In computerprogramming, there are often many different ways -- algorithms -- to accomplish any given task. Each algorithm has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Sorting is one place where a lot of research has been done, because computers spend a lot of time sorting lists. Here are five different algorithms that are used in sorting:
There is a concept in computerprogramming known as DRY -- Don't Repeat Yourself. Functions allow you to write a block of Python code once and use it many times. Instead of repeating several lines of code each time you need to perform a particular task, or function, simply call the function that contains that code. This helps in reducing the length of your programs and it also gives you a single place to change, test, troubleshoot, and document a given task. This makes your application easier to maintain.
programming languages widely used in Web development that use the C functions, incorrectly treated this value as the last two digits of the year. On the Web this was a mostly harmless bug, but it did cause many dynamically generated webpages to but it did cause many dynamically generated webpages to
You may have noticed that in the flowcharts and pseudocode presented, the While decision always comes near the top of the chart/code. These schematics could be easily (perhaps, more easily) drawn with the while decision near the bottom (this would avoid, for instance, needing to read data an extra time outside of the loop). However, it is proper convention to place the decision before the block of code that will be repeated. Most loops in programming languages (with one notable exception) are precondition tested, that is, in order to execute the loop the first time, the condition the while
Matlab is short for Matrix Laboratory, which is a special-purpose computer program optimized to perform engineering and scientific calculations. It started life to perform matrix mathematics, but over the years it has grown into a flexible computing system capable of solving essentially any technical problem. Matlab implements a Matlab programming language and provides an extensive library of predifined functions that make technical programming tasks eisier and more eficient.
How did we manage to keep the result so simple with such a large crowd of developers working together? No miracle, but the consequence of a strong vi- sion and a carefully crafted design methodology that took more than a decade to create and polish (see  for a summary; we can summarize it as “a design is either simple or wrong”). Around 1990, some of us came together with already strong systems building and theoretical backgrounds. These people initiated the ACCLAIM project, funded by the European Union (1991–1994). For some rea- son, this project became a focal point. Three important milestones among many were the papers by Sverker Janson & Seif Haridi in 1991  (multiple paradigms in AKL), by Gert Smolka in 1995  (building abstractions in Oz), and by Seif Haridi et al in 1998  (dependable open distribution in Oz). The ﬁrst paper on Oz was published in 1993 and already had many important ideas . Af- ter ACCLAIM, two laboratories continued working together on the Oz ideas: the Programming Systems Lab (DFKI, Universit¨at des Saarlandes, and Collaborative Research Center SFB 378) in Saarbr¨ ucken, Germany, and the Intelligent Systems Laboratory (Swedish Institute of Computer Science), in Stockholm, Sweden.