"Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes"

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The origin of eukaryotes: the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

The origin of eukaryotes: the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotes have long been thought to have arisen by evolving a nucleus, endomembrane, and cytoskeleton. In contrast, it was recently proposed that the ¢rst complex cells, which were actually proto-eukaryotes, arose simultaneously with the acquisition of mitochondria. This so-called symbiotic association hypothesis states that eukaryotes emerged when some ancient anaerobic archaebacteria (hosts) engulfed respiring a - proteobacteria (symbionts), which evolved into the ¢rst energy-producing organelles. Therefore, the intra- cellular compartmentalization of the energy-converting metabolism that was bound originally to the plasma membrane appears to be the key innovation towards eukaryotic genome and cellular organization. The novel energy metabolism made it possible for the nucleotide synthetic apparatus of cells to be no longer limited by subsaturation with substrates and catalytic components. As a consequence, a considerable increase has occurred in the size and complexity of eukaryotic genomes, providing the genetic basis for most of the further evolutionary changes in cellular complexity. On the other hand, the active uptake of exogenous DNA, which is general in bacteria, was no longer essential in the genome organization of eukar- yotes. The mitochondrion-driven scenario for the ¢rst eukaryotes explains the chimera-like composition of eukaryotic genomes as well as the metabolic and cellular organization of eukaryotes.
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T he idea that the eukaryotic cell is actually a colony of microbes was first suggested in the

T he idea that the eukaryotic cell is actually a colony of microbes was first suggested in the

A n important distinctive element of the SET is the overall chronology of symbiotic acquisitions in the origin of the eukaryotic cell. In order to fully understand the theory’s implications for the classification of all life forms, a brief summary of the current interpretation of endosymbiotic events is necessary. According to the theory, eukaryotes evolved when archaeal and eubacterial cells merged in anaerobic symbiosis. The archaeal cell provided the cytoplasm while the eubacterial cell (a spirochete) allowed for mobility and, eventually, mitosis. Some of these anaerobic cells then incorporated oxygen-respiring eubacteria (similar to Daptobacter or Bdellovibrio) to become mitochondria-containing aerobes from which most protoctists, animals, and fungi evolved. Finally, some of these aerobes went on to incorporate photosynthesizing cyanobacteria to become chloroplast- containing algae and plants. The divisions or domains implied by this description (Archaea, (true)Bacteria, and Eukarya) are consistent with the widely acknowledged classification system described by Olsen, Woese, and Overbeek (1994).
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Biology Campbell & Reece 9th Edition A&P version Test Bank chapter06

Biology Campbell & Reece 9th Edition A&P version Test Bank chapter06

This chapter introduces the topics of microscopy and cell fractionation, followed by a review of the cell and the major organelles and structures of eukaryotic cells. A challenge with this chapter is to keep this data from simply being a list of parts. In addition to the structure and function of individual organelles, questions probe student understanding of the cell as a dynamic, interconnected system: the flow of membrane and proteins in the endomembrane system to the plasma membrane; the flow of information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; and the connection between the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular matrix. An evolutionary perspective goes beyond structural distinctions between prokaryotes and eukaryotes to examine theories concerning the evolutionary origins of eukaryotes and key eukaryotic cell structures.
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A Method to Bridge the Gap between Breadth and Depth in IS Narrative Analysis

A Method to Bridge the Gap between Breadth and Depth in IS Narrative Analysis

In Table 1 the shading of each stage indicates its primary function in developing breadth or depth in the analysis (dark shading = wetness, no shading = dryness, and light shading = wetness and dryness). So, Stage 1 (the grounded theory technique of Open Coding) is primarily concerned with analyzing the text and breaking it down into units of analysis (concepts) that are embedded within (or “grounded” in) the narrative itself. This is a conscious attempt to delay the imposition of narrative structure in order that more contextual richness can be captured and retained. So, we denote Stage 1 as primarily wet and shade it accordingly. Stage 2 (Story Decomposition), on the other hand, is concerned with organizing these concepts into a story structure and is primarily dry. Stage 3 (Axial Coding) and Stage 4 (Selective Coding) are grounded theory techniques used to recover some of the wetness that has been lost from the source narrative as a result of the imposition of narrative structure. However, whereas Stage 3 (Axial coding) is primarily wet (because it develops the properties of concepts), Stage 4 (Selective Coding) adds both depth and breadth through the development of a single, explanatory, or core concept.
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DESIGN CONCEPT OF WARM INTERIOR SPACE

DESIGN CONCEPT OF WARM INTERIOR SPACE

Design needs in residential homes have its own uniqueness compared with interior design that functioned as a commercial or other residential dwelling. Residential space is a place where a person or group of people spend personal time and time with family members, so the convenience is the top priorities. However, vision of comfortness is different between one person and another, so here a designer demanded must have ability to translate the desire of the house owner and apply into interior work in accordance with the character and needs of the client. Bridge the gap between the needs and desires of the client with a blend of furniture and materials used in the interior will be affected the budget, so that expertise in processing interior with some limitations also become a designer challenge.
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 J00742

J00742

is more deeply in understanding and critic on the process and give the understanding about something unique and different. The main objective from the non-positivism paradigm is to approach the exits reality (Hopper & Powell, 1985). The non-positivism paradigm is a research that is conducted in a certain setting in the real life with the purpose to investigate and understand the phenomenon: what happened, why is it happened, and how is it happened. So, the non-positivism paradigm is based on the concept of “going exploring” that involved in-depth and case-oriented study on some cases or single case (Finlay, 2006). On the other hand, the non-positivism paradigm actually will approach the accounting researchers and the accounting practices as the main purpose of the non-positivism paradigm is to make an approach to the available reality (Hopper & Powell, 1985). In fact, the non-positivism paradigm proposes the detail insight of an accounting practice which is unavailable in the literature (Richardson, 2012). Therefore, the large number of researches based on the non-positivism paradigm will eliminate the accounting researchers’ failure in restoring the existing practices as well as in the behavioral accounting research.There are some reasons proposed by Chariri (2009) why the non-positivism paradigm needs to be done, especially those which are related to the behavioral accounting research. Firstly, the study field is not a “free from value” discipline. It means that the business and management activities are highly related to the values, norms, culture, and certain behavior occur in a business environment. If the environment is different, the style and approach used can be different. This is caused by the fact that management/business is a socially constructed reality which is formed by individual interaction and its individual; it is a human creation practice; it is a symbolic discourse which is formed by its individual and it is the result of human creativity. Secondly, not all values, behavior and interaction between social actors and their environment can be quantified. This is caused by someone’s perception about something is depends heavily on the values, vulture, experience and so forth, which are carried by the concerned individual.Based on the above explanation, it is clearly see that the non- positivism paradigm approaches more on the behavioral accounting research. The use of non-positivism paradigm in behavioral accounting research is hoped to bridge the wide gap between behavioral accounting research and accounting practices.
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Abstract Jaslin Ikhsan The Effect Of Aspartic Acid On The Binding Of

Abstract Jaslin Ikhsan The Effect Of Aspartic Acid On The Binding Of

An organic ligand may enhance the adsorption of metal ions if it forms a surface complex that carries a negative charge, and acts as a bridge between the metal ion and the surface [2,3]; if soluble metal–ligand complexes adsorb to hydrous solids through specific chemical bonds [4]; if pos- itively charged metal–ligand complexes are taken up at the surface via ion exchange [5]; or if anionic ligands accumu- late in the double layer of a positively charged particle, thus reducing the coulombic repulsion between the surface and the metal ions [4]. On the other hand, organic ligands may
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Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 08832320903449535

Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 08832320903449535

Note. Control metrics were the following: Control Metric I = I can work effectively in teams; Control Metric II = Working on group projects is more rewarding than working on individual projects. Indirect metrics were the following. Indirect Metric I = To increase mastery of global and domestic management concepts and issues, and help stu- dents bridge the gap between management theory and the realities of successful performance in contemporary organizations; Indirect Met- ric II = To develop of managerial, social, and political skills; oral and written communication skills; and a professional business demeanor (including dress, professional manners, and bearing); Indirect Metric III = To enhance of students’ skills and knowledge in locating critical management information, conducting research, and identifying present issues and trends that affect management and business; Indirect Metric IV = Via a service learning project, to improve in students’ ability to identify key business problems, identify ethical issues, define and eval- uate feasible solutions, pick a best solution, and recommend a plan of implementation. For Control Metric II, R 2 = .097. For Indirect Metric
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Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 356.full

Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 356.full

Different explanations have been proposed for this state of affairs (for instance, Troske 1999, Bayard and Troske 1999). One category of explanations is based on the idea that workers differ in dimensions that are hard to measure. Firms employing bet- ter workers pay higher wages because their workers are more productive. This, by itself, does not explain why large firms pay more. To account for this, it is possible to assume, as does Stiglitz (1987), that large firms need better workers and consequently screen job applicants and new workers more thoroughly. While the notion that the size-wage differential is driven by unobserved heterogeneity may be intuitively appealing, it does not appear to be fully supported by the empirical evidence. In recent years a number of data sets have become available that enable researchers to estimate the size-wage effect while controlling for unmeasured heterogeneity in the form of individual fixed effects. Spanning a wide range of countries, Brown and Medoff (1989), Criscuolo (2000), Arai (2003), and Söderbom, Teal, and Wambugu (2005) all reject the hypothesis that the size-wage effect can be attributed solely to the omission of individual fixed effects. 1 These studies also indicate that the magnitude of the bias
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7 Soal Ujian Sekolah (US) SD   MI Bahasa Inggris + Kunci Jawaban - Kumpulin Soal uas sd   B Inggris

7 Soal Ujian Sekolah (US) SD MI Bahasa Inggris + Kunci Jawaban - Kumpulin Soal uas sd B Inggris

12. Indonesia has two seasons. They are, rainy season and dry season. rainy season start from October to March. In rainy season, rain falls almost everyday. People usually bring umbrella and raincoat to go anywhere. Dry season start from April to September. In dry season the sun shines very brightly. People usually wear t-shirt, sun glasses and cap. The weather is always hot and dry. According to the text above ,the sentences bellow are true except …

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CAN opening SBSTA Intervention Cancun final final

CAN opening SBSTA Intervention Cancun final final

Observed impacts and future risks posed by global warming are more serious than believed even a few years ago. Further knowledge on the costs and benefits associated with lower temperature scenarios, the timing of peak emissions, the gap between science and ambition, and how to close this gap, are critical to taking needed action in a cost-effective and responsible manner that does justice to future generations and vulnerable populations.

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Staff Site Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Staff Site Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

The term “biophysics” was first used in 1892 by Karl Pearson in his book “The Grammar of Science.” Modern biophysics, according to the classification accepted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Biophysics (1961), includes the following basic branches: molecular biophysics, which consists in the investigation of the physical and physicochemical properties of the macromolecules and molecular complexes that compose living organisms, and also the character of the interactions and the energetics of the processes that take place in them; cellular biophysics, which studies the physicochemical basis of cell function, the connection of the molecular structure of membranes and cell organelles with their functions and mechanical and electrical properties and with the energetics and thermodynamics of cellular processes; and the biophysics of control and regulatory processes, which deals with the investigation and modeling of the internal connections of control systems in the organism, their physical nature, and the physical mechanisms of life at the level of the entire organism. Biophysics may be thought of as the central circle in a two-dimensional array of overlapping circles, which include physics, chemistry, physiology, and general biology. Relations with chemistry are mediated through biochemistry and chemistry; those with physiology, through neurophysiology and sensory physiology. Biology, which may be viewed as a general subject pervading biophysical study, is evolving from a purely descriptive science into a discipline increasingly devoted to understanding the nature of the prime movers of biological events.
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 Soal soal Ujian Sekolah SD MI Terbaru Bahasa Inggris

Soal soal Ujian Sekolah SD MI Terbaru Bahasa Inggris

12. Indonesia has two seasons. They are, rainy season and dry season. rainy season start from October to March. In rainy season, rain falls almost everyday. People usually bring umbrella and raincoat to go anywhere. Dry season start from April to September. In dry season the sun shines very brightly. People usually wear t-shirt, sun glasses and cap. The weather is always hot and dry.

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OPERATING SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS AND AN EXPERIMENT OF PORTING CONTIKIOS TO MSP430 MICROCONTROLLER Thang Vu Chien1 , Hung Nguyen Chan2 , and Thanh Nguyen Huu2

OPERATING SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS AND AN EXPERIMENT OF PORTING CONTIKIOS TO MSP430 MICROCONTROLLER Thang Vu Chien1 , Hung Nguyen Chan2 , and Thanh Nguyen Huu2

The scheduler schedules operation of those components. Each component consists of four parts: command handlers, event handlers, an encapsulated fixed-size frame, and a group of tasks. Commands and tasks are executed in the context of the frame and operate on its state. Each component will declare its commands and events to enable modularity and easy interaction with other components. The current task scheduler in TinyOS is a simple FIFO mechanism whose scheduling data structure is very small, but it is power efficient since it allows a processor to sleep when the task queue is empty and while the peripheral devices are still running. The frame is fixed in size and is assigned statically. It specifies the memory requirements of a component at
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Welcome to ePrints Sriwijaya University - UNSRI Online Institutional Repository

Welcome to ePrints Sriwijaya University - UNSRI Online Institutional Repository

Based on the conversations during the group work, we conjecture that Student 2 seemed to have a better understanding than the other two students in the group. We identified that Students 1 and 3 encountered difficulties in understanding algebraic expression (an expected answer obstacle), such as when viewing � − as − = , and in understanding the concept of variable as an unknown. The different mastery of understanding of the students is manifest in their written work, solving a similar task as in the digital group work, from the individual paper-and-pencil test after engaging the Cover- up activity as shown in Figure . The left part shows a correct Student ’s work and the right part displays an incorrect Student ’s work, which is similar to Student ’s w ork.
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Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 439.full

Manajemen | Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji 439.full

To understand why our estimates are sensitive to the manner in which we measure time in school, it is useful to consider the two degree categories (high school and college graduates) separately from the two dropout categories. Even if holders of a given degree do not have identical levels of acquired skill, as assumed by our theoretical model, they complete similar programs and earn a similar number of credits. Consider one individual who earns a high school diploma at age 18, and another who earns the same diploma a year earlier. Both should report their highest grade completed as 12 to reflect the fact that they completed the final year of their program, but their reported school exit dates should differ because one of them completed the program more quickly than the other. In short, age at school exit is a more informative measure of what we wish to know about degree recipients— namely, the speed with which they complete a common grade or degree program. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the estimated S2 slopes in Table 5 (based on age at school exit) predict that degree holders earn approximately 2 percent less (for high school graduates) and 1–2 percent less (for college graduates) for every extra year they take to graduate, whereas the corresponding estimates in Table 4 (based on highest grade completed) lack statistical significance.
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07350015%2E2013%2E792261

07350015%2E2013%2E792261

Here I wish to formally study identification of β and, espe- cially, γ . In contrast to Goldsmith-Pinkham and Imbens my treatment will be “fixed effects” in nature—the joint distri- bution of D 0 and A will be left unrestricted. Link decisions across pairs of agents are conditionally independent given the network structure in the prior period and the unobserved vec- tor of latent social distances A . However, unconditional on A , the dependence across different link decisions is allowed to be quite complex. There is some connection between my question and that of identifying state dependence using panel data (e.g., Chamberlain 1985, 1995; Hahn 2001). However the analogy is incomplete; a network structure is induced by the intercon- nected decisions of multiple agents. Modeling a sequence of networks is considerably harder than modeling a sequence of discrete decisions made by a single agent.
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BETWEEN THE IDEAL AND PRAGMATIC INTERESTS  IN LOACH’S THE WIND THAT SHAKES   BETWEEN THE IDEAL AND PRAGMATIC INTERESTS IN LOACH’S THE WIND THAT SHAKES THE BARLEY MOVIE (2007): A MARXIST CRITICISM.

BETWEEN THE IDEAL AND PRAGMATIC INTERESTS IN LOACH’S THE WIND THAT SHAKES BETWEEN THE IDEAL AND PRAGMATIC INTERESTS IN LOACH’S THE WIND THAT SHAKES THE BARLEY MOVIE (2007): A MARXIST CRITICISM.

8. My beloved Ibu “ Sri Sula sm i ” who used to shed the tears for me when I was suffered from near-fatal serious illness and now this research paper is presented for each tear, hope, and prayer she said for me. Her endless love will always be in every move I make as well as in every step I take. She is the best mother in this world.

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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Journal of Production Economics:Vol70.Issue1.Mar2001:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Journal of Production Economics:Vol70.Issue1.Mar2001:

(Just-In-Time), TPM (Total Productive Mainten- ance), CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing), QFD (Quality Function Deployment), DFM (Design For Manufacturer), FMS (Flexible Manu- facturing System), CAD (Computer-Aided Manu- facturing) and CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering)? The answer is simply: in order to be more competi- tive and pro " table. But how we can be so is not that simply answered. A " rm usually can use only lim- ited resources for implementing its strategies and/or practices. Because of this limitation, it has to seek more cost-e ! ective as well as goal-achiev- able ways of allocating its resources. A commonly suggested approach to prioritize resource alloca- tions among manufacturing activities is to take into
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Narrative Formation Of Mass Effect 3 Video Game: A Future Narrative

Narrative Formation Of Mass Effect 3 Video Game: A Future Narrative

present their storyworld to the player. These cinematic sequences also intended to trigger the players so they can be immersed by showing an advance visual graphics and by giving them the background story before they take control of the game, called as spatial immersion. To be immersed is to be interested, and obviously, the players will continue to play the game when they are interested, and the story will be progressed as the game played. The images tell the situations and the conditions of the gameworld, which there is something awful approaching the Earth, and humanity is under a siege. This information is shown to the players without their involvement as the agent. In other words, the players have no control over the scenes. The images of cut scenes shown above can be categorized as exposition, because it gives the players information about the main objectives of the game, which is to save the galaxy from the Reapers, and it makes appearance before the players play the game (introduction).
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