As the beginning effort in implementing the learning models recommended by the 2013 curriculum, the prevention of using conventional method must be running in a row with it. Many conventional learning methods which are used by teacher are just to present a subject matter that makes the students tend to be lazy to think and just listen to the explanation without understanding what was said by the teacher, just say that one of the conventional learning method is mostly covered by Direct Instruction learning model. This model brings one direction communication where teacher dominates teaching and learning process without paying attention to what students actually needs and wants, this makes the students get bored and sleepy easily. But actually the case is that a teacher is expected to be able to present the subject matter as interesting as possible, so that the students are going to be interested in being creative and active in learning activities (Roestiyah, 2001).
Two examples from non-Western cultures serve to illustrate this point. Asian students (e.g. Chinese or Japanese students) are generally accustomed to an educational environment in which the learner is a passive participant in the learning process. If the CAI program has been developed from a Western cultural perspective, the Asian students will need to be made aware of the learner control approach and given guidance as to how to avail of it, perhaps on a gradual basis. Another example, given by Geres (based on research of Lakoff (1987) published by Driscoll (1994, p228)) comes from the Dyribal speakers of Australia. In their system of classification of words, males, kangaroos and fish would be in one group, while females, dogs and birds would be in another. Thus, in a hypothetical CAI program which asks the learner to pick the odd word out of the group (woman, man, dog, bird), the Dyribal speaker would choose man, based on his/her cultural epistemology, rather that the bird (as would be the case with Western cultural epistemology). This has implications for how feedback is given when students answer questions incorrectly. In this case, for example, the "error" does not arise due to the learner's misunderstanding of the words "man" or "bird", but rather their intrinsic understanding of classification. Vance (1997) and her team at the British Columbia Institute of Technology have developed a curriculum that explicitly incorporates cultural information into the English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum. It includes information about working cooperatively in groups and how to handle team meetings.
Issues such as global climate change, genetic engineering, alternative energy, stem cell research, sustainable development, food and energy resources, population control (Fowler, et. al, 2009; Dawson & Venville, 2010) can be considered as SSI from variety of perspectives. Contextually in Indonesia, it is essential to find and analyze issues which are appropriate both for conducting SSI-based instructionand fulfilling the curriculum needs based on socio-cultural background. Therefore, this is an analysis study concerning two cases that are potentially appropriate to SSI and contextualized in Indonesia.
doing this in a manner designed to take greater account of the difficulties of ensuring proper acceptance. Most of these may be seen as indications of a move towards Schon’s proliferation of centres. House (1974) recommends the creation of more incentives for local entrepreneurs, the leaders of Schon’s secondary centres; he also wishes to increase the number of those participating in the exer- cise; and his major aim is ‘to reduce political, social and organizational barriers to contact with the outside world’ (MacDonald and Walker, 1976:20). In pursuit of much the same goals, the Schools Council attempted to establish local devel- opment groups, to involve teachers’ centres, to gain the support of local educa- tion authorities, to promote the in-service education of teachers, to mount regional conferences and even, in some cases, to involve members of the project teams in the work of the schools, as change agents working in secondary centres (Schools Council, 1967, 1971b, 1974b). Many of these devices were also adopted by the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in the final stages of its work, when it sought to support teachers in effecting changes in their curricula (Kelly, 1987). In spite of all such developments and the use of all these detailed strategies for planned dissemination, major difficulties have continued to exist. Some of these were identified by those concerned with the dissemination of the Humanities Curriculum Project. In particular, failure to achieve adequate dissemination was attributed to difficulties in communication between the project team and the schools (MacDonald and Rudduck, 1971). It would be a mistake, however, to interpret that statement at too simple a level, since a number of features of this failure of communication have also been identified. One is the tendency of teach- ers ‘to invest the development team with the kind of authority which can atrophy independence of judgement in individual school settings’ (1971:149). The con- verse of this was also observed, namely the anxiety of some teachers not to lose their own style by accepting too readily the specifications of method included in the project. Both these factors would seem to point to the need for a full and proper involvement of the teachers with the development of a project. Both of them too draw attention to the significance of House’s insistence on a proper regard being paid to the different forms of social interaction.
v It is important that the HEP remembers that a curriculum is unique to its institution, consistent with the programme goals and intended learning outcomes. Therefore, the HEP should not copy entirely from the guidelines and use them as their curriculum document. The HEP should demonstrate its capacity and ability to prepare a good curriculum. This in itself will reflect its authority as an autonomous HEP.
Based on the finding, the English Skills for the Future for grade X has been good and perfect in some aspects. In content aspects, there were three sub aspects which are material completeness, material depth and material organization. In material completeness most of criteria that have not been yet fulfilled was producing the transactional, functional and functional text. It was also found that some chapters had not provided spoken or written task in transactional and functional text. In material depth, some aspects were considered to be “poor” in giving the guidance for the students, especially in written and spoken text. In material organization, the textbook had not been suitable in school term year. There were many reading activities that sometimes take a lot of times in classroom. Also, the textbook did not allow students being absent from some classes, so the textbook needed adding more explanation to boost students’ independent learning. In supporting materials aspect, the textbook lacked in promoting appreciation towards cultural diversity and complex society. Most of the text did not promote the cultural diversity and gender equality since most texts portrayed male characters.
2. Risks related to the ongoing usage of election technology . Present how any law in election technology carries a reputational risk for the EMB. Additionally, a perception that the complexity of technology overwhelms the EMB can call into question its reputation and credibility. Introduce a discussion of how inadequate performance of election technology has the highest risk of undermining integrity and triggering violence where it becomes most visible to stakeholders. Discuss how in a tense political environment, even vague and unproven claims of ICT manipulation or laws can become a major point of contention. Note how ICT equipment value can attract crime. To enrich the discussion, present a series of concrete contemporary cases of such situations. 3. he challenge of cyber-attacks against electoral ICT infrastructure.
the network locally, nationally, and globally via the internet, web-based teaching, video conferencing, cross-cultural exchanges, and several sources of interactive multimedia. Instead of the traditional paradigm, teaching is seen and understood as part of the reproductive process and the recall of existing knowledge. In the reproduction of knowledge-based teaching of teachers or lecturers to be the center of education. Teachers are seen to have some technical competence, social, and professional in delivering knowledge to learners. Teachers / lecturers to teach some of the models and patterns to meet the security standards of standardized knowledge even though we know the potential, talents, and characteristics of each indivisu different learners. Their main job is to transfer some knowledge and skills to learners. Thus the teaching is often associated with discipline problems, presentation, training, and socialization processes. Teaching is also understood as the hard work of achieving external standards with a centralized authority.
peace, tolerance. This can be seen from the use of various meth- ods that enable the students to discuss in a dialogue, use freely opinions, convey the idea of learning. Leonard Swidler states that the dialogue is an important medium to foster mutual un- derstanding. With dialogue, people of different faiths can learn good values in any religious teachings. Dialogue does not pre- suppose the others must have the same vision (Swidler 1984). Academic climate was created to provide a space for students to explore and interact with anyone at the school. Communi- ty schools will also support this situation. In the perspective of the theory of internalization, Dewantara (1962) states that there are several methods and stages that can be implemented in ac- cordance with the situation, namely: (1) giving an example, (2) habituation, (3) teaching, (4) command, (5) practical behavior, (6) experience. The irst and the second are suitable for children aged 1-7 years, the third and fourth are suitable for ages 7-14 years, while the ifth and sixth way are suitable for children aged 14-21 years. This is also in line with research of Latifah that asserts the modelling has a positive contribution to the moral formation of children. All of them are implemented in Modern Islamic Boarding School Assalaam (Latifah 2011).
Project Technical Advisor for the Raymah Area Development Project in the Republic of Yemen . The project (1999-2005) was funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) . My major roles were to help the project in improving the planning and management aspects, help in executing an effective Monitoring and Evaluation and Management Information systems, assist in contract management and the executing of the various project activities, advice and guide the preparation of the annual work plans and budgets, progress reports and briefing notes, training of counterparts, preparing TORS for the long and short term consultants (included TOR for the Mid Term Review), supervising and managing all consultants hired by the project. During the period, I was the hub and the internal coordinator for the implementation of the Mid Term Review for this and the other two IFAD-funded projects in Yemen (September-October 2003).
tion of recent curriculum is needed. In this case, evaluation is analyzing and determining to the weaknesses aspect of curriculum to evaluate the curriculum. As Nyabero explanations, evaluation is obtaining information for use in judging the worth of a program, product, procedure or objective, or the potential utility of alternative approaches designed to attain specified objectives 13 . He defines that evaluation is as identifying information to make a choosing the available decisions’ makers. In other opportunities, Olivis states that curriculum development is seen as the process for making programmatic decisions and for revising the products of those deci- sions on the basis of continuous and subsequent evaluation 14 . In this
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Annotation: In this fluent and insightful response, the writer explores the decision to try out for a baseball “travel team,” despite not having made the squad the previous season. Complete and relevant support and elaboration are provided through purposeful word choice (top of the food chain; a choppy grounder), vivid descriptions (‘Smack!’ The ball smashed into my nose and pain seared through me as I fell to my knees), and specific, carefully chosen details (so I would have to settle for in-house ball, the less competitive, easier version of baseball). These elements are
Islamic values cover totally life aspect of Muslim. According to Amin Abdullah, in wider term religion is a God revelation which managing interrelationship between man and God, man with other man and man with its environment physically, socially and cultur ally. Besides, Qur’an contains guidance of ethics, moral, behavior, wisdom and can be a theology knowledge also grand theory of knowledge. 6 Because of the influence of Islamic values broadly impacted to human life, it should be implemented and nurtured to Muslim using acculturation process with has various structure and system of education. Meanwhile, education here has function to sustain, embed, and develop the continuity of the functioning of the Islamic values.
The level of investment in IT is significant and continues to increase. Few organizations could operate for long today without their IT infrastructure. IT enabled business investments, when managed well within an effective governance framework, provide organizations with significant opportunities to create value. (ITGI, Enterprise Value : Governance of IT Investment, 2006).
Almost all schools in the world based on some formal and informal researches, use textbooks in the teaching learning activities. It is because textbook, according to Muslich (2010), is a foundation of learning in the classroom. A textbook is a guide for teachers, to make the teaching learning activities runs well, effective, and efficient, and students, to help them to be able to join the teaching learning activities optimally. However, several years ago, there are a lot of textbooks that use inappropriate contents such as inappropriate utterances, stories (Buku Porno Masuk SD, 2012), and pictures (Kemendiknas: Ratusan LKS Berbau Porno untuk SMP Ditemukan di Solo, 2012).
Structure of lessons: The average duration of classes in Indonesia (70 minutes) is signifi cantly longer but, less classroom time is dedicated to mathematics than in other countries. As is evident in some classrooms observed, there are concerns that Grade 8 students may have trouble concentrating for such a long period. Time management by teachers is also a critical point here. While teachers in most countries dedicate at least 96% of class time to mathematics, in Indonesia’s case it is only 89%. Indonesian teachers also devote less time to problem solving and little time for review, which is very important to check mastery of previous lessons. Content of lessons: The percentage of mathematical problems in Indonesia’s classrooms that are considered to be of high complexity is low. The study categorizes mathematics problems into three types: low complexity (problems that require four steps or less to solve using the usual or conventional procedure), medium complexity (problems that need more than four steps to solve and include one sub-problem), and high complexity (problems that need more than four steps to solve and include two or more sub-problems). The complexity of problems depends on the ability of students and the skill of the teachers. Teachers probably choose easier problems for students of lower ability. But it may also be the case that teachers with limited competency tend to avoid presenting complex problems in class. The study also fi nds that teachers do not stress choices of alternative solution methods; hence students have few chances of examining diff erent ways of solving mathematics problems.
ABSTRACT: Curriculum is a set of lesson plan for achieving a learning outcome, instructional materials, process, process, and evaluation that serve as a guideline for study program. Higher education curriculum is a set of lesson plan and rules of objective, content, and instructional materials which serve as a guideline for learning process to achieve the objective of Higher Education. It is developed by each study program based on Indonesian National Qualification Design (KKNI) and Higher Education National Standard (SNP), consisting of attitudes and values, knowledge, general skills, and specific skills. Referring to the Presidential degrees and Culture and Education Ministerial degrees, therefore, each study program in graduate program of Education Staff and Educator Association (LPTK) is necessary to organize a curriculum based on KKNI and SNPT. It is intended to actualize an accountable curriculum, produce alumni with KKNI and Teacher Competency Standard, and give a wide insight to the alumni with knowledge of study field, fundamental educating science, and strategy of its professional implementation. The stages of curriculum organization include: 1) determining graduation profile and learning outcome, 2) making a decision in instructional materials, 3) and determining courses, curriculum structure, and semester credit, and 4) developing semester and weekly learning plans.