6. Enhanced work to reduce exposure and vulnerability, thus preventing the creation of new disaster risks, and accountability for disasterrisk creation are needed at all levels. More dedicated action needs to be focused on tackling underlying disasterrisk drivers, such as the consequences of poverty and inequality, climate change and variability, unplanned and rapid urbanization, poor land management and compounding factors such as demographic change, weak institutional arrangements, non-risk-informed policies, lack of regulation and incentives for private disasterriskreduction investment, complex supply chains, limited availability of technology, unsustainable uses of natural resources, declining ecosystems, pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, it is necessary to continue strengthening good governance in disasterriskreduction strategies at the national, regional and global levels and improving preparedness and national coordination for disaster response, rehabilitation and reconstruction, and to use post-disaster recovery and reconstruction to “Build Back Better”, supported by strengthened modalities of international cooperation.
A DisasterRiskReduction and Management (DRRM) forum in Metro Manila on October 13, with government agencies, NGO and civil society organizations under the theme “Knowledge of Life” that will serve as a platform for sharing the practices of different actors in their resp ective DRRM initiatives using the traditional and indigenous knowledge which were complemented by the use of science or modern technologies. Large corporations and media were invited. Simultaneous photo exhibitions October 10-16 in malls and universities in Manila, Quezon, Cebu, Tacloba n and Davao, showcasing PRC’s DRRM initiatives
Being able to access the work of the environment sector can be hugely beneficial. In the Pacific, for instance, WWF had already produced a series of posters explaining the origins of climate change and the necessary adaptation measures. National Societies in the region were then able to use them for their own purposes. The environment sector has a good history of campaigning, with effective messages that can provide inspiration for the disasterriskreduction sector. Regional workshops on climate change adaptation and disasterriskreduction have been held in the South-east Asia and Pacific region, with one planned for South Asia in the near future. These aim not only to foster the sharing of experiences within the Movement but also to promote the greater involvement of other organizations in tackling the issue and to explore opportunities for future collaboration.
participants with the technical skills in mobilizing volunteer corps and the community, conducting PRA tools, formulate an action plan, setting up monitoring and evaluation tools and develop VCA reports. Hopefully Volunteer Corps members will be able to apply VCA and become an agent of change for disasterriskreduction measures.
eruption, the increases of victims are caused of the lack of understanding about what volcano is and what should people do if the eruption happened. Mostly, people who live surroundings the volcano have no detail information about disasterriskreduction or mitigation system. Indonesia is the 5 th country in the amount of the population but this condition is not supported by a big of population in behavior of disaster preparedness (Deny Hidayati, 2012). Severely, people more believe in myth and local culture than scientific information from the government or Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. This situation is less favorable for disaster mitigation system. Then, it initiates to develop an integrated mitigation system which combines of local culture including myth and scientific knowledge to reduce the risk of disaster (D. Cadag, J. & Gaillard, JC., 2012).
These CBDRM projects were implemented without specific legislation until 2009. The scope of exist- ing laws like the 1993 Ordinance and the Red Cross Law provided sufficient legal framework for civil society to implement CBDRM projects supported by funds from abroad, however the lack of specific legal framework on CBDRM reduced the sustainability of the projects. Without a specific legal frame- work, local government staff had insufficient mandates to participate in CBDRM and consequently were sometimes reluctant to involve themselves in these activities. The laws and regulations did not mainstream the commune DRR plans into the socio-economic development plan of the district, and without a specific legal framework it was difficult for local governments to allocate a budget for CBDRM. For example, while a new commune dual-purpose public building (one purpose being an evacuation centre) could be constructed with support from INGOs, there was no legal framework to allocate the additional funds required from the state budget for its construction. Previously, there was no legal requirement for the allocation of government budgets for constructing public buildings that can serve as disaster shelters. However, these gaps are addressed in the New DRM Law. DRR is now mainstreamed in socio-economic development planning from commune up to national level and Article 20 states: “[t]he construction and upgrading of schools, health stations, working offices, community cultural houses and other public work in natural disaster-prone areas must take into account the use of these works as places for people’s evacuation when natural disasters occur”.
This paper aims at discussing the results of a study in SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Klaten in 2015. The study investigated how participatory approach can empower students in disasterriskreduction (DRR). This is beneficial in the fulfillment of child rights in terms of protection and participation in building a save school. The study covers the procedures, materials, and the effect of participatory approach on students participation in DRR. The research was qualitative research. The participants were 40 students of students organization board of SMA Muhammadiyah I Klaten and two tutors from Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. The data were collected through observation and interview and analyzed using inductive technique. The result shows that the procedures of DRR training using participatory approach consist of: 1) Preparation: preparing students for DRR, socializing DRR program, setting the negotiated scheduled, 2) Training: Guided and Independent training, 3) Material selection: involving students in determining the materials of the training. 4) Students’ activities after the training program: Spreading the knowledge to other students/community, training other fellow students and The students board (OSIS) has established a division of DRR called “TIM SIAGA BENCANA” which consists of some selected students. The students determine the mechanism of recruitment by themselves. The students feel that DRR training is important to help them cope with disaster and participatory approach ,make the material easy to understand and practice . The approach has made students participate in DRR with sixth level of participation. Therefore, the approach has empowered the students to highly participate in spreading the knowledge and the awareness of DRR to other students and the community.
• Why do we need to adapt it? Materials developed for one context should not be translated and transplanted without very careful consideration and without being adapted to the needs of the new audience. It is important to demons- trate understanding of local hazard conditions, locally available riskreduction measures, and local experience, and to use the language and images most likely to motivate the specific audience in question, thinking about factors such as age, ethnicity, religion and occupation. Similarly, a simple translation may fail to use existing terminology, or the translator’ may be unaware of new terminology that has been introduced based on wide consensus of stakeholders. • Who should be involved in the process? You need to set up a working group of five-to-ten people, representing key stakeholder agencies and groups. Members should include, ideally:
Although they can have some ecologically beneficial effects on forest and wilderness areas, wildfires can cause ex- tensive damage. The impacts include death, injury and property damage, loss of shelter and livelihood, disruption of lifeline infrastructure and destruction of community. They may also result in adverse environmental consequences, such as loss of wild habitats, threats to biodiversity, land degradation and increased risk of erosion. Meanwhile, the chemicals used to fight the fires can pollute natural water sources.
the Information Analysis Matrix, which is: Risk; Elements at risk; and Vulnerability to formulate a Problem Statement. It is a very right time to recall all information collected during the field assessment and take into consideration of the MOST critical concerns of the community. After review them, each group agreed to come up with problem statements as follow:
GFDRR has been deepening its operations in 31 disaster-prone priority countries to support long-term comprehensive national strategies for disasterrisk manage- ment in climate-sensitive ways. These countries combine the highest vulnerability to natural hazards with low economic resilience for disaster impacts, including those antici- pated from the effects of climate change. The country programs are prepared with exten- sive participation from multiple stakeholders, ensuring agenda ownership by governments. Ghana’s country program, for example, was prepared with the participation of more than ten agencies, including the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), urging an integrated approach to DRR and CCA. In program follow up, GFDRR supports activities in vulnerable areas in the north.
Another example of good practice in the program is sharing and exchanging information on disaster preparedness activities by the NRCS with the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) through DP-Net Nepal. NRCS has been able to efficiently coordinate its activities with the LWF, who are also working on earthquake preparedness programs. This helped in avoiding replication and provided trained volunteers for facilitating their programme. NRCS has also coordinated with the government's earthquake preparedness venture by engaging trained groups of KVEPI to participate in the large scale simulation program carried out by the government.
The case study holds dynamic information which is useful for participants to have better view and ideas of all possible risk factors in the community. A hand- out with concrete examples based on the case study was distributed by the end of the session.
It is imperative to look into three elements, from the Information Analysis Matrix, which are: Risk; Elements at risk; and Vulnerability to formulate a Problem Statement. It is a very right time to recall all information collected during the field assessment and take into consideration of the MOST critical concerns of the community. After review them, both agreed to come up with one problem statement as follow:
The law did not stop the Red Cross and others from working – they acquired funding from elsewhere. However, it did limit their accomplishments. Catherine Martin explains: “We’ve worked on riskreduction since 1994, through integrated community disaster preparedness programmes. But until now, our main challenge has been the absence of specific local government funds to ensure sustainability.” More frustrating still, although the money for disaster management was there, it often went unused. All local governments allocated 5 per cent of their annual state income to the National Calamity Fund, but if no disaster occurred in the course of the year, the old law allowed them to dispense the money to staff, as bonuses and incentives. Under the new act, unspent money remains in the fund, and the National Society and other actors have support to promote riskreduction and disaster preparedness before catastrophe happens. More communities can assess and address the hazards they face, map the dangers, analyse why they are vulnerable to them, and then develop action plans.
and nutrition, is crucial to their resilience, especially in the case of disasters that result in reduced food intake and health risks (for example, from contaminated water). It relates to Red Cross Red Crescent activities in vaccination and other aspects of pre- ventive medicine (including programmes in HIV/AIDS), food security and nutrition, first aid, and water and sanitation. to improve disasterriskreduction, especially for those people that are most vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events. Climate change means that VCAs have to pay special attention to trends: during the collection and analysis of secondary data; while discussing hazards with the community; and during the analysis of the information obtained from the community.
Additional funding is needed today to strengthen the resilience of communities before disasters occur. However, most funding sources currently available focus on disaster response, while suf- ficient investments are not being allocated to disaster prepar- edness, disasterriskreduction and resilience building (UNISDR 2011). Furthermore, as humanitarian aid interventions and de- velopment programmes are designed differently not only in terms of their timeframes, but also with regard to their goals and institutions, these differences have resulted in separate aid architectures, different jargons, procedures and organizational commitments that do not reflect the reality faced in high disasterrisk areas (Voice-Concord position paper 2012).
Emergencies can be on any scale, affecting a single household or a local community, causing disruption at a national or even global level. Emergencies are defined as life threatening situations which put people at risk of death or severe deterioration in their health status or living conditions, and which have the potential to out-strip the normal coping capacity of the individual, family, community and state support systems. In addition, emergencies affect men and women differently, and they in turn have differing ways of coping with emergencies.
mental, non-governmental and community- based organizations. It is important to recognize that the building of community safety and resilience in the face of disasterrisk cannot be achieved by the Red Cross Red Crescent alone. We can certainly make our contribution but the systematic and ongo- ing building of safety and resilience can only be built upon strong working partnerships between all stake- holders – from the communities themselves, to local and national governments, governmental and non- governmental organizations and the private sector. A list of possible areas of focus for each of these five core components is given in Appendix 1. These five core com- ponents, integrated across the programme areas of Red Cross Red Crescent activity, help to identify our brand in DRR and support the building of community safety and resilience. They help us to focus on activity areas within which we have the capacity and competence to deliver, which reflect our comparative advantages and which are consistent with the priorities of the Global Agenda. The focus on these core components as a central part of our work in DRR recognizes the importance of our consider- able network of volunteers who will have a key role in the delivery of DRR as a contribution to building community safety and resilience, coming as many of our volunteers do from the vulnerable communities themselves. In addition, the capacity development that is a key part of the process of increasing the scale and scope of our DRR activities must have a heavy emphasis on building the capacity of branches as a major element of organizational development. To truly identify the Red Cross Red Crescent approach to promoting community safety and resilience, we should look for National Societies that are implementing or sup- porting the core components integrated across their major programme or thematic areas, particularly those that relate to addressing country or hazard-specific DRR. It is likely
All member of The Disaster Management Technical Working Group must be strongly committed towards a holistic approach to community safety and resilience focusing on integrated cross- sectoral planning as well as implementation. Also, it has to be committed to work closer with both health and OD departments to improve the quality of disaster management services to communities by strengthening their own NS resilience.