Hemoglobin metabolism is one of the key metabolic processes for the survival of the parasite in human blood. There are some proteases enzyme involved in the degradation of hemoglobin in the parasite food vacuole. Plasmepsin is an aspartic protease enzyme of the species P. falciparum that responsible for the initial cleavage of hemoglobin and is then followed by other protease enzymes . Therefore, plasmepsin can be served as new targets for antimalarial drugdiscovery .
Nowadays, there are plenty of anticancer drugs on the market, and yet there is still an issue in its clinical usage. This is not caused by the absence of anticancer activity, more likely caused by the low bioavailability and high toxicity. Therefore, it motivates researchers to continue the research on effective and safe novel anticancer drug. Synthesis and activity test towards the novel drug are time consuming and costly. In the past, it is even impossible to predict bioavailability, anticancer activity, and toxicity. However, along with the development of new software to predict bioavailability, activity, and toxicity, such issues are becoming more manageable. This approach will ensure benefit in terms of efficiency. It can minimize the amount of trial and error during the process of novel drug candidate selection. Following the use of this software, if the prospective drug compound is predicted to have anti-cancer activity with low bioavailability and high toxicity, further synthesis and activity test in laboratory are no longer needed.
Generally, drug absorption from the GI tract requires that the drug is brought into solution in the GI fluids and that it is capable of crossing the intestinal membrane into the systemic circulation. It has therefore been suggested that the drug must be in its molecular form before it can be absorbed. Therefore, the rate of dissolution of the drug in the GI lumen can be a rate-limiting step in the absorption of drugs given orally. Particles of drugs, for example, insoluble crystalline forms or specific delivery systems such as liposomes, are generally found to be absorbed to a very small extent. The cascade of events from the release of the drug from its dosage form, that is, dissolution of the drug in the gut lumen, interactions and/or degradation within the lumen, and the uptake of its molecular form across the intestinal membrane into the systemic circulation, is schematically shown in Figure 1. For rapid and effective design and development of new drug products, methods for drug absorption are required that describe the different steps involved before and during the absorption process. The need for such specific methods is determined by the information on the rate-limiting step in the cascade of events (e.g., solubility, permeability, or metabolic instability limited). The results from these methods act as a guide to a more efficient discovery process in which resources are given to optimizing structures that lead to the selection of a good drug candidate with well-defined pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. Multivariate analysis for analyzing large data sets is nowadays used to obtain trends in a given parameter. Screening and optimization of several parameters in parallel, for example, permeability, metabolic stability, solubility, potency, duration, and toxicity, represent also a growing area for rationalizing drugdiscovery using multivariate statistical models (Eriksson et al., 1999). The importance of this is obvious: there is no point in using resources to increase the potency of an oral drug candidate if the drug is not predicted to be orally bioavailable.
NADI (Natural Based DrugDiscovery)  is a database of Malaysian medicinal plants which aims to be a one-stop centre for in silico drugdiscovery from natural products. NADI was developed with the aim to assist the research in performing drugdiscovery at Universiti Sains Malaysia. It provides structural information on 3000 different compounds along with the information of the botanical sources of plants species that could be used in virtual screening.
Cancer Drug Design and Discovery, Second Edition is an important reference on the underlying principles for the design and subsequent development of new anticancer small molecule agents. New chapters have been added to this edition on areas of particular interest and therapeutic promise, including cancer genomics and personalized medicine, DNA-targeted agents and more. This book includes several sections on the basic and applied science of cancer drugdiscovery and features those drugs that are now approved for human use and are in the marketplace, as well as those that are still under development. By highlighting some of the general principles involved in taking molecules through basic science to clinical development, this book offers a complete and authoritative reference on the design and discovery of anticancer drugs for translational scientists and clinicians involved in cancer research.
Ismail, M., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M. I., Javaid, A., Arsalan, H., Farhadullah, Khan, J, A., 2013. Frequency, Levels and Predictors of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in a Pediatrics Ward of a Teaching Hospital in Pakistan. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(3), 401 – 406.
1. Fixed drug eruption adalah erupsi alergi obat yang bila berulang akan timbul pada tempat yang sama.. Lesi berupa makula oval atau bulat berwarna merah tau keunguan, berbatas tegas, dapat ditemukan bula diatasnya, dapat dijumpai pada kulit dan mukosa, terutama pada bibir dan genital.
Sebagai strategi belajar, Discovery Learning mempunyai prinsip yang sama dengan inkuiri (inquiry) dan Problem Solving. Tidak ada perbedaan yang prinsipil pada ketiga istilah ini, pada Discovery Learning lebih menekankan pada ditemukannya konsep atau prinsip yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui. Perbedaannya dengan discovery ialah bahwa pada discovery masalah yang diperhadapkan kepada siswa semacam masalah yang direkayasa oleh guru
The drug is a material mix of materials used tau early treatment, relief, preventer h's, or diagnose a one disease, physical abnormalities or symptoms in humans or animals, or in recovery, repair or conversion of organic in humans or animals. The drug can be a material that is synthesized in the body (for example hormones, vitamin D) or the chemicals that are not synthesized in the body. The fast-paced modern world has unwittingly changed most of the lifestyles, personalities, and ways of thinking of the people involved. As a result of many kinds of diseases that appear. Some can be cured with the latest tools and remedies, on the other hand, many diseases cannot be cured with the latest tools and remedies, although the time of treatment may heal for a moment. The purpose of this in benefit is to know people tend to prefer traditional medicine or drugs made from chemicals. The research was conducted using the qualitative method. The sample was a pharmacist and herbalist, the number of samples that there are two respondents.The data collected in the form of open interviews with respondents and videos to further strengthen as documentation.
The prices of drug and added costs of health care more expensive, causing people tried to self medication with drugs that are sold over the counter in pharmacy or the market (Sulistyarini, 2010). Before tried to self medication some one must be recognize that happened complaint, then can choose what is appropriate remedy to overcome the such complaints, and knowledge when to the drug used.
Providing this information is voluntary. Authorities for the collection of this information are found in 5 U.S.C. Part II (Civil Service Functions and Responsibilities) and Part III (Employees). The principal purposes for which the information will be used are to evaluate your qualifications and suitability for employment at the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and to ensure the accuracy of agency records. The information may be disclosed to employees of the U.S. Department of Justice who have a need to know the information for the performance of their duties, and to appropriate Federal, State, or local agencies responsible for investigating, prosecuting, enforcing, or implementing a statute, rule, regulation, or order, when DEA becomes aware of an indication of a violation or potential violation of civil or criminal law or regulation. Failure to furnish the requested information may disqualify you from employment at DEA. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is charged with enforcing the Controlled Substances Act. Thus, the use of drugs by DEA employees which is illegal under the Controlled Substances Act is not tolerated. In addition, applicants for employment with DEA who are found, through investigation or admission, to have experimented with or used drugs, in violation of the Controlled Substances Act, will not be considered for employment with the DEA. Exceptions to this policy may be made for applicants who admit to limited youthful, experimental use of marijuana. Such applicants may be considered for employment if there is no evidence of regular illegal drug use, and if the results of the full-field background investigation and other steps in the employment process are favorable.
Pyridazine is an important component of various biological active synthetic compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. In the present study, some 6-aryl-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives (2a–2f) were prepared from aroyl propionic acids (1a-1f). The final compounds (2a–2f) were evaluated for cyotoxicity activity by brine shrimp assay method. All the 6 compounds (2a–2f) were tested at dose level 5, 10, 20 (µg/ML) and potassium dichromate at dose level 10, 20, 30 (µg/ML) as reference drug. Compound 2c and 2e exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality with LC 50 1.023 and 1.20 μg respectively. Other compounds 2a, 2b, 2d, and 2f have also showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 7.58, 6.76, 8.91 and 4.46 μg respectively. The present study supports that brine shrimp bioassay is simple reliable and convenient method for assessment of bioactivity of 2a-2f and lends support for their uses in medicine.