelum masuk tangki hidrolisis, sesudah masuk tangki hidrolisis tanpa kontrol suhu dan pH, kontrol suhu, kontrol pH, dan kontrol suhu dan pH. Sampel sebelum masuk tangki hidrolisis merupakan pembanding nilai COD pada sampel lainnya. Pada sampel tanpa kontrol suhu dan pH mengalami penurunan nilai COD sebesar 24,1% dari sampel sebelum masuk tangki hidrolisis, sampel kontrol suhu mengalami penurunan sebesar 33,94%, sampel kontrol pH mengalami penurunan sebesar 43,52%, dan sampel kontrol suhu dan pH mengalami penurunan sebesar 59,12%. Dari lima jenis penelitian ini sampel kontrol suhu dan pH mengalami penurunan yang paling besar.
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PENGARUH TEMPERATUR TERHADAP pH SUBSTRAT NASI DI TANGKI PENGADUKAN TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION) TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON pH OF RICE SUBSTRATE IN THE TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION) MIXING TANK

PENGARUH TEMPERATUR TERHADAP pH SUBSTRAT NASI DI TANGKI PENGADUKAN TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION) TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON pH OF RICE SUBSTRATE IN THE TPAD (TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION) MIXING TANK

Energi biomassa yang sedang dikembangkan di program studi Teknik Fisika salah satunya adalah reaktor TPAD (Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion). Reaktor ini menghasilkan gas metana dan gas hidrogen dalam satu kali proses. Oleh karena itu, reaktor ini terdiri dari 4 bagian untuk memisahkan gas metana dan gas hidrogen yang dihasilkan oleh limbah makanan. Dimana 4 bagian itu diantaranya sebagai berikut: tangki pencampuran; tangki produksi hidrogen; tangki produksi metana; dan tangki penyimpanan lumpur.

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Characterization of modified zeolite as microbial immobilization media on POME anaerobic digestion

Characterization of modified zeolite as microbial immobilization media on POME anaerobic digestion

The world palm oil industry is growing up continuously to fulfill the human needs related to food and hygiene products. Indonesia produced 32.5 million tons of palm oil this year. It renders Indonesia as largest palm oil producer in the world that supply around 45% of total global demand. During palm oil production, this industry generates huge liquid waste, called Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) which has high polluting properties such as 25000 mg/l Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), 55000 mg/l Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and 19610 mg/l of Suspended Solid (SS) [1]. Thus, direct releasing of POME into the surroundings would cause pollution and environment degradation. Conventional anaerobic digestion using pond system has been utilized as common and primary method for processing of POME in Indonesia which needs large land and small gas production. In addition, the method has also limitation to handle POME as substrates with high content of inhibitor. In order to resolve the problem, the development of anaerobic digestion using immobilize cell is proposed which own some advantages such as contain more amount of bacteria, prolong the residence time as well as reduction of reactor volume [2]. Cell immobilization is a treatment using limited motion of the bacteria within the reactor using specific space or porous material. By this method, the combination of high cell concentration and flow rate would improve the productivity. The porous material would enhance the contact between substrate and bacteria to increase the biogas production.
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SISTEM PENGKONDISI SUHU SUBSTRAT LIMBAH ORGANIK DI SUBREAKTOR METANOGENESIS TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TEMPERATURE ORGANIC WASTE CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN SUBREACTOR METHANOGENESIS TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

SISTEM PENGKONDISI SUHU SUBSTRAT LIMBAH ORGANIK DI SUBREAKTOR METANOGENESIS TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TEMPERATURE ORGANIC WASTE CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN SUBREACTOR METHANOGENESIS TEMPERATURE PHASED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

Penerapan teknologi produksi biogas berbahan baku limbah organik dapat dijadikan solusi untuk mengatasi krisis energi di masyarakat dan berfungsi pula sebagai proses pengurai zat berbahaya di dalam limbah organik. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) merupakan tolok ukur zat berbahaya yang terkandung pada limbah organik. Proses produksi biogas yang menggunakan metode temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) berjalan optimal menghasilkan gas metana pada suhu substrat 35 °C di subreaktor metanogenesis. Pada penelitian ini dirancang dan dibuat sistem pengkondisi suhu substrat di subreaktor metanogenesis. Cara kerja sistem pengkondisian suhu substrat ialah dengan mengontrol pemanasan air yang dialirkan ke selimut air di sekeliling subreaktor metanogenesis. Dilakukan pengujian sistem dengan membandingkan kinerja sistem antara sistem yang menggunakan pengkondisi suhu substrat dengan sistem yang tidak menggunakan pengkondisi suhu substrat. Dari hasil pengujian sistem diperoleh peningkatan produksi gas metana sebesar 100,71% dan peningkatan kemampuan mereduksi COD sebesar 96,95% dengan mengondisikan suhu substrat.
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Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production

Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production

The characteristics of solid wastes determine the successful anaerobic digestion process ( high biogas production potential and degradability). In municipal solid waste, substrate characteristics may vary due to the method of collection, weather season, cultural habits of the community . Substrate characteristics such as its composition, C/N ratio and particle size will be briefly discussed in this sub chapter. The degradability and biogas production potential from solid waste in an anaerobic digester are dependent on the amount of the main components: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicelluloses as well as lignin (Hartmann and Ahring, 2006). Among them lipids are the most significant substances in the anaerobic digestion, since the methane yield from lipids is higher than from most other organic materials. The theoretical gas yield of glyceride trioleate is, for example, 1.4 m 3 per kilogram of oil with a methane content of 70% (Hanaki , 1981; Angelidaki ., 1990). Although organic waste with a high content of lipids is an attractive substrate for biogas production, Neves (2008) reported that the lowest hydrolysis rate constants were obtained in the assays fed with kitchen waste that contained an excess of lipids. This was presumably due to a synergetic effect on the degradation of the other components since lipids adsorb onto solid surfaces and may delay the hydrolysis process by reducing the accessibility of enzyme attack. Lignocellulosic (cellulose and hemicelluloses which are tightly bound to the lignin) waste can be found in abundant amount in the form of garden waste, paper residue or agricultural waste. Due to the presence of lignin, lignocellulosic waste is considered to be quite resistant to anaerobic digestion and hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the overall process. In order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose in lignocellulosic waste, several pretreatment methods such as thermal (steam or hot water), chemical (acid, lime or ammonia addition) or combination of both methods were proposed by several authors (e.g. Mosier ., 2005; Fernandes . 2009).
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Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

The common POME treatment method utilized by palm oil mills is the application of lagoon systems. POME is treated in a series of anaerobic lagoons [2]. This method is an easy operating system but it has disadvantages such as, requires a long retention time of 20 to 200 days [3], the use of large areas (5 hectares for a palm oil mill with a capacity of 30 tons fresh fruit bunches/hour), bad odor and uncontrolled methane emission from the ponds to the atmosphere. In addition, the cost of dredging and handling the sludge from the lagoons is high because sludge accumulates at the bottom of the lagoons. This accumulation reduces the effective volume of the lagoons.
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Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

The common POME treatment method utilized by palm oil mills is the application of lagoon systems. POME is treated in a series of anaerobic lagoons [2]. This method is an easy operating system but it has disadvantages such as, requires a long retention time of 20 to 200 days [3], the use of large areas (5 hectares for a palm oil mill with a capacity of 30 tons fresh fruit bunches/hour), bad odor and uncontrolled methane emission from the ponds to the atmosphere. In addition, the cost of dredging and [8] handling the sludge from the lagoons is high because sludge accumulates at the bottom of the lagoons. This accumulation reduces the effective volume of the lagoons.
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Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

The raw materials used in the dry anaerobic digestion process are EFBMM which has been described, fresh EFB which had already pressed from the factory, then chopped as raw material for control and 20% cow feces as inoculum. The result showed that EFBMM used in research had average water content 41.10%, TS content 59.90%, C content 25.44%, N rate equal to 1.20%, and Ratio C/N amounted to 16.639. The presence of C and N content shows that EFBMM still has high organic and mineral element content, while low C/N ratio and high TS at EFBMM show that the raw material are susceptible to degradation, thus has the potential to be used as raw material for biogas production by dry Anaerobic digestions. Various parameters such as inoculum concentration, pH, moisture, temperature, total solids and C/N ratios are the main parameters affecting biogas production. In addition to the C/N ratio, the choice of raw materials used affects the volume of biogas produced [10]. The characteristics of EFBMM and inoculum in each digester are presented in Table 1. Raw materials (EFB-Fresh, EFBMM, and Cow dung) characteristics used in dry anaerobic digestions are presented in Table 2.
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Staff Site Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta IJECC.

Staff Site Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta IJECC.

A good co-substrate should fulfil several requirements, such as: i) its concentration of organic substances should be comparable with the organic solid waste substrate, so that addition will not significantly affect the hydraulic retention time, ii) it should consist of easily degradable organics with a high biogas production potential, iii) it may not contain any dangerous or poisonous substances, which possibly hinder anaerobic digestion or composting, iv) it should have a content of macro and micro nutrients which have possibility to improve the characteristics of main substrate, v) it must be available in sufficient quantities at a reasonable price, and vi) it should be storable.
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UTILIZATION OF WATER HYACINTH AS ACQUIRED BIOGAS, LIQUID FERTILIZER AND CONTROL ITS SPREAD | Hadiyarto | Waste Technology 16924 41395 1 PB

UTILIZATION OF WATER HYACINTH AS ACQUIRED BIOGAS, LIQUID FERTILIZER AND CONTROL ITS SPREAD | Hadiyarto | Waste Technology 16924 41395 1 PB

This program to make a biogas unit mesophilic Reactor Anaerobic Digestion (Mercedes) to produce biogas as an renewable energy and bioslurry as liquid fertilizer.Economic potensial is obtained if all households in the Calombo hamlet apply biogas energy is IDR 17.112 million/year and liquid fertilizer worth IDR 200.000 per household per day and have potential to reduce spread of water hyacinth cover on Rawapening lake up to 15% per year.

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

So far, there are still very few researches to study the performance of anaerobic digestion, using POME as the raw material. Therefore, this paper will discuss the biogas properties and emission pattern of POME anaerobic digestion using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). To provide better insight, properties of POME used were preliminarily analysed. Main variables used as performance criteria were specific methane production, volatile solid decomposition and volumetric composition of biogas.

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Pengaruh Suhu Terhadap Produksi Biogas Pada Proses Metanogenesis Berbahan Baku Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

Pengaruh Suhu Terhadap Produksi Biogas Pada Proses Metanogenesis Berbahan Baku Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

[26] Abhijeet P. Borole, K. Thomas Klasson, Whitney Ridenour, Justin Holland, Khursheed Karim, And Muthanna H. Al- Dahhan, “ Methane Production In A 100-L Upflow Bioreactor By Anaerobic Digestion Of Farm Waste”, Journal Biochemistry And Biotechnology, 2006, Page : 129-132

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

So far, there are still very few researches to study the performance of anaerobic digestion, using POME as the raw material. Therefore, this paper will discuss the biogas properties and emission pattern of POME anaerobic digestion using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). To provide better insight, properties of POME used were preliminarily analysed. Main variables used as performance criteria were specific methane production, volatile solid decomposition and volumetric composition of biogas.

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Pengaruh Kecepatan Pengadukan Pada Tahap Asidogenesis Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS)

Pengaruh Kecepatan Pengadukan Pada Tahap Asidogenesis Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS)

[51] SenthilKumar, M., Gnanapragasam, G., Arutchelvan, V., Nagarajan, S. 2010. Influence of Hydraulic Retention Time in a Two-phase Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Textile Dyeing Effluent Using Sago Effluent as the Co-substrate. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:649-654

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Pra Rancangan Pabrik Pembuatan Gas Metana Dari Kotoran Ayam Dengan Kapasitas 6.733 Ton/Tahun

Pra Rancangan Pabrik Pembuatan Gas Metana Dari Kotoran Ayam Dengan Kapasitas 6.733 Ton/Tahun

Secara umum, alur proses pencernaan/ digesting limbah organik sampai menjadi biogas dimulai dengan pencernaan limbah organik yang disebut juga dengan fermentation/digestion anaerob . Pencernaan tergantung kepada kondisi reaksi dan interaksi antara bakteri methanogens, non-methanogens dan limbah organik yang dimasukkan sebagai bahan input/ feedstock kedalam digester. Biogas dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan bahan bakar konvensional yang sudah umum digunakan seperti minyak tanah ( kerosene ) atau kayu bakar, serta penggunaan biogas juga meyelamatkan lingkungan dari pencemaran dan mengurangi kerusakan lingkungan hidup. Saat ini pemanfaatan biogas menjadi penting ditengah isu pemanasan global karena gas metan sebagai kandungan utama dalam biogas memberikan efek rumah kaca (green house gases) yang 21 kali lebih bersifat polutan daripada gas CO2 (Budiman, 2010)
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Anaerobic Degradation of Organics

Anaerobic Degradation of Organics

• In the anaerobic contact process, the higher bacterial concentration is most often obtained in an incompletely mixed tank reactor (suspended growth) as a result of recycling sludge after settling in a sedimentation tank (Fig. 8.5), similar to an activated sludge reactor

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