There are many children who as victims of America invasion that live in the refugee camp (Kurdistan village) such as Soran (satellite), henkov, Agrin, and Rega. They have touched different tragedy as victim of the war. Satellite is familiar name of Soran, it because of his job repaired a antenna. He is an American boy that lives in refugee camps with other victims of Iraq war. Henkov is handicapped boy who lose his hands because of weapon in the war. Agrin, the little girl, 12 years old lose her parents and at the same time she experiences other cruel tragedy, she trapped by the solider in the war.
The problem of the study is to reveal how the children as victims of war is reflected in Bahman Ghobadi’s Turtles Can Fly Movie . The objectives of the study are to analyze the structural elements of the movie and to analyze the movie based on the sociological perspective.
To speculate on the magnitude of this long-run impact, we use the estimated coef- ficients from the Alderman, Hoddinott, and Kinsey (2006) paper on Zimbabwe that links child health and schooling and the Appleton (2001) paper on Uganda that cal- culates individual returns to primary education combined with our measurements of the size of the negative war impact on Burundian children’s health. A Burundi child exposed to the conflict for the average duration will have a 0.314 standard deviation lower height for age z-score due to a level effect and an additional decrease of 0.691 standard deviations due to an exposure duration effect. Using the estimates from the Zimbabwe paper (Alderman, Hoddinott, and Kinsey 2006), this total one standard deviation reduction in height effect will translate into 0.678 fewer grades completed and an increase of 4.8 months in the age at which children start school. Using the individual returns to primary education based on data from Uganda (Appleton 2001), this foregone schooling due to the Burundi civil war will translate into a 20.5 percent reduction in expected adult wages. Following the end of conflict, im- proved child health should be a tangible peace dividend, although there will still be a generation of children who were exposed to the conflict and it is likely that the civil war in Burundi (and civil wars in general) will continue to have adverse effects for these children long after the fighting ends.
During sensorimotor development, the distinction between exploration and play is rather difficult to make. However, observations of infants suggests that by 18 months play accounts for more of the child’s inter- actions with the environment than does exploration (Belsky & Most, 1981). By the preschool years, the distinction between exploration and play is clearer. In toddlers, exploration precedes play; children explore an object, or try out its properties, before they play with it. In Chapter 1 we briefly described a classic experiment by Hutt that illustrated this. Hutt (1966) used a novel object to see what behavior it elicited in young children, and how this changed with repeated exposure. The main participants were 30 nursery-school children, aged 3–5 years. Each child had eight 10-minute sessions in a room in the nursery school. The first two sessions were for familiarization, and five toys were provided. For the ensuing six experimental sessions a novel toy was also available. This was a red metal box with a lever, whose movements could be registered on counters and could result in a buzzer sounding and a bell ringing (see Figure 7.3). The complexity of the novel object was varied by having four conditions: from “no sound or vision” (bell and buzzer switched off, counters covered up), through “vision only” and “sound only,” to “both sound and vision” available. Hutt measured how much lever manipulation had taken place (from the counter readings) and the amount of time spent exploring the novel object (visually or tactually), from observations of the children.
As stated in the introduction to the research, there are different and sometimes controversial views on the impact of preschool experience. In general, the results of this study are consistent with the idea of Alcaniand et al. (1991, cited by Lerrancius, 1996), which should not detract from childrenand only because the pre-school experience has a positive effect on their growth. These centers sent. However, the results of a research can not be questioned by the preschool educational system, but it is necessary to draw conclusions based on detailed research (which is of a scientific methodology and, more importantly, to come out of a definite theory). Then, on the basis of the repetition of these studies, he developed appropriate guidelines or revised educational content.
well. In the end, the political objective of using hard power and soft power as described above is to create disintegration in a country conducted by major powers through third parties (originating from within the target country). The Dutch colonials used to exert the divide et impera politic (bring the kingdoms into conflict) with their motive of gold, gospel, and glory that eventually means to control the natural resources of the archipelago which at that time was fascinating the international economy. The writers think that in addition to the control of natural resources, nowadays it is also competition of large countries in seizing the market. Major countries use the term divide and rule (pitting to govern).
For English teachers, this fact brings both positive and negative effects for children. One of the positive effects is the availability of abundant learning resources that can be used by both teachers and students. They are of course interesting for children since they are presented in multimedia forms. Nemtchinova (2007: 180) states that an important benefit of using technology as an instructional tool is the medium’s potential to motivate childrenand to produce a positive attitude toward learning. She further states that another advantage of technology for language learners is authenticity, which is essential for providing language learning experiences.
. . . There is no present and no future for young Jews. They escape for their lives. They get away by dif- ferent methods: on foot, by auto, train, carts and every other kind of transport. The border is open. The Sovi- ets do nothing to prevent it. The occupying forces have no fixed system. You can never know what is forbid- den and what is allowed. In a word—one day they are lenient and one day severe. . . . At the beginning of the Occupation the border was open . . . the roads were beset with dangers. According to the “Regula- tions” persons crossing the border could take only 20 zloty 1 with them. . . . Devices were therefore thought
With the on-line and acceptance of A11’s production management system, the operational work is becoming increasingly critical to managing distributed system. How to ensure system version update work fast, stable and efficient, become an urgent problem to be solved. We design and implement ConfigTool which is a auto-configuration and deployment tool based on XML metadata implemented by Java. ConfigTool realizes the automated processes of decompression, modification, compression and deployment of packages. In additon, we also study and optimize the file compression algotithm which is used in ConfigTool. Through ConfigTool, operational work can become simple and improving work efficiency.
According to Arens (2002) in the U.S. 49 percent of viewers believe television is the most authoritative advertising source, compared to only 24 percent for newspapers, 10 percent for magazines, and 11 percent for radio. Television was also rated as the most influential, persuasive, and exciting media (Arens, 2002).
This stone carving depicts Darius I, right, right, also known as Darius the Great, and his son and also known as Darius the Great, and his son and successor Xerxes I. Darius I ruled the Persian Empire from 522 to 486 bc. He secured the outer successor Xerxes I. Darius I ruled the Persian Empire from 522 to 486 bc. He secured the outer borders of the empire and reformed its internal organization, built highways, encouraged
What about our own country? In our own country was not much different. Care for children affairs, care for children, and all other domestic affairs has moved into the hands of the maid. Their parents are now busy working for money. At that moment, the child tends to be wasted, and become victims. This is kind of parenting mistakes that often occur in this country. Consequently child relationships more strained, they are closer to others rather than their own parents. In fact, if we look further, in the early days of growth, more children need affection and closeness with their parents.
Street children exist mostly in big cities which provide more occupations. West (2003) states, “Street children are most evident in large cities, where they work in occupations that bring them into contact with the public, both the local population and foreign tourists” (p.10). Vietnamese street children are very visible in the two main cities of Vietnam. The cities are Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi since those cities give more opportunities in providing job. Hong and Ohno (2005) describe, “Vibrant cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City generate new opportunities and demands for jobs like house cleaning, shoe shining, and selling petty goods to residents and foreign tourists which urban people are unwilling to perform” (p.3). Since the setting of the novel is in Ho Chi Minh City, the writer focuses on some places in Ho Chi Minh City mentioned in the novel.
There are some factors that can drive a child to commit a crime, such as weakness of education and controlling, also prompt nurturing from the parents. Putting moral lesson in every stage of child’s education is one of many ways to minimize the number of criminality. The writer said, organizing a nation behavior is not sufficient to be done only in formal education, but also have to done in non-formal education, such as in family. Family, especially parents are the most important role on child’s growth. Before going to be parents, they supposed to learn about parenting. So that when they have children they know how to fulfil the necessary of childrenand also the rights of them. According to CRC (Convention on The Rights of The Child), parents have a big responsibility of their children, as stated in articles number 5 “Governments should respect the rights and responsibilities of families to direct and guide their children so that, as they grow, they learn to use their rights properly. Helping children to understand their rights does not mean pushing them to make choices with consequences that they are too young to handle. Article 5 encourages parents to deal with rights issues "in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child". The Convention does not take responsibility for children away from their parents and give more authority to governments. It does place on governments the responsibility to protect and assist families in fulfilling their essential role as nurturers of children.
These fi ndings suggest that SPD and ASD children do not gen- erally have more frequent birth injuries or illnesses than expected for typical peers. However, umbilical cord insults and jaundice are areas that may refl ect particular concern and should be examined further. In addition, incidence of colic varies greatly and has been reported between 5–28% (Lucassen et al., 2001). Both the SPD and ASD/SPD groups fell in that range but at the high end of normal and although within the range of normal, research indicates that there is a high incidence of SPD associated with colic and fussiness (DeSantis et al., 2007), thus this may be another area that warrants further investigation. Given the high incidence of SPD and ASD suspected in the population, the incidence of some of these events may not need to be signifi cantly higher for these groups than in the typical population to cause trauma to the developing nerv- ous system. Of the birth-related injuries and illnesses, incidence of jaundice was the most remarkably different statistic in comparison with a normative sample. Jaundice has been previously reported to be a potential causal factor in motor coordination problems in numerous studies (Johnston et al., 1987; Hoare, 1991, unpublished; Michelsson and Lindahl, 1993). In a study examining the effects of jaundice in 12 US medical centers, Newman and Klebanoff (1993) indicated that only minor motor abnormalities resulted. However, these minor motor problems are consistent with the soft neurologi- cal signs seen in children with DCD and are consistent with the types of coordination and praxis problems commonly found with SPD and ASD. Although jaundice may not result in cerebral palsy or other signs of hard neurological damage, the resultant dyspraxia that is common to both groups may have signifi cant functional implications (Cermak and Larkin, 2002). In addition, a recent study has proposed that motor planning and praxis problems may be a defi ning feature of ASD (Dziuk et al., 2007).
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Abstract: One of the problems in the development of a child is autism. Children with autism have limitations in social interaction and communication. There are differences in parenting and food consumption between normal and autistic children that may lead to differences in caries activity. The research was conducted in order to obtain the difference of index def-t and DMF -T between children with autism and normal children. This study was performed as a cross-sectional analytical research, using equality of two proportions and Mann-Whitney to analyze the differences of index def-t and DMF -T index children with autism and normal children. The research sample consisted of 23 children with autism of Yayasan Our Dream, Yayasan Pelita Hafizh and SLB Prananda and 23 normal children of MI Cikapayang. The results of this research showed that the index def-t of children with autism was 1.21 and normal children was 3.69. The DMF -T index of children with autism was 1.56, while the normal children were 2.26. The conclusion of this research was that there was no significant difference in def-t index in children with autism and normal children except for the "e" (indicated for extraction) and there was a significant difference in DMF -T index between children with autism and normal children.
governments’ plans for West Germany by attempting to cut those governments off from their sectors in Berlin through a land blockade. In the first direct military confrontation between the USSR and the Western powers, the Western governments organized a massive airlift of supplies to West Berlin, circumventing the Soviet blockade.
Although the link between SES and children’s social and emotional well-being is not as consistent as the link with cognitive attainment, there is substantial evidence that low-SES children more often manifest symptoms of psychiatric disturbance and maladaptive social functioning than children from more affluent circumstances (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997, McLeod and Shanahan (1993), Starfield (1989). It is not easy to indicate the precise relation between SES and socioemotional problems in children. It is often difficult to identify mental illness in young children, owing to the various standards and methods used to assess mental illness. For very young children, there is little evidence of a relation between SES and socioemotional well-being (Earls, 1980). However, the relation emerges in early childhood and becomes reasonably consistent (especially for externalizing problems) in middle childhood (McLeod and Shanahan, 1993). Among adolescents, low SES is often associated with poor adaptive functioning, an increased likelihood of depression, and delinquent behaviour (McLoyd 1997). Simons, Johnson, Conger, and Lorenz (1997), however, did not find a relation between poverty and adolescent problems.