Innovation become important factor in accelerating the development of downstream palmoilindustry. As stated by Schumpeter (1938), there are five form of innovation, namely (1) new products ;(2) new methods of production;(3) new markets;(4) new sources of raw material;and (5) new organisations. In palmoilindustry, “new products” means the development of twenty three downstream palmoil products which is listed on Ministry ofIndustry Decree No. 13 Year 2010. The innovation activities in thepalmoilindustry is expected to generate new products that address the needs of consumers. The innovators can add special attributes on downstream productofpalmoil which can solve the customer problems. One ofthe main concern of consumers is the health issues ofpalmoil products and the innovators can try to solve this problem. This will affect the competitiveness of Indonesian palmoil products in the global market. Meanwhile, “new methods” is generated to increase the productivity and efficiency oftheindustry. With the increased performance oftheindustry, the costs will be smaller and it will boost up the competitive advantage oftheindustry. Furthermore, innovation in downstream products can bring new markets for domestic industry so that the value-added ofpalmoil products can be increased.
EFB is the main source ofpalm biomass that could be utilized by a power plants as this is more readily available and abundant. Many plantations use a small amount for their own internal use, but a large portion is put aside, either biodegrading into compost, or at times burnt to avoid space loss by storage. Therefore, there is a substantial amount of EFB left unused.Raw Shredded EFB can be used as solid fuel for steam boiler and many companies have started replacing their fossil fuel by using Shredded EFB for boiler combustion process; these companies experience cost saving for this change. Such an important amount of feedstock for power generation represents a very attractive potential and its utilization has to be fully developed. In the large and medium-scale mills the above-mentioned waste products can be put to economically useful purpose and could therefore be referred to as by- products rather than waste product (Owen, 2006).Presco PalmOilIndustry located in Ikpoba-Okha Edo state of Nigeria is one ofthe major agro-industries ofthe West African region. The company depends solely on the electricity generated from its power plant by using EFB as the source of fuel for the boiler combustion to produce steam and generate 1.5MW of electricity
Industrial development should consider the location of spatial entities and their interactions. As with other Agro-Industries, the spatial interaction from oilpalm plantations to palmoil mills is a complex problem. The complexity is caused by spread ofthe location ofpalm plantations and mills, current and potential transportation network, capacity constraint of each oil factory, perishable characteristics oftheproduct, limited of port and port capacity and supply fluctuation from plantations to the factories due to the plant age as well. This research will give solution which has not yet discussed in the earlier publications by providing an alignment of strategic decision with operational decisions using GIS technology and spatial analysis that can represent the system associated with the space effectively. Decision support model was designed to integrate GIS, spatial multicriteria decision model, shortest path algorithm, transportation model, and financial model as well to determine the optimal configuration of spatial entities in CPO industry. IKG2012 model which has built have the capability to accomodate supply fluctuation from plants to factories due to their productivity and the quality requirement related to distribution time from plants to the factories. Loading and unloading capacity, Port’s tank capacity and barge type are considered as constraints in this system. T he results of this study will be useful in developing the logistics infrastructure network for this commodity as well.. The selection of development strategy in CPO agroindustry and improvement of transportation infrastructures will improve the performance of National CPO industry significantly.
The objectives of this research are, a). To determine the quality and digestibility of various industrial byproducts ofpalm processing industry (palm kernel cake - PKC, palmoil sludge -POS and palm fiber - PF) based on in-vitro testing, b). To determine the effect of probiotic supplementation on the quality and digestibility byproducts ofpalmoil processing industry based on in-vitro testing, c). To study the effect of replacement of conventional rations with ration formulated from various oil processing industrial byproducts that have supplemented with probiotics on productivity of lactating dairy goats. The study consisted of three stages, namely Stage I (In-vitro testing I): The first stage aims to determine the best composition is formulated concentrate of various byproducts ofpalmoil processing industry. Treatment is a concentrated formulation with the composition oftheby products of different oil processing industry where treatment A consisted of 10% PKC, 30% POS and 10% PF, Treatment B consisted of 20% PKC, 20% POS and 10% PF. Treatment C consisted of 30 % PKC, 10% POS and 10 PF and Treatment D consisted of 40% PKC, 5% POS and 5 (%) PF. The design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The variables measured were rumen fluid characteristics (pH, NH3, and VFA and bacterial colonies and digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose). Research Stage II (In-vitro testing II): a stage II study aims to determine the best dosage of probiotics supplemetation on the formulation selected from Stage I. The research study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with probiotic supplementation dosage treatment is that, A). 75 g, B). 100 g, C). 125 g and D). 150 g. The variables measured were rumen fluid characteristics (pH, NH3, total colony and VFA) and digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose).
Thi s r esear ch showed t hat usage of t hr ee concent r at es f r om oi l pal m i ndust r y by pr oduct , agr i cul t ur e by pr oduct and convent i onal concent r at e at Sei Put i h sheep not si gni f i cant ef f ect on consumpt i on of f eeds, aver age dai l y gai n, f eed conver si on r at i on and sl aught er ed wei ght . The r esul t of t hi s r esear ch coul d be concl uded t hat t he t hr ee concent r at es f r om oi l pal m i ndust r y by pr oduct , agr i cul t ur e by pr oduct had si mi l ar ef f ect wi t h convent i onal concent r at e on Per f or mance and sl aught er ed wei ght of Sei Put i h sheep.
In chapter two, there are literature studies ofthe project. In this chapter, the appropriate data and information is gain from all the sources including from the internet website surfing, from people, journal, textbook, and so on. In this chapter there have a product review as a project references and to make sure this project made by self.
Biswal, B. 2005. Photosynthetic response of green plants to environmental stress : Inhibition of photosynthetic and adaptational mechanisms. In : Handbook of Photosynthesis. Taylor & Francis. USA. pp. 730-740. Bojović , B. and Marković , A. 2009. Correlation between nitrogen and chlorophyll
The processing ofpalmoil in the PKS utilizes energy resource derived from palmoil shell and fiber in which the process of fuel combustion shell and fiber in the boiler combustion chamber produces the combustion remaining results in the form ofpalmoil combustion fly ash which is quite plenty . Palmoil fly ash is usually left alone in the area ofoilpalm mills that certainly can cause environmental pollution and inconvenience to workers . Therefore, this study aims to look into the utilization of fly ash as a reinforcing material in the manufacture of metal matrix composite ( MMC ) with variations of pouring temperature ofpalmoil fly ash . Thepalmoil fly ash used in this study were drawn from PalmOil Factory ( PKS in the Deli Serdang, North Sumatra with a size 74 ) µm and before being used palmoil fly ash is heated to 850 o C in a furnace to remove moisture and fractions are still can be burned . In the manufacture of MMC variation of casting temperature are done from 685 o C , 710 o C , 735 o C , 760 o C , 785 o C fly ash mixing process is done at the time when aluminum was melted in a crusibel graphite followed bythe stirring for 5 minutes , addition of about 1.5 % Mg is done on the fluid to improve wettability . The research result shows that 82.64 BHN which is the highest hardness was obtained at the temperature of 760 o C and lowest casting temperature 685 o C . The impact test result also shows the highest impact strength occurs at the temperature of 760 o C cast . at each point ofthe tensile test, variations of temperature decrease . The increasement only occurs at the casting temperature of 735 o C . From the microstructure test result,it can be seen that thepalmoil fly ash exists between the aluminum matrix , but the distribution ofthe fly ash is not uniform in all ofthe parts and the higher the temperature the greater the Dendrite growth rate due to the longer freezingrate.
Based on a person’s last level of education, the percentage ofthe population aged five years and over who has graduated high school/equivalent is 29.1%, those with only primary school/equivalent education is 22.9%, middle school/equivalent is 18.2%, and those who did or have not finished primary school amounts to 17.8%. While the percentage of people with bachelor degrees or higher is higher than people with I-III diplomas. There are approximately 561,082 productive-aged people in this Ecosystem. The majority work in trading (17.6%), community services (12.6%), mining and quarrying (10.1%), construction (7.4%), and rice cultivation and companion crops (7.1%). Approximately 8.9% of workers work in the hospitality and restaurants, financial services and insurance, and educational services. In contrast to other Ecosystems, the plantation business in the Kutai landscape is low (3.6%). Based on the 2013 Agricultural Census, the area of plantation cultivated by smallholder farmers in the regencies/cities in the Kutai Ecosystem is not much, including the East Kutai Regency and Kutai Kartanegara Regency where most ofthe people work in agriculture and plantation sectors. Rubber and palm oils as a whole have the largest planting area in this Ecosystem, rubber reaching 38,942 hectares and palmoil reaching 38,938 hectares. Even so, the total area is far above the areas of land planted with coconut, cacao or pepper (Belantara, 2017).
This thesis presents the risk assessment ofPalmOilIndustry jobs using HIRARC method. The purpose for this study is to assess the risk involved in manufacturing ofPalmOil and provide good preventive measures to this industry in term of their employees safety. HIRARC is used to identify the hazard at the workstations. There are five workstation assessed in this study. This study started with identification of hazard by using survey and interview to 30 employees. The survey was identified the age, work experiences, comfort level ofthe task and health problem ofthe workers. There are four types of hazard identified from five stations which are ergonomic, physical, mechanical and psychosocial hazard. After the identifation of hazards were completed, the process proceeded with the risk assessment. The analyzing of severity and likelihood ofthe hazard was identified to classify the hazard in the high level or low level based on the rating scale. Further step after assessment, the preventive measures was determined to control the risk. To reduce the risk involved in five stations, the risk control was suggested. These are engineering control, administrative control and personal protection equipment (PPE). This assessment are useful to be implemented in this industry to reduce the injury or illness among the employees.
For people in rural areas, to date plantation business is an alternative to changing their household economic condition, because the public interest to plantation development is still high. Oilpalm agribusiness shows an increase in the welfare of rural farmers. Plantation development activities have led to the high mobility ofthe population. According Soemarwoto Otto (2001), population growth tends to lead to smaller land area, which leads to increasing population pressure on land. Furthermore, in shifting cultivation area, increased population density also increases population pressure on land due to the rising needs for food, which consequently shorten the grace period of land. Furthermore, Mustari and Mapangaja (2005) state that in the increasing density of population, the carrying capacity of land will eventually be exceeded. This indicates that land in an area can no longer support the population at a certain level of welfare.
The study is using a case study strategy because the research aims to find a phenomenon occurring in a PalmOilIndustry. Furthermore, PT SMART Tbk is chosen as a sample for the study, we will learn from them how the company manages their strategy in order to develop innovation. Moreover, the respondents ofthe research also include researchers from university and research center, who will explain the innovation climate in palmoilindustry based on their expertise. The results ofthe interview will be analyzed by a triangulation method to see the innovation condition in palmoilindustry comprehensively . Furthermore, the research will formulate a strategy to develop innovation in thepalmoilindustry based on the best practice in PT SMART Tbk (one ofthe biggest palmoil company). Finally, the research will suggest a collaboration management among stakeholders to accelerate the process of developing innovation in thepalmoilIndustry
This publication is solely for information only. It should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for the subscription, purchase or sale ofthe futures contracts mentioned herein. The publication has been prepared by Phillip Futures Sdn Bhd on the basis of publicly available information, internally developed data and other sources believed to be reliable. Whilst we have taken all reasonable care to ensure that the information contained in this publication is accurate and the opinions are fair and reasonable, it does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this publication. Accordingly, no warranty whatsoever is gi ven and no liability whatsoever is accepted for any loss arising whether directly or indirectly as a result of any person or grou p of persons acting on such information and advice. This publication was prepared without regard to your specific investment objec tives, financial situation or particular needs. Whilst views and advice given are in good faith, you should not regard the publication as a substitute for the exercise of your own judgement and should seek other professional advice for your specifi c investment needs or financial situations.
According to (Yusof Basiron, 2004) crude palmoil in Malaysia is over a century old. Introduced as an ornamental in 1871, theoilpalm was commercially exploited as an oil crop only from 1911 when the first oilpalm estate was established. Oilpalm or Elaeis guineensis , to the Palmae family, is the most productive oil production plant in the world. Oilpalm contains high nutrient which mainly depends on the yield potential determined bythe genetic make-up of planting material and yield limit set by climatic factor such as water, effective sunshine and temperature (Praven Fatemeh Rupani, 2010). However, the production generates largest amount of waste in form theoil extraction process such as mesocarp, fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palmoil mill effluent (POME).
PT Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology (SMART) Tbk is established in 1962 and listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 1992. The company‟s primary activities r ange from cultivating and harvesting oilpalm trees, processing fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into Crude PalmOil(CPO) and Palm Kernel. The company also refines CPO into industrial and consumer products such as margarine, cooking oil and shortening. The Company cultivates 138,900 hectares ofoilpalm plantations in Indonesia, including plasma. Our CPO is processed further into value-added bulk, industrial and branded products through our own refineries, with a total capacity of 2.3 million tonnes per annum. SMART also distributes markets and exports palm-based consumer products. Besides bulk and industrial oil, SMART‟s refined products are also marketed under several brands, such as Filma and Kunci Mas (PT Smart Tbk 2014)
Production of ethanolisis productofPalm Kernel Oil (PKO) treatment with the addition of organic acids and different heating times have conducted. Effects of organic acids used and time of heating on characteristics of PKO ethanolisis product were studied. The organic acids used are succinic acid 40 % (w/v) and lactic acid 40 % (w/v). Heating time consists of 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The pH value ofthe reaction products ranged from 4,88 (± 0,01) to 5,27 (± 0,02). The best antimicrobial activity ofproduct reaction is by addition of succinic acid 40% (w/v) and heating for 30 minutes with zone of inhibitions (d, mm) against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, mixed cultures of natural microbial and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are 20,88 (± 0,50) mm, 25,64 (± 0,81) mm, 6,46 (± 0,24) mm, and 8,84 (± 0,08) mm, respectively. The average value ofthe power increase emulsion stability in coconut milk (water in oil, w/o) ranged from 5,20 (± 0,65) % to 20,00 (± 2,55) %.
12:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 2 wt.% catalysts were used to carry out the transesterification reaction through reflux method. 19.8 mL methanol was mixed with 0.8 g CaO/h-ZSM-5 in a round-bottom flask. 40 g preheated oil at 65 °C was added into the flask and the flask was connected with a condenser. The flask was placed in a water bath with a temperature of 65 °C and stirred for 2 h. The catalyst was removed from theproduct using centrifuge at 6000 rpm for 30 min. In order to separate biodiesel and glycerol completely, the reaction product was moved to the separating funnel and kept overnight. The biodiesel (top layer) was washed using warm distilled water to eliminate remaining glycerol. Finally, remaining water and methanol was eliminated by evaporating for 2 h at 105 °C to obtain high purity of biodiesel. The reaction was optimized with reaction time, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature.
This publication is solely for information only. It should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for the subscription,purchase or sale ofthe futures contracts mentioned herein. The publication has been prepared by Phillip Futures Sdn Bhd on the basis of publicly available information, internally developed data and other sources believed to be reliable. Whilst we have taken all reasonable care to ensure that the information contained in this publication is accurate and the opinions are fair and reasonable, it does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this publication. Accordingly, no warranty whatsoever is given and no liability whatsoever is accepted for any loss arising whether directly or indirectly as a result of any person or group of persons acting on such information and advice. This publication was prepared without regard to your specific investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs. Whilst views and advice given are in good faith, you should not regard the publication as a substitute for the exercise of your own judgement and should seek other professional advice for your specific investment needs or financial situations.
The research was carried out in OilPalm Plantation in Ngabang, Landak Distric, West Kalimantan in May 2008. Composite soil samples were taken from the soils, in which theoil palms indicated the nutrient disorders. The aims ofthe research were to study the soil fertility and nutrient management of Spodosols for oilpalm crops. The results indicated that spodic horizons in theoilpalm plantation varied between 30 and 70 cm. Besides spodic horizons, the albic horizon, the horizon that can’t be penetrated bythe crops root, was also found. The texture is sandy with the sand content about 69-98 %. The soil has acidic properties, C organic varied from low to high, low phosphate, potassium, magnesium and Cation Exchange Capacity. In contrast, in the spodic horizon, the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and CEC were higher, as well exchangeable Aluminum. There was close relationship between soil organic carbon and nitrogen and CEC in the soil. It is advice not to use spodosols for food crop and estate crops. The application of slow release fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers is highly input when oilpalm planted on the Spodosol.