The area between hopper-shaped bottom and furnace arch was selected as computation domain which adopt unstructured tetrahedral element, the furnace width direction was selected as X direction, the furnace depth direction was selected as Y direction, the furnace height direction was selected as Z direction were divided into 16 units, 508896 grids. Numerical simulation adopts there-dimensional steady-state calculation. This article adopt standard k- ε two-equation model to simulate turbulence meteorological flow. The solution of solid particle phase adopt random particle trajectory model. Radiation heat transfer adopt P1 radiation mode. Release of coke adopt simple method which has non-staggered grid. On the basis of residual judge convergence, the convergence criterion is that the relative error of all the computation must be less than 10 -4. Furnace mesh shows as Figure 1.
Trade liberalization is closely related with the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and viceversa. Since the soybean trade was independent from BULOG in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007). This research aims to find out economy performance from soybean, analyses factors that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results oftheanalysisofthefactors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1) The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2) Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3) soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4) domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5) Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy to increase the productivity of soybean, the policy to subsidize the price of fertilizer.
Political organisation, political tradition, structure of government and enlightened leadership also contribute to the shaping of an effective foreign policy. The experience of Indians during the British rule has been its significant element. The quasi independent international entity status of India tacitly recognized by the British Government particularly after 1919, helped the process of origin of Indian foreign policy within, of course, the broad ambit of Britain’s imperial policy. The experience thus, gained by India in the sphere foreign affairs has been a helping factor in the making of foreign policy of independent India. Synthesis ofthe values of Democracy and Socialism during the course of her renaissance in late 19th and early 20th centuries has been a determinant of India’s rejection of both Western model of Democracy (Liberal-Capitalist-Democratic system) and Communism. However, positively it has helped the Indian foreign policy to have faith in and to work for securing compatible friendship and co- operation both with the western democratic and the communist countries. India is a democratic country and established institutions of democratic political structure such as an elected Parliament, political parties and a free press make their due impact on foreign policy. Negotiated treaties and international agreements become legally binding on the state, but are not part ofthe domestic law unless passed by an Act of Parliament. Interest groups concerned with foreign relations exist inside and outside of Parliament. The tradition of peace, truth and non-violence enabled India to insist on peaceful settlement of International disputes and encourage disarmament. India’s assertive and continued stand against signing the discriminatory nuclear non-proliferation treaty, NPT, as well as the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (signed by several countries in 1996) is guided by our commitment to nuclear-weapons-free world without any discrimination.
UNDP memasukkan pembangunan manusia sebagai komponen utama dalam pembangunan ekonomi.Pembangunan manusia (human development) dirumuskan sebagai perluasan pilihan bagi penduduk (enlarging the choice ofpeople), yang dapat dilihat sebagai proses upaya ke arah perluasan pilihan dan sekaligus sebagai taraf yang dicapai dari upaya tersebut. Di antara berbagai pilihan tersebut, pilihan yang terpenting adalah untuk berumur panjang dan sehat, untuk berilmu pengetahuan dan untuk mempunyai akses terhadap sumber daya yang dibutuhkan agar dapat hidup secara layak. Di antara pilihan lain yang tak kalah pentingnya adalah kebebasan politik, jaminan atas hak asasi manusia dan harga diri. Dengan demikian, pembangunan manusia tidak hanya memperhatikan peningkatan kemampuan manusia, seperti meningkatkan kesehatan dan pendidikan. Pembangunan manusia juga mementingkan apa yang bisa dilakukan oleh manusia dengan kemampuan yang dimilikinya, untuk menikmati kehidupan, melakukan kegiatan produktif, atau ikut serta dalam berbagai kegiatan budaya, dan sosial politik. Pembangunan manusia harus menyeimbangkan berbagai aspek tersebut.
National Competitiveness Council mendefinisikan daya saing sebagai kemampuan untuk menerima keberhasilan sebagai pemimpin pasar untuk memberikan standar kehidupan yang lebih baik untuk setiap orang. Definisi ini kemudian diterangkan melalui sebelas kriteria yang harus dipenuhi dalam membangun daya saing, yaitu performa ekonomi (economic performance), internasionalisasi (internationalization), modal (capital), pendidikan (education), produktivitas, kompensasi tenaga kerja, dan biaya tenaga kerja per unit (productivity, labour compensation, and unit labour cost), perpajakan (taxation), ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (science and technology), informasi kemasyarakatan (information Society), infrastruktur transportasi (transport infrastructure), serta pengelolaan dan perlindungan lingkungan hidup (environmental protection and management). Kesebelas kriteria tersebut kemudian dilengkapi dengan dua kriteria krusial lainnya yaitu kondisi regulasi dalam suatu negara (regulatory environment), dan kualitas kehidupan (quality of life).
Investment is needed in the development ofthe economy. With the decentralization of investment is expected to evolve as a whole in every province in Indonesia. Local governments need to improve the quality of economic (GDP / Capita), social (HDI) and the infrastructure to attract domestic and foreign investors. Fromthe test results showed that factors affecting investors conducting business in Indonesia is still influenced by GDP/capita, HDI and Infrastructure instead of natural resources.This study uses descriptive analysis and correlation analysis methods to look at the correlation factors that affect investors doing business in Indonesia.
12 most dominant influence among other variables, which is then followed by social support variables, and self-efficacy, whereas hardiness has no significant direct impact on entrepreneurial intentions. The extant literature acknowledges a variety offactors as responsible for the formation of entrepreneurial intention. Scholars have grouped them into two macro-categories, identifying the individual and the contextual domains (Bird, 1988). The first one includes demographics, personal traits, psychological characteristics, prior knowledge and individual skills, individual and social network ties. The second one is the contextual domain encompasses environmental support, Influences of environmental and organizational factors. In some research on entrepreneurial intentions, university support including support in the environmental domain (contextual domain). University support has an influence on entrepreneurial activity (Morris & Lewis, 1995 Fini et al., 2008). Scholars have argued that specific university support mechanisms are relevant in fostering technology and knowledge transfer activities and, supporting entrepreneurial action (Fini et al., 2009). The set of policies and instruments that have been put in place by universities in order to support academic entrepreneurship is quite varied, Including technology transfer offices and faculty consultants (Mian, 1996), university incubators and physical resources (Mian, 1997), university venture funds (Lerner, 2005), and is mostly educational support to Enhance the prior knowledge and practice facilitators tor the entrepreneurial activities. Noel (1998) found that entrepreneurship education is strongly related to entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship majors with higher expressing intentions to start their own businesses. Dyer (1994) and Wilson et al (2007) argued that entrepreneurship education can also increase of students' interest in entrepreneurship as a career. Souitaris et al (2007) found that entrepreneurship programs Significantly raised students' wiki norms and intentions toward entrepreneurship by inspiring them to choose entrepreneurial careers. All of these findings reinforce the role ofthe university in support of improving entrepreneurial intentions and career options to students.
According to Schmidt & Finkbeiner (2016, p. 2) the ABC’s term comes from the first initial of Autobiography (A), Biography (B), and the Cross cultural analysis (C) ofthe two mentioned previously. The A for autobiography is a well- documented key life event on someone which can be part of their education, family, religious tradition, recreation, victories, defeats, and others. Whereas the B for biography is another version of well-documented relevant life events of someone else obtained through an interview with this person. It is in a democratic interview setting where the questions are mostly semi structured which opens for elaboration of each question. Meanwhile the C for cross cultural analysis focuses on the study of those life events occurred in autobiography and biography based on differences and similarities occurred. They argue that the critical literacy is a theoretical concept where it sees literacy teaching and a learning as one thing which is never neutral.
National food security requires agricultural land with sufficient quantity and quality on an ongoing basis. As one ofthe key factors in agricultural production systems, the availability of land is still a major challenge in the development of agriculture to this day because it is limited. Therefore, conversion of paddy fields is a serious threat in efforts to achieve food security which leads to self-sufficiency. Indonesia currently ranks 4t h in the number ofthe world population. This gives the consequences ofthe high demand for food consumption, especially rice which is still a staple food for 98% of Indonesia's population. So it can be said that rice not only has a strategic role in food security, but also in economic security, and national politics (Suryana in Kusumaningrum et.al. 2008). To that end , an analysisofthe phenomenon of conversion of paddy fields in Indonesia are important, especially regarding the determinant factors, the impact of wetland conversion to national food availability, and the solutions that can be offered to overcome, both technically and systemic solutions.
The purpose of this study is to determine how much economic factors affecting the level of poverty in the city of Surabaya. In an effort to improve the living standards of poor communities especially in the city of Surabaya. This study uses secondary data during the 12 years since the years 1996-2007 and analize using multiple linear
4 According to Todaro (2000) rapid population growth encourages the emergence ofthe problem of underdevelopment and create prospects for development are becoming increasingly distant. Furthermore it is said that the population problem arises not because ofthe large number of family members, but because they are concentrated in urban areas as a result ofthe rapid pace of migration from rural to urban. However, the number of people with a fairly high level of education and have the skill to be able to drive economic growth. From the number of productive age population is large it will be able to increase the amount of available labor force and will eventually be able to increase production output in an area. This theory is supported by studies (Efrizal Hasan, Syamsul Amar, Ali Anis) stating that the Work Force (AK) positive and significant impact on economic growth.
Whether those factors have the same effect on health insurance participation demand in Indonesia, West Java in particular, what the magnitude of their effects is, which factor has the greatest effect and what the probability of participating in a health insurance is, require further verification and analysis. By finding out these factors it is hoped that appropriate intervention can be formulated in order to increase participation in health insurance so that every member ofthe community can have access to health services which in turn will increase health status and human development index. In addition, finding out the probability of participating in health insurance, the opportunity to carry out the National Social Insurance System (Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional - SSJN) will be open.
The purpose of this study was to determine the commodity exports of processed foods Indonesia and thefactors that influence. The data used in this study is secondary data, the data in this study came from WITS (UNCOMTRADE), Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia, the World Bank and CEPII. The data used is the data for 2005-2009. The method used in this research is a method of trade performance index and the method of static data using a panel gravity model. Object state in this study were the 10 major importers Indonesia for processed foods, namely: Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Philippina, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand United State of America and Vietnam. The results of this study were (1) processed food main commodities Indonesia exports are tobacco, cereals, tea and coffee and fish, (2) Commodities tobacco which has the largest export commodity tobacco not stemmed/stripped (240110), tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/s (240120), cigarettes containing tobacco (240220). Commodities cereal that has the largest export commodity other pasta (190230), sweet biscuits; waffles and wafers (190530), other bread (190590). Commodities tea and coffee which has the largest export commodity black tea fermented (090230), other black tea fermented (090240), and coffea extracts, essences and concentrates (210111). As well as fish commodities that have the greatest export is commodities fish, whole or in pieces (160414), crab (160510), and shrimps and prawns (160520), (3) factors exports and GDP Per Capita Indonesia overall positive effect on exports of processed food commodities Indonesa. Factors importing countries population overall negative effect on exports of processed food commodities in Indonesia. GDP Per Capita Factor Importer countries, exchange rates and the overall ecodistance no significant effect on exports of processed food commodities in Indonesia.
ABSTRACT: Government has a sugar self-sufficiency program in 2020 up to 2025. However, based on data from the Directorate General of Plantation (2013), the amount of sugar production is lower than the national sugar demand. The research location is Sutojayan village, Pakisaji district, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia. The purposes of this research are: (1) analyzing thefactors that affect sugar cane production, (2) analyzing the level of technical efficiency on the sugar cane production, and (3) identifying the characteristics of respondents related to the level of efficiency achieved in the sugar cane production activities. The methods used in this research are SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) approach and descriptive statistical analysis. Based on the results, seed and labor affect the increase of sugar cane production significantly. Farmers at the research location also has 5 percent opportunity to increase the production of sugar cane. The farmer respondents have high technical efficiency which is 95%. The characteristics of respondents generally consist ofthe age between 51 – 60 years, the last level of education is primary school, sugar cane farmer is the main job, the household size is 3 – 4 people, the experience of sugar cane farmer ranged between 21 – 30 years, using the BL (Bululawang) variety, the farm size of sugar cane is 0.10 – 0.50 hectares, and the status of land is the owner.
Indonesian MRBQ consisted of 38 statements that originally grouped into six subscales, i.e. speed violations (SV), safety violations (SAV), control errors (CE), traffic erros (TE), stunts (S) and traffic violations (TV) as used in Persian MRBQ. However, as found in Putranto and Anjaya (2014) the result of factor analysis using principal componenet analysis might show different conclusion. This present paper was intended to confirm the suitability of using six subscales (factors) in Persian MRBQ in Indonesian MRBQ. 38 statement items were extracted using principal component analysis and rotated using varimax with Kaizer Normalization. IBM SPSS Statistics 22 was used to help analysis.
The results from several environmental parameters were analyzed using multivariable statistical analysis, based on the PCA. The results of PCA on the environmental parameters in the correlation matrix showed that the critical information that described the correlation between parameters, centered on two main axes; F1 (horizontal axis) and F2 (vertical axis) as shown in Figure 5. From the figure we can see the information presented by both axes of each F1 by 57,17% and F2 by 21,04%, so from both axes, variety of Anadara Granosa blood clams habitat characteristics at each station can be explained by both main axes of 78,21% from the variance total. F1 axis was the main factor that explain better the variability ofthe data source, while the second axis (F2) explain better the residue variability which was not represented on the main factors. Quality ofthe representation from variables on the axis was directly evaluated by looking at the variable distance to the axis, where the stronger correlation (positive or negative), the closer the variables distance to the axis .
What is wanted to explain here is about the concentration of workers during early month and end of month. All knows it is time for workers received their wage on end of month. Logically of human being, on that time, the workers are feel happy because they can settle all credits like personnel loan, house loan, or education loan, prepare of groceries and children education fees. Maybe that time, the do their work and affect of high productivity compare with early or middle of month. On that time, they had a money problem occurs insufficient wage and have to loan from friends or relatives. If the minds not concentrate on works, maybe the quality output decreases same as the productivity. This is the subject that can take as reliable factors to analyze how much it can influence.