This research analyzes multimodal texts of cosmeticadvertisements. It aims 1) To find out the visual elements and ideational functions of cosmeticadvertisements in multimodal, 2) To analyze the linguistic and visual elements that represent in the messages. Ten cosmeticadvertisements as the data. The source of data were collected from L‘Oreal Paris Cosmetic (online). This research use d the descriptive qualitative method by Miles, Huberman and Saldana (2014) and applies the Systemic Functional Language theory of Halliday (2004). The result shows that the visual images consist of three elements got lead (38,46%), display (38,46%) and visual emblem (23,08%). Lead and display are dominant in visual as 38,46% from total visual elements. The linguistic analysis found five elements. They are announcement (17,74%), enhancer (35,48), linguistic emblem (16,13%), tag (20,97%), call and visit information (9,68%) which are found in cosmeticadvertisements. Dominantly, the linguisctic of enhancer takes 35,48%. Finally, it is found that there is interconnectedness between the visual and linguistic elements in the cosmeticadvertisements.
Language is a very important thing in our life due to the fact that it is our means of communication. It is also used in many kinds of media with various purposes, among others, advertising a certain product. Advertisement is something widely known by people nowadays, likewise cosmeticadvertisements. In communicating the message of the products, in the advertisements, the advertiser uses words, phrases, and sentences. However, sometimes their meaning can be perceived by the readers in more than one way or it contains ambiguity, especially lexical ambiguity. This study is intended to find the lexical ambiguity in the cosmeticadvertisements and then see the readers’ interpretations toward it.
This research is descriptive qualitative to describe the aspects of mythology construction in cosmeticadvertisements and the consumers’perception as well as their motivation. The data of this paper were partly taken from my M.A thesis, which was based on the interview in Makassar for two months and the recording of 4 cosmeticadvertisements. All of the informants were 5 female university students ranging from 20 to 25 years old and they were also the consumers of 4 cosmetic products advertized in television.
The approach employed in the research is Sociolinguistics approach. It uses descriptive research and purposive sampling technique. The sources of the data are women’s cosmeticadvertisements containing figurative language taken from internet from 21 st May 2014 – 29 th June 2014 with different websites of each advertisement.
1. The analysis of the sample data from 76 advertisements of five different cosmetic categories revealed that there are three types of presupposition found in the claims of Television cosmeticadvertisements. The presuppositions found are existential, structural, and lexical presupposition. Other presupposition did not present. Existential presupposition serves as to presuppose the existence of a certain product. While lexical presupposition and structural presupposition serve as to communicate the content of cosmetic ingredients, as well as the performance of the product the advertisers made about their claims. The nonexistence of other types of presupposition can be object specific restriction. Which means the study only analyze the utterances of the television advertisement claims and left out the other elements such as voice-over narration, sounds and other audio-visual aspects.
Visual is represented by images.The visual images consist of three elements. They are lead, display and visual emblem which are found in cosmeticadvertisements. First, Lead is displayed in the size, position and/ or colour which should have the potential to create an impression and meaning for the user.Cosmetic advertisements show colourful images to interest customers. Second, display is visualization of product or service in the advertisement. Some of advertisements show the real products or explicit way, but the implicit function shown here is the realization of products or services that are not real to become real through another medium. Third, visual emblem is visually realized through the advertised product logos of the product.
The significance of this study is divided into two things, theoretically and practically. Theoretically, the result of this research is expected to give contribution in exploring multimodal of cosmeticadvertisements, especially how the elements (visual and linguistic) express meanings and the relationship between ideational function and visual image of L‘Oreal Paris.
research uses theory of generic structure potential by Cheong (2004) and intersemiosis of the linguistic and visual resources by Wee (2009). The data of this study is Elizabeth Arden print advertisements in a moisturizing cream intervene, taken from website (www.elizabetharden.com). The method of this analysis is descriptive-qualitative method. As the result, the interplay of the verbal texts and visual images has proven to be very effective in the meaning and making process of this advertisement. Then, every visual and linguistic item in the advertisement is arranged very well so the complement and support each other to project the positive image to attract the consumers to buy the product. The similarities this research and this previous study are the data taken from website and uses the theory generic structure of potential by Cheong (2004). This research is different from this study in the field of problems and the data source. The data of this study was taken from L‘Oreal Paris advertisement from internet. This
western women perfume advertisements — the one type of advertisement where woman images have been a focal point and most fully exploited. She stated that research studies have long challenged the ways in which advertising and marketing campaigns in western countries employ gendered imagery that women and reinforce power differences between the sexes in order to sell their products, yet not much attention has been given to the images of the Orient that are adopted to create woman imagery in advertisements.
The third researcher is Pratiwi (2000) with her study entitled “An Analysis of Relation between Slogans and the Advertisements Products in Television Commercial Advertisements.” She analyzed the relation between slogans and the advertised products in TV commercial. The result is that slogans and the advertised products have close relationship and most data fulfilled the maxim of quality.
Simplicity in the advertisement diction makes people easy to remember what is said by the speakers. The advertisers do not let the audience think about what the speakers say. The vocabulary will be very universal because the advertisers will not consider who will be the audience. All of Magnum advertisements used simple vocabulary because the researcher did not find any difficulties to understand on the content of those advertisements. The vocabulary was arranged to be some very simple sentences. The slogan of Magnum, for pleasure seekers , was a simple slogan which emphasized who will be the consumers of Magnum. That slogan meant that the consumers should be a person who was looking for the pleasure. That person could find the pleasure by consuming Magnum. It was understandable without any ambiguity because the vocabulary was very simple, brief, and clear.
For further researchers, they can analyse more from Voodoo advertisements, because I find that these advertisements can be analysed from totally different points of view. I believe it will be very interesting to analyse the advertisements from another point of view. We will find not only what can be seen in advertisements but also what cannot be seen; for example, about the number of women and men in the second advertisement. If we use a different theory, it can lead us to a different interpretation. Besides, there are five more Voodoo’s advertisements which I have not analysed.
Bukan rahasia lagi bahwa sebagian besar produk kosmetik yang diproduksi secara besar-besaran banyak mengandung parabens, aluminium, atau zirconium yang menjadi pemicu timbulnya kanker payudara. Belum lagi kosmetik pemutih wajah yang mengandung racun merkuri. Akibat penggunaan kosmetik berbahan kimia ini pun bisa bervariasi, mulai dari timbulnya bercak-bercak hitam di kulit hingga yang terparah kanker kulit, yang terjadi akibat kombinasi kosmetik berkimia serta paparan sinar ultraviolet. Kesadaran konsumen pada pentingnya kosmetik yang sehat serta tuntutan hidup yang lebih ramah lingkungan,lalu menghadirkan apa yang disebut green cosmetic atau kosmetik ramah lingkungan. Tentu saja,ada beberapa persyaratan bagi sebuah kosmetik untuk disebut sebagai kosmetik ramah lingkungan.