Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in Indonesia. Lowering cholesterollevel is currently one of the most efficient and effective way to prevent or reduce the risk of CHD and other cardiovascular disease (CVDs). One of the compounds that have the cholesterol-lowering ability is plant sterols. To further research about plant sterol efficacy for health and its application as functional food ingredient in Indonesia, an up-to-date data about plant sterols dietary intake is required. The study was conducted with a cross sectional design to estimates the plant sterols (PS) intake and its relationship with total blood cholesterollevel in Bogor rural area. Data of plant sterols level in food obtained by secondary data and calculation of recipe. Based on the results, the level of plant sterols intake of total respondent was averagely 223.80 mg/day with no statistical difference between male and female intake (t(98) = - .036, p > 0.05). The plant sterols intake in all respondents was mostly contributed by cereals and cereals product (37.46%), followed by legumes and legume products (24.41%). According to Pearson correlation test, there was no association between daily intake of plant sterols and total blood cholesterol (P > 0.05), which mean that the intake level not yet have visible effect in lowering or raising total blood cholesterol levels in respondents with health nutritional status, but presumed maintain normal blood cholesterol levels in respondents.
Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a signiicant reduction in LDL cholesterollevel in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24%) with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterollevel among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21%) with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterollevel between the two groups did not show any signiicant difference. Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS) for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterollevel in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9)
Overweight incidence in worldwide is tend to increase, including in Indonesia. It happens because change of lifestyle of Indonesian people. Overweight is influenced by consumption factor, sedentary life, genetic and social determinant such as family economy. Overweight that can lead to obesity could create diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and cancer. Lots of medications for obesity with hypercholesterolemia have been found, but if this condition is treated just in curative side, it still could create serious health problems. One of the effort that we can do is modify consumption factors as risk factor with increase fibrous food. Dietary fiber is a form of complex carbohydrate which commonly get from plants. In common, dietary fiber, like lignin, inulin and B-glucan can help to lower blood cholesterollevel by ensnare the fat in intestine and bind bile acids and increase the excretion of bile acids to stool.
Cholesterol is an essential structural of component that makes up the cell membrane and external layer of plasma lipoproteins. This research was conducted to find out the influence of Methanolic Extract of Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl) Dans (MESA) against female wistar rats cholesterol levels (Rattus norvegicus) for 28 days (exposure to subchronic). This research is experiment that is True Experimental Design with Complete Random Design. MESA presented in rats 5 times in 1 week for 28 days, the animals try to mice used is rat females totalled 20 rats and divided into 4 groups. First, control group and second a treatment group with 3 different doses of 250 mg/KgBW, 500 mg/KgBW, and 1000 mg/KgBW. The inspection is carried out at regular intervals and at the end of the treatment period, all rats were sacrificed to do an examination of total cholesterol in serum of rats. Data analysis using SPSS 17.0 Statistics examination and results of average is significant differences with one-way analysis of variance. MESA does not have an effect on cholesterol levels of female rats through Clinical Biochemistry test of total cholesterol (p > 0.05). Comparison between treatment groups and groups who were denied treatment (not being MESA) is not real so that different stated MESA with a dose of 250 mg/KgBW, 500 mg/KgBW, and 1000 mg/KgBW no effect on cholesterol levels.
In an ex vivo study on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, curcumin, at 5- 20 μ M, prevented differentiation and caused apoptosis of the adipocytes. In the same report, supplementing high- fat diet mice with 500 mg/kg of curcumin for 12 weeks resulted to lower body weight gain, adipocyte and microvessel growth in adipose tissue. There was also a notable to increase the fatty acid oxidation. 27,33,34 The effect of anti-obesity turmeric were also studied in mouse model. The result significantly lower the body weight gain and retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights compared to the control group. Additionally, total cholesterol and TG levels in serum and liver were significantly decreased when compared to those of the control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein- cholesterollevel was significantly increased. 35 Our ex vivo study suggests that C. longa L. extract has potent anti-obesity effects by inhibit the cholesterol and TG that led adipogenesis in HepG2 cells better than curcumin. However, in vivo test in an animal model still needed to confirm the anti-obesity activity of the C. longa extract. The further mode of action test, preclinical and clinical studies should be pursued before pharmaceutical applications.
Before the introduction of insulin therapy, the NIDDM patients, compared to normolipidaemic healthy control subjects, presented a significantly re- duced HDL cholesterollevel, a low apoA-I plasma concentration (although the difference was not statisti- cally significant) and both an increased apoA-I frac- tional catabolic rate and an increased production rate. These results confirm those previously reported [5,6]. On the contrary, we observed no major modifications of apoA-II metabolism in NIDDM, since HDL apoA- II concentration, fractional catabolic rate and produc- tion rates were not significantly different in NIDDM patients and control subjects. To our knowledge, apoA- II metabolism has never been studied in NIDDM, but our results are similar to those observed in glucose intolerant subjects, who presented an accelerated HDL apoA-I turn-over rate, without modification of HDL apoA-II metabolic parameters .
Cholesterol levels in the blood can have varied suggestions. If the LDL levels in the body are high, it will harm our body, especially the cholesterol blockage of blood vessels. The compilation of the WHO Global status report on non-communicable diseases in 2008 showed that the prevalence of risk factors of hypercholesterolemia in Indonesia women was higher at 37.2% compared to men ’s, which was only 32.8%. There are many ways to minimize the danger of cholesterol, one of them is by eating vegetables, herbs or wild plants that are efficacious in lowering cholesterol levels in the body. One of the wild plants, which have the potential to lower cholesterollevel, is tempuyung leaves (Sonchus arvensis). Based on the studies that had been conducted before, tempuyung leaves had the benefit to lower uric acid levels in rats, dissolve calcium oxalate. Tempuyung leaves contain flavonoid amounted to 0.1044% that can act to reduce LDL in the body. This study was an experimental study (true experimental research), which aimed to determine whether tempuyung leaf (Sonchus arvensis) decoction is effective in lowering the total cholesterol levels in male rats. The samples used were four white rats (Rattus novergicus), rat as the negative control treatment has absorbance value of 0.058 with total cholesterollevel of 59.183 mg/100g. Rat as the positive control treatment has absorbance value of 0.090 with total cholesterollevel of 91.836 mg/100g. The decoction of tempuyung leaves concentration of 20% has absorbance value of 0.122 with total cholesterol of 183.163 mg /100 g. The decoction tempuyung concentration of 40% has absorbance value of 0.225 with total cholesterollevel of 340.414 mg /100 g. The results of this study led to a conclusion that the provision of various concentrations of decoction of tempuyung leaves could not lower the cholesterollevel in rats.
An anti atherosclerotic effect and liver toxicity of an ethanolic extract of & ' ( ( (Scheff.) Boerl fruit on Japanese Quail has been evaluated. Atherosclerosis was induced by treated the Japanese quail with atherogenic cocktail (a mixture of 5% cholesterol, 30 % coconut oil, 0.1% propylthiourasil, 2% chicken bile juice and water until 100 ml),1ml/100g BW orally once a day everyday for two months. Fife groups of animal (5 quail each, ± 3 month, 80 100 grams of body weight) were used. Ethanolic extract of & ' ( ( fruit was given orally to the animals once a day half an hour before cocktail, everyday for two months at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg to three groups, while a group of negative control and a group of positive control were used as comparison. Cholesterollevel, the thickness of the aorta and coronary arterial walls, percentage of the vascular lumen width, the endotelial and vascular smooth muscle cells damage, liver ratio and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity were measured. Results show that the cholesterollevel of Japanese quail was tend to decrease (p<0.1) under the influence of & ' ( ( fruit extract. The thickness of aorta and coronary arterial walls and the percentage of their widths were significantly improved (p<0.05), the endotelial and vascular smooth muscle cells damage of coronary artery was significantly reduced (p<0.05) while of the aorta was not reduced significantly (p>0,1) as compared to those on positive control animals. On the other sides, the liver ratio and SGPT activity of treated animals were higher as compared to those in controls (p<0.05). These data indicated that the ethanolic extract of & '
High cholesterollevel will increase risk of coronary heart disease, and physical activity is one way to overcome fatty excess. Exercise intensity also can influence the lipid profile. More intensity of exercise, the possibility to decrease cholesterollevel will be greater. The aim of this study was to determine effect of decreasing total blood cholesterollevel as a responce to aerobic exercise. This research was an experimental research by one group pretest dan posttest design. Population in this study was all aerobic participants in Sonia Fitness Center Bandar Lampung. There was 32 samples taken from the population with purposive sampling technique. The results showed the mean cholesterollevel before aerobic exercise was 226,84 ± 40,085 mg/dl, and after aerobic exercise was 221,56 ± 39,159 mg/dl.This suggests that there was significant difference between total cholesterol before and after aerobic exercise (p-value = 0,009).
History of herbs is as long as the human story, since the earliest times, people uses these plants. War has been fighting tto conquer the land because of the plant, even if today we continue to rely on many of our new alien species pharmaceuticals and chemicals (Richmond and Mackley, 2000). Now a days many countries tended to minimize or ban the chemical components for their harmful side effects on both animals and human. So, it is essential to use natural herbs. In China medicinal herbs have been used for growth of broilers (Sajid et al., 2015). In addition, many plants have natural properties, e.g., tonics, antiparasitic, anti-fungial, stimulant, carminative antiseptic, anti-bacterial and anti-microbial (Soliman et al., 1995). Edible plants, herbs, and Vegetable spices are suggested as non-traditional growth promoters or feed additive in diets to increase the growth of broiler, feed conversion efficiency (FCR) and decrease the feed cost (Hassan et al., 2004). In broiler diets useful herbal plants supplemented as growth promoters and detected a noticeable development in their body weight, feed conversion and mortality percentage (Sabra and Mehta, 1990). Herbs and herbal products positively influence the growth performance (Guo et al., 2000). Mottaghitalab (2000) reported that garlic may be used as a natural herbal growth promoter for broilers, without any side effect, neither for chicken performance nor for consumers. Wezyk et al. (2000) reported that replacing antibiotic growth promoters with herbs resultantly decrease the body weight, increased feed conversion ratio. The results of some experiments with broiler chickens indicate that herb supplements have a positive effect on the growth performance and the colour of skin (Zglobica et al. 1994). Feeding dietary garlic powder for 21 days significantly reduce plasma cholesterollevel of broiler chicken, without altering the growth performance of the broiler chickens or the feed efficiency (Konjufca et al. 1997).