The Computer Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM) proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digitalevidence in a short time frame without requirement on taking the systems/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image . This framework derived from the IDIP framework  and the Digital Crime Scene Analysis (DCSA) framework as developed by . The phases include in this framework are planning, triage, usage/user profiles, chronology/timeline, internet activity and case specific evidence. This framework is a formalization of real world investigative approaches that have distilled into a formal process framework. The major advantage of CFFTPM is on its practicality and pragmatic due to the fact that the framework was developed in reverse of most other DFIF. However, this framework is also not necessarily applicable for all investigative situations.
This modern future internet technology users is growing, this had a positive impact because it can facilitate the work of man but can negatively impact human development. one example is the negative impact of computer crimes are becoming more frequent. with the birth of information legislation electronic transactions hence the number 11 Year 2008 computer crime increasingly need to be considered so as not to cause problems for the community. in general computer crime must have died of digitalevidence, and therefore require special skills to be able to analyze the digitalevidence. Digital forensics is a branch of forensic science that is growing recently. one of the main tasks is finding and analysis of digitalevidence. basically needed an operational standard when analyzing up to make a report to be given to the court. This report then that will be a consideration for the judge to sentence perpetrators of computer crime.
Abstract — Digital forensic is part of forensic science that implicitly covers crime that is related to computer technology. In a cyber crime, digitalevidenceinvestigation requires a special procedures and techniques in order to be used and be accepted in court of law. Generally, the goals of these special processes are to identify the origin of the incident reported as well as maintaining the chain of custody so that the legal process can take its option. Subsequently, the traceability process has become a key or an important element of the digitalinvestigation process, as it is capable to map the events of an incident from difference sources in obtaining evidence of an incident to be used for other auxiliary investigation aspects. Hence, this paper introduces a trace map model to illustrate the relationship in the digital forensic investigation process by adapting and integrating the traceability features. The objective of this integration is to provide the capability of trace and map the evidence to the sources and shows the link between the evidence, the entities and the sources involved in the process, particularly in the collection phase of digital forensic investigation framework. Additionally, the proposed model is expected to help the forensic investigator in obtaining accurate and complete evidence that can be further used in a court of law.
 addressed four issues of digitalevidence itself. First, the digitalevidence is in a disorganized form and as such it can be very difficult to handle and not all of them is obviously readable by human. For example, a hard drive platter contains messy pieces of information mixed to- gether and layered on top of each other over time. Be- cause of that, only a small portion of the information is relevant to the case which makes it necessary to extract useful pieces, fit them together and translate them into a form that can be interpreted. Second, digitalevidence generally is an abstraction of some event or digital object and can be seen as residual data that give a partial view of what occurred in the incident being investigated. Third, digitalevidence can be maliciously altered or changed during collection without leaving any obvious trace indi- cating that alteration has taken place. This is due to the fact that computer data can be easily manipulated. Lastly, traditional evidences are created and retrieved as a single record but in a great majority of modern cases, it in- volves computerized system where evidence is created or retrieved from different records and sources.
A research done in  introduced a mapping process which occurs inside digital forensic investigation process model. The mapping is formulated by grouping and merging the same activities or processes in five phases that provide the same output into an appropriate phase. From the analysis, most of the models consist of the critical phases which are Phase 2 – Collection and Preservation, Phase 3 – Examination and Analysis, and Phase 4 – Presentation and Reporting except Phase 1 and Phase 5. Even though, Phase 1 and Phase 5 are not included in some of the model reviewed, the study done by          indicate that both phases are important to ensure the completeness of the investigation. Phases 1 is to ensure the investigation process can start and run in the proper procedure, and protect the chain of evidence. While by eliminating Phase 5, it will lead to the possibility of the incomplete investigationand no improvement in investigation procedures or policies. Therefore, a good model should consist of all important phases; Preparation Phase, Collection and Preservation Phase, Examination and Analysis Phase, Presentation and Reporting, and Disseminating the case.
Because we are particularly interested in the relationship between the extent of a bank Õ s derivatives Õ usage and the market Õ s perception of risk, we construct two dierent measures of contingent claims. The ®rst is the continuous measure of a bank Õ s derivatives Õ activity by type employed in the initial regression. The second groups each bank into one of three categories representing high (HIGH), medium (MED) and low (LOW) levels of contingent claim activity. To create the categorical variables, each bank in the sample is ranked ac- cording to its level of involvement relative to asset size, in each derivative activity. It is possible for a given bank to rank low in one type of foreign currency activity and high in another. Using this ratio we divide the sample into three equal parts. The top one-third of the sample includes banks where the level of derivative activity is considered to be high, the next one-third in- cludes banks considered to have a medium level of derivative activity, and the bottom one-third includes banks considered to have a low level of derivative activity. Dummy variables labeled HIGH (high), MED (medium) and LOW (low) indicate the level of activity within each type of contingent claim (e.g., HIGHCOM, MEDCOM, LOWCOM, etc.). We estimate a second set of
The purpose of the surveillance phase is to detect signals that raise questions about the potential low-dose toxic- ity of a particular EAC or about the ability to detect low-dose toxicity more generally. For example, signals might include an indication that an adverse outcome in a human population could be related to an EAC exposure, or evidence that a particular low-dose effect may not be detectable with traditional animal-based toxicity testing. The committee recommends that EPA develop an active surveillance program focused speciically on low-dose exposures to EACs. As part of this surveillance effort, the committee recommends that EPA regularly monitor data on speciic chemicals, information that could have implications for toxicity-testing methods and best practices for EACs, and information on endocrine-related human diseases. Such information could be obtained by conducting regular surveys of the scientiic literature, gathering input from stakeholders, and collecting information about human exposure to EACs.
are useful for many structural applications, the ultimate tensile strength of some BFRP composites is more or less equal to the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel, while their density is approximately one eighth of the density of mild steel. He also observed that the mechanical behaviour of these composites is similar to other commonly used composites such as Glass fibre reinforced plastics. The alkali treated bamboo fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) composites were developed by P. Kushwaha et al. . They reported that the improvements in tensile strength and flexural strength were higher by 55.15 and 43.92%, respectively, for composites with epoxy matrix and in the case of alkali-treated composites with polyester matrix, the tensile strength and flexural strength were higher by 69 and 59%, respectively. A.V. R. Prasad et al.  reported the experiments of tensile and flexural tests carried out on composites made by reinforcing jowar as a new natural fibre into polyester resin matrix. It is concluded that the mean tensile modulus of jowar fibre composite is higher than those of sisal and bamboo fibre composites at highest volume fraction of fibre. The flexural modulus of jowar fibre composite is much higher than those of sisal and bamboo fibre composites. K. Okubo et al.  developed bamboo-based polymer composites for ecological purposes (Eco-composites). The experimental results showed that the bamboo fibers (bundles) had a sufficient specific strength, which is equivalent to that of conventional glass fibers. The tensile strength and modulus of PP based composites using steam-exploded fibers increased about 15 and 30%, respectively, due to well impregnation and the reduction of the number of voids, compared to the composite using fibers that are mechanically extracted. G. Han et al.  have fabricated the high density polyethylene (HDPE)/bamboo composites with different nanoclay and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) contents by melt compounding and found that the tensile strength, bending modulus and strength were improved with the use of MAPE in HDPE/bamboo fiber composites.
Acquisition results showed there was quite a lot of evidence that can be obtained. But there was also the kind of evidence that can not be taken from the SIM Card as mentioned in the list of potential types of evidence which may be obtained from the SIM Card. Based on the results of grouping of the list of potential digitalevidence, SMS and LDN are the two types of evidence which has highest potential. Keyword: mobile phone forensic, SIM card, digitalevidence.
organisms usually are from bacteria, and equipped with an enzymatic system that enables them to break the triple bond between two nitrogen atmospheric atoms and produces ammoniac, that similar to industrial processes but has no expense for unrenewable energy resources (Dalla santa et al., 2004). In agriculture, herbicides have been used in large scale. But often, there is no research on their sub effects. This is very important in crops. Because, herbicides not only will have adverse effect on plant growth, also influence on the interaction relation between symbiosis bacteria just like rhizobioumes and plant growth promoting bacteria (Brock, 1975). Studies showed some of the herbicides keep adverse effect on plants nodulation. These effects on main roots nodules were more than sub roots. Trifluralin decreases the growth of sub roots and makes nodules in soybean (Kust et al., 1971; Eberbachk et al., 1989).
Political influence in any form constrains the SOEs’ managerial actions to implement strategic changes. The result suggests that as firms move from public to private, the forms of political influence are systematically reduced. It would be wrong to say that there is no kind of political influence in the privatized firms. In all privatized company, the government has kept saham dwiwarna (golden share), which gives the government the right to veto major decisions pertaining to “very crucial issues”. This is one form of political influence. However, because of the privatization method chosen (SIPs), the stock market can play a role in which the company has to disclose any material issues regarding the company’s operation. Stock Exchange (Badan Pengelola dan Pengawasan Pasar Modal ) regulations to some extent constrain the government’s political influence. The results suggest that the boards’ appointment in privatized firms is based on professionalism criteria such as business reputation, experiences, business networks and skills. These criteria are believed to be a secondary factor, if not non-existent, among the SOEs. It has been widely accepted that the directors and commissioner’s appointments in SOEs are not based on merit but rather on the basis of political connections and “cozy” relationships between government figures and management. This is evident by the influence of the Ministry of SOEs in the board’s appointment for which SOEs had the highest means, while private enterprises reported the lowest. This also reinforces the findings of previous studies (Robison, 1986; Mardjana, 1993).
In the present investigation, the phytochemical screening has been done in the various extracts of picralima nitida staph. Seeds and the results are presented in Table 1. The hexane extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycoside, steroid and Anthraquinones. The ethylacetate extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, glycoside and steroid. The methanol extract contained alkaloids, tannins, glycoside and steroid. Aqueous extract contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycoside and steroid. The various extract shows the presence alkaloid, glycoside and steroids with the exception of while only hexane extract that shows the presence of anthraquinones. These differences can be attributed to the solubility of the bioactives in different solvent of degree of polarity (Ekpo and Etim, 2009). The results of phytochemical analysis has comprehensively validate the various therapeutically importance place on picralima nitida seeds by the folk medicine and ethnobotanical data. Herbal extracts contain different phytochemicals with biological activity that can be valuable therapeutical index (kanchana et al., 2012). Various secondary metabolites have been implicated to exhibit a wide range of biological effect and protection against different diseases (Augusti and Cherian, 2008). Alkaloids exhibit marked physiological effects such as antibacterial (veronika et al., 2006), analgesic effect (Stray, 1998). Saponin and glycoside exhibit cytotoxicity effect (Tsuyosh, et al., 1997). Favonoids and Tannins are phenolics compounds and plants phenolics are a major group of compounds that act as primary antioxidants (Abdel-moneim, et al., 2012).
seems stable over time. At 5%, the selected fi - nancial and real indicators cannot permanently deviate from their long-run equilibrium. This highlights a restoring force, which in the long term brings both financial and real spheres on the same expansion path. Thus, the results con - firm not only the positive relationship between economic growth and financial development, but also that financial variables used "cause" long-term economic growth. More specifically, after any shock, the growth rate will return to its equilibrium level in less than six months on av - erage. On the other hand, it seems that financial deepening is "caused" by long-term economic growth, except where it is measured by the vol - ume of loan to the private sector.
In recent years, the value of trauma systems has been supported by a wealth of Level II data (population-based cohort and ecological studies), and trauma systems have become an important feature of the public health land- scape. They provide data for injury prevention and stand ready for injury and mass casualty. They also illustrate that comprehensive public health approaches can make a differ- ence in diseases with complex determinants and rapid and severe consequences. Perhaps because of these factors, the principles of trauma systems have been applied widely. But as the ACS-COT points out, gaps in the trauma systems literature and the persistence of injury as a major public health issue around the world mean that the work is still far from accomplished. New insights into the specific fac- tors that make trauma systems effective are beginning to emerge and will continue to guide trauma system develop- ment. More studies are needed, including economic evalu- ations so that long-term benefits can be accounted for and trauma systems remain efficient. More analyses involving outcomes other than hospital death are also needed (79) so that the heavy impact of prehospital deaths including suicide (80) and nonfatal mortality on society can be mea- sured, and so that trauma systems may adjust accordingly. Innovative analyses of access to trauma systems are needed so that their reach might be extended further into rural and remote communities (81,82). Trauma systems, which provide the framework for emergency response, must also clarify their roles in mass casualty and disaster situations. Ongoing insights from military experiences may be essen- tial to this effort (83). From the start, trauma systems have emphasized accountability and improvement and have worked to ensure that evidence is collected and acted on. Initiatives such as the NSCOT, collecting high-quality data, will provide important insights for the future development of trauma systems on many fronts. Finally, local successes have global implications. Surgeons working in trauma sys- tems have an exciting opportunity to share knowledge and insights and tackle problems together with their colleagues in low-income countries.
This research also contributes in managerial practice, specifically to improve the condition of banking sector in Indonesia. With the results presented in this study, government and managers can be helped in making decisions related to the establishment of optimal ownership structure. The results showed that foreign ownership is the best type of ownership structure, in terms of profitability and risk taking. Therefore, bank needs to consider the entry of foreign investors to improve various aspects of the bank's policy, in order to improve the overall performance of the bank. The presence of foreign investor may improve the quality and availability of financial services and the adoption of modern banking skills and technology (Levine, 1997). Particularly for state-owned banks, which this research and also the previous researches have proven that state government ownership is the least optimal type of ownership; need to consider to reduce the dominance of government ownership and increase the foreign ownership.
You’ll begin by imagining that you work at a factory that uses machines to stretch things like gum, strings, and spaghetti by the number shown on the front of the machine. For example, if you want a piece of licorice to be five times its original length, you could use a ⫻ 5 machine. You can replace some machines with a hookup of machines to show the factor pairs of a number. For example, instead of a ⫻ 10 machine, you could use a hookup of two machines. The first is a ⫻ 2 machine. Can you guess what the second machine is?
European Commission funded project entitled: “Support to the mapping and certification capacitв of the Agencв of Land Management, Geodesв and Cartographв” in Tajikistan was run by FINNMAP FM-International and Human Dynamics from Nov. 2006 to June 2011. The Agency of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography is the state agency responsible for development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of state policies on land tenure and land management, including the on-going land reform and registration of land use rights. The specific objective was to support and strengthen the professional capacity of the “Faгo” Institute in the field of satellite geodesв, digit al photogrammetry, advanced digital satellite image processing of high resolution satellite data anddigital cartography. Lectures and on-the- job trainings for the personnel of “Faгo” and Agencв in satellite geodesy, digital photogrammetry, cartography and the use of high resolution satellite data for cadastral mapping have been organized. Standards and Quality control system for all data and products have been elaborated and implemented in the production line. Technical expertise and trainings in geodesy , photogrammetrв and satellite image processing to the World Bank project “Land Registration and Cadastre Sвstem for Sustainable Agriculture” has also been completed in Tajikistan. The new map projection was chosen and the new unclassified geodetic network has been established for all of the country in which all agricultural parcel boundaries are being mapped. IKONOS, QuickBird and WorldView1 panchromatic data have been used for orthophoto generation. Average accuracy of space triangulation of non-standard (long up to 90km) satellite images of QuickBird Pan and IKONOS Pan on ICPs: RMSEx=0.5m and RMSEy=0.5m have been achieved. Accuracy of digital orthophoto map is RMSExy=1.0m. More then two and half thousands of digital orthophoto map sheets in the scale of 1:5000 with pixel siгe 0.5m have been produced so far bв the “Faгo” Institute in Tajikistan on the basis of technologв elaborated in the framework of this project. Digital cadastral maps are produced in “Faгo” and Cadastral Regional Centers in Tajikistan using ArcMap software. These digital orthophotomaps will also be used for digital mapping of water resources and other needs of the country.