Low birth weight (LBW) prevalence according to WHO  in 2011 is 15% of all births in the world with a range of 3.3% -38%, which is more common in developing countries or low socioeconomic countries. The prevalence ofLBW in Indonesia varies from one region to another. The incidence ofLBW in Indonesia is quite high at 10.5%, still above the 9.6% Thailand and Vietnam 5.2%. One of the circumstances that led to high infant mortality rate was low birth weight. Infant mortality under 1 year in LBW babies 17 times greater than the babies of normal weight. In addition, most ofLBW baby less than 2000 grams died in the neonatal period . National Economic Survey in Indonesia in 2005 , stated that 38.85% of neonatal deaths are caused by LBW. These LBWinfants have greater morbidity and mortality than infants with age appropriate growth .
There were 77 LBWinfants who met the inclusion criteria, four infants were excluded; three of them unreachable by phone and one infant born from mother with HIV infection. Six subjects were lost to follow up, leaving 67 subjects for final analysis. TABLE 1 presents the baseline characteristic of the subjects. During perinatal care, most infants (85%) showed suboptimal growth rate. Normal growth rate was found in only 15% (11/73) infants. At post discharged period, 70% (47/67) infants could attain normal growth rate. Overall,
In this study, an assessment of growth was based on infant’s weight, length, and head circumference, which were the important markers of a child health [30, 31]. Bera et al.  showed that in infants receiving KMC, the growth parameters and men- tal development was better than infants who were treated conventionally . Ali et al.  showed that infants treated by incubator has higher weight gain per day (19.3 vs.10.4 g, p < 0.001), shorter duration of stay (6.9% vs. 23.2% p = 0.014), lower infection rate (6.9% vs. 23.2% p = 0.014) than babies who applied KMC . Palencia et al.  found that the growth in height for age was higher within percentiles weight for age (p = 0.0001). Male gender had a higher weight than females (p = 0.031) . This study was simliar to the study in Indonesia previously. In this study, there we showed that compared to conventional group, last measured weight, difference of initial and last weight, as well as weight gain velocity were higher in KMC group. No differences were found regarding of length and head circumference. Hak- sari (2004) and Rahmayanti  in Indonesia also found no difference between weight/age, length/age, head circumference/age in LBW infant treated with KMC and conventional therapy . In the other hand, Rao et al. (2007) conversely showed that infants treated by incubator has a higher weight gain, head circumference (0:49 vs 0.75 cm, p = 0:02), and body length (0.99 vs. 0.7 cm, p = 0.008) compared with infants who applied KMC . It indicated the need to predict which method gives more benefit, KMC or incubator.
The inclusion of random effects in the model results to parameter estimation of variance components below (Table 3.). Higher portion of variance component is on the G-side as a result of multistage sampling, with Household level has highest within variance. On the R-side, recall group data has higher variance than written group and homogeneity test results that there is a significant variance difference between groups. It is an indication of lower precision of the birth weight data on recall group. Although the recall group has a lower precision, as the residual variance is higher, the accuracy of both group are statistically same, as parameter estimate of fixed effect on recall category is insignificant (Table 2.). It means estimated rateofLBW on recall group does not tend to underestimate or overestimate.
Antibiotics in children presenting with non-severe pneumonia and wheeze in India Awasthi et al (2008) was a double-blinded, randomized controlled multi-centre trial in India using amoxicillin (31–54 mg/kg/day) versus placebo for children 2–59 months with WHO non-severe pneumonia and wheeze (audible or auscultatory). he study was powered to detect non-inferiority of placebo. Children were enrolled if they presented with WHO-deined non-severe pneumonia, did not respond to up to three doses of inhaled salbutamol, and had a normal chest X-ray. Recruited children were treated as outpatients with oral salbutamol and either amoxicillin or placebo. Outcomes were treatment failure at day 4, deined as development of WHO-deined severe or very severe pneumonia, hypoxaemia (SpO2<90%), or persistence of non- severe pneumonia, wheeze or fever. Clinical relapse was deined as cases which were clinically cured by day 4, but showed signs of WHO-deined pneumonia by day 11–14. he study recruited 1671: 836 in the placebo group and 835 in the amoxicillin group. Loss to follow-up was <5% by day 14. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar: adherence to placebo and amoxicillin was higher than 95%, and there were no diferences between groups in adherence to oral salbutamol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 48 of 778 children in the placebo group (6.2%) and 40 of 780 children in the amoxicillin group (5.1%). About 15% of children had audible wheeze; for the rest, wheeze was only heard on auscultation.
A degree of separation exists between the mother and baby when the infant is admitted to the neonatal unit, and this may extend over many months. Although in some places a visit to the neonatal unit is a routine part of antenatal care, the neonatal unit is an alien environment to most parents. Units are often noisy, bright, and hot. They can be overcrowded and parts of every unit will be “high tech.” Parents rarely know the neonatal unit staff before their baby is admitted, and the language and behaviours they encounter can contribute to an overwhelming feeling of isolation. The sickest preterm infants may be in hospital for many months, and visiting can be difficult, exhausting, and a financial drain for parents, especially as neonatal services become more centralised. All these factors put strain on the parents’ relationship: breakdown is more common in couples during the months after preterm delivery. Some couples, however, feel the experience makes their relationship closer, at least initially.
This paper summarizes several previous studies on CFS connection in the area of screw connection, welded connection, bolted connection and adhesive connection. The review is initiated by some scopes of discussion as the length of the publication. Screw is a prepared regular connection that is used in cold-formed steel due to the thinness of the cold-formed steel sections. Welded connection is considered as a rigid joint which can improve the structural connection. In fact, it needs a required skilled-workers. Bolted connection is a common design for steel connection. However, for CFS connection, it requires extra consideration due to a thin section and design standard. The last is adhesive connection, it offers a strong joint which can allocate a sturdy connection. Adhesive connection will influence the long-term performance. But, there are some gaps of knowledge that are needed to be filled up on the design codes for adhesive connection. This could be completed with comprehensive future research. From the studies, there are several other researches that are worth to be further discussed, particularly on the behaviour of frame truss adhesive connection.
S everal studies describe a prevalence of major depres- sion during pregnancy of 5–10% (O’Hara 1986; O’Hara et al 1991). Investigators have also noted that pregnant women with histories of recurrent major depres- sion are at high risk for relapse after antidepressant discontinuation at or around the time of conception (Co- hen 1999). In addition, the finding of high risk for major depression in women during the childbearing years (Kessler et al 1993) increases the likelihood of potential need for antidepressants during pregnancy. This raises obvious concerns regarding the reproductive safety of antidepressants. Multiple reports describe the absence of higher rates of major congenital malformations in infants with and without histories of prenatal exposure to fluox- etine (Chambers et al 1996; Pastuszak et al 1993). A low incidence of perinatal toxicity in newborns whose mothers are treated with these medications during labor and deliv- ery has also been reported (Goldstein 1995); however, one study (Chambers et al 1996) has described poor perinatal outcome following prenatal exposure to fluoxetine with associated higher rates of 1) prematurity, 2) low– birth weight babies, 3) admissions to special care nurseries (SCNs), and 4) “poor neonatal adaptation.” Findings were greatest for newborns exposed to fluoxetine late in preg- nancy, as compared with those exposed in the first and second trimesters. The purpose of our investigation was to examine obstetric and neonatal outcomes associated with early and late prenatal exposure to fluoxetine. In addition, reasons for admission and outcomes of admission to SCNs (if any) were evaluated in infants with prenatal exposure to fluoxetine.
31. Osadchy A, Moretti M, Koren G. Effect of domperidone on insufficient lactation in puerperal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol Intern. 2012; 2012:1-7. 32. Jones W, Breward S. Use of domperidone to enhance lactation: what
Intragastric feeding involves the administra- tion of milk feeds through a thin small plastic tube that passes through the nose or mouth directly into the stomach. Intragastric feed- ing is commonly used in developed countries when infants are too developmentally imma- ture to swallow or coordinate feeds or when more mature LBWinfants have associated pathology which might limit oral feeding. This is generally before 32 weeks gestation but can extend to 34–35 weeks gestation depending on the developmental maturity of the infant. Con- siderable skill is required to insert intragastric tubes in small infants. Nasogastric rather than orogastric tubes appear to be more commonly used in pre-term babies with ≥ 32 weeks ges- tation as they are more easily fixed in place. However, nasogastric tubes partially occlude the nasal passages and may impair respira- tory function. Orogastric tubes may be better for very premature infants who usually have smaller nostrils. Intragastric feeding is usu- ally provided as either a bolus feeding session (where a calculated amount of milk is poured into the tube over a period of 10–30 minutes every 1–3 hours, depending on the infant’s weight and gestational age) or a continuous feed (where the tube is attached to a syringe pump, from where the milk runs through the tube into the infant’s stomach continuously for 18–24 hours).
kangaroo is placed between the second breast in an upright position, the baby’s chest attached to the mother’s chest, skin to skin contact between the baby and the mother creates a feeling of warm and sweat easily so baby will feel thirsty. In this condition the baby will try to find the mother’s nipple and suckling. With the baby sucking at the breast will cause stimulation and if the baby more often disusukan then milk production will increase. Increased milk production can occur with the stronger bond of love the mother and the baby so happens letdown reflex is important for breastfeeding spending. In addition, the stress that usually occurs in mothers whose babies are admitted to the hospital will be reduced if the mother is given the chance would an infant in the kangaroo method, it has a positive effect on milk production 7 .
fants who had not planned to breastfeed but changed their decision and expressed milk during their infants’ hospitalization. From these interviews, Kavanaugh et al found 2 basic themes representing why mothers changed their decision to express milk (1) because of the potential health benefits of their milk for their infant and (2) being able to provide milk made pumping worth the effort. All of our mothers who completed the question- naire reported that they were glad that the staff helped them with pumping. Most NICUs provide written infor- mation in some form to mothers about the benefits of breast milk. Mothers then are assisted with milk expres- sion by the nursing staff or lactation consultants who are taking care of the mothers but not necessarily familiar with the medical condition of the VLBW infants. This study used individual counseling sessions with lactation consultants who had many years of experience working with mothers and their VLBW infants and who could inform the mothers about specific benefits for their pre- mature infant. This information sharing was immedi- ately followed by milk expression assistance when the mothers were receptive. Mothers were also told that there would be no pressure to continue milk expression if after attempting they did not want to continue. This
From the results of the study we concluded that the type of social support has a relation with the choosing of KMC and informational support is the mostly influencing factor in choosing KMC. So more information and education on mothers are needed through prenatal education since pregnancy to prepare a good management ofLBWinfants using KMC. We hope that furtherly, a cohort study might be done with more total samples, to find out the longterm outcome of the use of KMC .
Singh-Grewal, D., Macdessi, J. and Craig, J., 2005. Circumcision for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection in Boys: A systematic review of randomised trials and observational studies. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2005 ; 90:(8)853-8.
Prematurity associated with lower body weight and basal metabolic rate (BMR). One form of treatment of premature infants is music therapy as a form of stimulation in nursing children. This research aims to determine the differences within each treatment group the classic Mozart music therapy for basal metabolic rate (BMR). This research used quasi- experiment approach to pre and post test design without control group. Samples using consecutive sampling with a total of 14 respondents. The collection of data used observation sheet. Processing the data used a statistical test Friedman and repeated Anova. The results showed the value of p value 0.007 in the classic Mozart music therapy duration of 15 minutes (A), and the p value 0.818 in the classic Mozart music therapy duration of 30 minutes (B). The result U-Mann Whitney test got p> α =0,05. There is a significant influence on the group A, and there is no significant effect on the BMR group B. And there is no difference between groups A and B. The result U-mann Whitney test before therapy got p= value 0,848, after 3 days therapy got p value 0,277, and after 6 days therapy got p value 0,224. Need to increase the number of samples, conducting research at the same time, and conducted research with the number of men and women the same to be divided between the two treatment groups.