The ASEAN’s entrepreneurship policies must be based on improving commercial conditions, providing incentives, and facilitating access to investment funding for start-up businesses. It means that ASEAN countries should create a national innovation policy that centres on a broad agenda to fuel a nation's innovative capacity and it seeks action from government, industry, academia and workers. A national innovation strategy builds on a contemporary understanding of innovation and tries to create a consensus to act on the changes required to establish an effective national framework. It requires to optimize the entire society for innovation with focus to three categories: (1) talent – the human dimension of innovation, including knowledge creation, education, training and workforce support, (2) investment – the financial dimension of innovation, including R&D investment, support for risk-taking and entrepreneurship, and encouragement of long-term innovation strategies, and (3) infrastructure – the physical and policy structures that support innovators, including networks for information, transportation, health care and energy; intellectual property protection; business regulation; and structures for collaboration among innovation stakeholders.
Starting in the 1980s, New Growth Theory (NGT), especially in the form of endogenous growth, has become a sunrise cottage industry. Yet another contribution on that topic could have been unremarkable. This volume, instead, deals with the predecessors of NGT, and most importantly, with the feedbacks between growth theory andeconomicdevelopment — a field that, also starting in the 1980s, has turned into a sunset industry. The merit of this volume, as a result, transcends the formalistic and ahistorical context of NGT and lies in its broad reach into economicdevelopmentand into the institutions, policies andeconomic structure that make growth happen. The volume is the outcome of the International Summer School of the Department of Economics of the University of Siena, which in one of its annual meetings, in July 1994, brought scholars together to examine the fruitful communication between developmentandgrowth theories. The result is 10 stimulating essays plus the introductory chapter by the editors of the volume.
Tambunan (2001) suggested some factors of inequality, among others: (1) Concentration of regional economic activity, the concentration of the economy is high in certain areas is one of the factors that caused the development gaps between regions. Economy of regions with low economic concentration will tend to have this level of developmentand low economicgrowth; (2) the investment allocation, based on the theory of Harrod-Domar was there a positive correlation between the level of investment andeconomicgrowth, it can be said that the lack of investment in a region’s economicgrowthand income levels per capita in the region is low because there is no economic activity productive; (3) the level of mobility and production factor low inter-regional, less smooth mobility of factors of production, such as labor and capital is a cause of regional imbalance regional; (4) difference of natural resources inter-regional, basic classical thinking said that economicdevelopment in areas rich in natural resources will be more advanced and more prosperous society than poor area of natural resources; (5) inter-regional differences demographic conditions, (also the regional imbalances caused by differences in demographic conditions, particularly in terms of the number and population growth, population density, education, health, public discipline and work ethic); and (6) less smooth commerce, it is also an element that helped create regional imbalances. In addition, also caused by limited transportation and communication. Myrdal in Jhingan (1993), states that the regional inequality within a country rooted in non-economic basis. Regional inequality is closely related to the capitalization system that is underpinned by the proit motive. The proit motive is what drives the development of a centralized development in the region - a region which has a “high-proit expectations,” while other areas neglected. Myrdal explained that the growth of a region will affect the surrounding areas, the effect occurs through a backwash effect and spread effect. Backwash effect occurs when economicgrowth occurs in a particular area resulted in the transfer of resources (e.g. labor, capital, and so on) from the region around the region. The impact spread effect occurs when economicgrowth in the region resulted in the growth of the surrounding regions that produce raw materials for the industry growing at such centers and centers that have
This study was conducted to explore the role of forestry sector in the economic system of Gunungkidul district. The Location Quotient (LQ) Analysis, Income Multiplier Effect Value, and Klassen Typology Analysis were employed to analyze the role of the forestry sector. The data were regional income of Gunungkidul district and Yogyakarta Province from 1993 to 2008, including the economic crisis period from 1997 to 1998. The result showed that forestry sector was an important sector in economicdevelopment of Gunungkidul district. LQ analysis indicated that forestry became a basic sector since pre-economic crisis period until post-economic crisis (1993 - 2008). Prior to the economic crisis, forestry sector generated the highest income multiplier effect value. However, the value dropped during and after the economic crisis. The economic crisis had an influence on the development pattern classification of forestry sector. Before economic crisis, forestry sector was classified as a developed sector (quadrant I) with the growthand shared to GDRP in Gunungkidul were higher than that in Yogyakarta Province. Meanwhile, since the economic crisis, forestry sector fell into the lower class as a stagnant sector.
In case of West Sumatra, population growth is mostly influenced by natural increase (fertility and mortality). Eventhough in West Sumatra there is merantau tradition (outmigration), negative net migration tends to decrease. This condition may occur because of reducing disparity among provinces in Indonesia. Uneven development among provinces in Indonesia may become one of the push factors of migration. Considering this condition, therefore, to find the impact of population growth on economicgrowth, it can be analysed through relationship between fertility andeconomicdevelopment. One of the indicators that usually indicates fertility is Total Fertility Rate (TFR). TFR reflects number of children which possibly beared by a woman at the end of her productive period if she follows a scheduled fertility pattern.
Before talking about education first will be discussed about early childhood. As for the meaning of early childhood is as follows: (Depdiknas: 2002) Early childhood is a group of people aged 0-6 years (in Indonesia based on Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System), as for berdasrkan the experts of education children, the group of people aged 9-8 years. Early childhood is a group of children who are in the process of growthanddevelopment that is unique, in the sense of having a pattern of growthanddevelopment (fine and coarse motor coordination), intelligence (thinking power, creativity, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence), emotional social (attitudes and behaviors and religion), language and communications that are specific to the child's growthanddevelopment. Based on the uniqueness of growthanddevelopment, early childhood is divided into three stages, namely (a) the period of birth to 12 months, (b) toddler (toddler) age 1-3 years, (c) preschool age 3-6 years , (d) the initial grade of SD 6-8 years. The growthanddevelopment of early childhood needs to be directed to laying the right foundations for the growthanddevelopment of the full human being, namely the growthanddevelopment of physical, intellectual, creative, emotional, social, language and balanced communication as the basis of intact personal formation.(Bambang Hartoyo:2004)
In the realm of anthropology, holistic as well as comparation becomes a very central concept. In this context, holistic is the totality or interrelationship between various aspects in explaining about human and society. In the realm of social science, holistic begins with ideas that thrive in biological disciplines. The English social scientist, Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) built a holistic analogy on biology and applied to see society. His thinking is often referred to as an organic analogy. He says that social progress is a consequence of the evolution of the social system. Spencer sees growing societies like animals or plant organisms.
Secondary succession can be illustrated by an exam- ple involving natural regeneration after the clear-cutting of a mature, mixed-species forest in northeastern North America. In this case, the original forest was dominated by a mixture of angiosperm and coniferous tree species, plus various plants that are tolerant of the stressful, shad- ed conditions beneath a closed forest canopy. Some of the plants of the original community survive the disturbance of clear-cutting, and they immediately begin to regener- ate. For example, each cut stump of red maple (Acer rubrum) rapidly issues hundreds of new sprouts, which grow rapidly, and eventually self-thin to only 1-3 mature stems after about 50 years. Other species regenerate from a long-lived seed bank, buried in the forest floor and stimulated to germinate by the environmental conditions occurring after disturbance of the forest. Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and red raspberry (Rubus strigo- sus) are especially effective at this type of regeneration, and these species are prominent during the first several decades of the secondary succession. Some of the origi- nal species do not survive the clear-cutting in large num- bers, and they must re-invade the developing habitat. This is often the case of coniferous trees, such as red spruce (Picea rubens). Another group of species is not even pre- sent in the community prior to its disturbance, but they quickly invade the site to take advantage of the temporary conditions of resource availability and little competition immediately after disturbance. Examples of these so- called ruderal species are woody plants such as alders (in
This research is motivated by learning to develop the overall capability of children group B TK pearl mother of fifty cities that still need to be improved learning. It is still seen that many children are still not fully developed. Therefore, developing children's overall capability in the right way, one of them by using holistic integrative approach. The purpose of this research is to know how to develop early childhood in an integrated and holistic with holistic integrative approach. Data were collected by interview in learning and documentation support.
In 2007–2013 Norfund’s investments in renewable energy accounted for nearly half of Norwegian development assistance to clean energy. During the period, Norfund attempted to increasingly direct its investments towards Africa and the least developed countries. However, only 2 per cent of the investments were made in the seven core countries in this period. Meanwhile, nearly two-thirds of Norfund’s investments in renewable energy were made in upper middle-income countries. The audit shows that the framework conditions for private investments in the core countries are so weak that it is very diicult to ind proitable renewable energy projects. Norfund’s existing requirement for proitability makes the fund a poorly suited instrument for catalysing investments in countries with the weakest economicand legal framework conditions. The Ministry of Foreign Afairs disbursed about NOK 2 billion in 2000–2013 to develop central and distribution grids in the seven partner countries. This accounts for about 60 per cent of the energy aid to these countries. According to the embassies, the aid provided more than 100,000 households with access to electricity. The extension of the central grid to rural areas has been given special priority by the embassies in Mozambique and Tanzania. In Mozambique, however, the development of the central power grid caused major inancial losses for the national power company. The audit shows that there is a risk of the same efect for the national power company in
The result of this study indicate that deprayal sectoral financing effect on income andgrowth sectoral. Through analysis Location Quotient and Shift Share Approach we know that growth sectors because financing from goverment and private sector. There is economic structure from primary sector to secondary and tertiary sectors.
strong correlation or close to 1, it can be said that the better model in explaining the data. where the northern region of 89.5% - 57.8%, southern region 92.9% -88.6% and 91.2% - 79.2% Maluku. Thus the diversity of each endogenous variable can be explained by the explanatory variables included in the model. While relationship between investment increase shelf dock with economicgrowth figures showed a less significant where for every increase of 1% long berth, simply push the economicgrowth of 0.0002% in the north, 0.0001% in the south and 0.0001% Maluku. but the growth of load- unload goods indicates significant economicgrowth in which to increase the load-unload by 1% to stimulate economicgrowth sebasar 2.27% in the northern region, 1.66% Maluku, but the south is only 0.327%.
There are a large number of studies done on tourism andeconomicgrowth. These studies can be grouped into two broad categories, namely, single-country studies and country-group studies. Due to the limitation of resources, this review is limited to some of the most recent studies. The empirical results from previous studies on the causal relationship between tourism expansion andeconomicgrowth are mostly mixed. For example, Kreishan (2010), Lee and Chang (2008), Kim, et al. (2006), Dritsakis (2004), Durbarry (2004), and Balaguer and Cantavella-Jorda (2002) find evidence supporting the tourism-led economicgrowth hypothesis. The economic-driven tourism growth hypothesis is supported in studies by Katircioglu (2009), Oh (2005), Narayan (2004), and Lanza et al. (2003). Although relatively few, the reciprocal hypothesis is still supported by, for example, Arslanturk, et al. (2011), Kim, et al. (2006) and Shan and Wilson (2001). The Granger causality test has been widely used in the literature in analyzing the relationship between tourism andeconomicgrowth. For a comprehensive survey of current literature on tourism demand and is impact on the economy, please see Song and Li (2008) and Li, Song, and Witt (2005).
In contrast, the results show that the increase of investment by 10% would affect negatively the long-term economicgrowth (2.4%).This un - expected finding may nevertheless be explained by the following complementary features. First, on a general level, several studies on the effec - tiveness of investment in Morocco show that is non-productive (World Bank, 2006; Sekkat, 2004; Abouch and Ezzahid, 2004; Ministry of economy and Finance, 2002). More recently, the IMF in its Article IV consultations report of 2011, underlines clearly the persistence of low efficiency of investment projects (IMF, 2011, p.16). Furthermore, the analysis of the nation - al investment behavior on the period studied shows that it was supported in particular by public investment, along with the policy of the major projects undertaken by Morocco to catch the recorded deficit in basic infrastructure 6 . The
classification of relatively underdeveloped areas. Result of Klasen Typology analysis shows that Tasikmalaya City is within the classification of fast growing area and its hinterlands are within the classification of relatively underdeveloped areas. Result of Location Quotient Analysis shows that the economic sector of Baubau and Tasikmalay Areas is more advanced and superior. The leading sectors that are the basic sectors of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities are development, trade, hotel and restaurant, transportation and communication, finance, leasing and financial services and services sectors. Shift Share Analysis in local level (differential shift), however, shows that the basic sectors of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities are experiencing a shift and slow growth. Result of Schallogram Analysis shows that Baubau City is in Hierarchy II/Medium area and its hinterland, North Buton Regency, is in Hierarchy I/High and Buton,and Muna Regencies are in Hierarchy III/Low. Result of Schallogram Analysis shows that Tasikmalaya City is in Hierarchy I/High area and its hinterland, Garut and Ciamis Regencies are in Hierarchy II/Medium and Tasikmalaya,and Banjar Regencies are in Hierarchy III/Low. Result of Gravity Analysis shows that the intensity of economic interaction and attraction of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities with their hinterlands are varied. Strong economic interaction and attraction is indicated by Baubau City with Buton and Muna Regencies; whereas Baubau City with North Buton, Wakatobi and Bombana Regencies has a very weak interaction and attraction indicated by small gravity index. Economic interaction and attraction of Tasikmalaya City area with its hinterland shows strong intensity with Tasikmalaya and Ciamis Regencies indicated from large gravity index and it is very weak with Garut, Banjar and Pangandaran Regencies indicated by small gravity index. Result of society’s perception analysis using analytic al hierarchy process (AHP), in general, shows that pemekaran wilayah gives great benefit for the society in terms of income, service and the availability of infrastructure and the development of regional economy of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities. Result of AHP analysis shows that from four alternative strategies in the research, the main priority of alternative strategy is pemekaran wilayah creates central of growth (PW-PP).
9. Through this conference, I truly hope that new ideas within the realm of sustainable development will emerge. I encourage you to have an open and constructive dialogue and would like to reiterate that we need to act pronto, we need to act strong and we need to act together!
From a top-down perspective this overarching framework or strategy including a clear and transparent leadership from organizations such as the United Nations is not clearly observable yet. The problem is not that clear goals are missing – as example Kofi Annan announced millennium goals on sustainable urban development regarding social, economicand ecologic development – the problem is rather the structural and organizational connection between overarching political goals and transforming them into reality. It needs to be accepted that a common vision is essential, but different local solutions need to be found. There is a lack of reliable instruments or even knowledge, on how to transfer these goals into implementation observable. Amongst others, this is caused by many scientific studies not including an implementation part. No doubt, this is a very difficult task from allocation of responsibilities and tasks for implementation and reflexive governance. Furthermore, ignorance of real situations such as denial of corruption, lack of political will or knowledge, lack of excellent open-minded staff, documentation of failures, etc. is common practice.
The design of Medicare Part D causes most Medicare beneficiaries to receive fragmented health insurance, whereby prescription drugs and other medical care are covered by separate insurance plans. Fragmentation of insurance plans is potentially inefficient since separate insurers maximize profits over only one com- ponent of healthcare spending, despite many complementarities and substitutabilities be- tween types of healthcare. Fragmentation of some plans but not others can also lead to market distortions due to differential adverse selection, as integrated plans may use drug formulary designs to induce enrollment by patients who are profitable under Parts A & B, while stand-alone drug plans have no such in- centive. We study whether the design of insur- ance plans in Medicare Part D reflects these two differences in incentives using data on the universe of Part D plan formularies, drug prices, and Medicare claims data. We find evidence consistent with both hypotheses. Relative to fragmented plans, integrated plans systematically design their drug formularies to encourage enrollment by beneficiaries with medical conditions that are profitable under Parts A & B. However, integrated plans also more generously cover drugs that have the po- tential to causally reduce medical costs. These large differences in incentives and plan design between integrated and fragmented plans are likely the precursors of substantial differential selection of enrollees, and the basic design of Medicare Part D abets this covert selection.
The profit and loss sharing (PLS) provides a stronger information signal than the short run financing. Islamic banks by participating in the business have access to more important information that would otherwise not be available. They can better collect information at a lower cost, due to integration of the business world. Since the reward of the bank and its depositors are attached through the PLS they do a more accurate evaluation than the normal credit scoring. In addition, unlike the standardized credit scoring strategy of conventional banks, PLS financing of Islamic banks require complex and case by case specific evaluations.
Electronic Commerce is claimed as a form of new market in electronic era. Although most current use of Electronic Commerce occurs at the inter-corporate and inter-organizational levels, Electronic Commerce services aimed at individual consumers are developing rapidly. The internet is a major catalyst in the diffusion of Electronic commerce into an increasing number of economic spheres, and is rapidly harmonizing the general environment in which electronic transactions of all kinds take place. This form of new market is able to create some incentives both in transaction management and business efficiency area. On the other hand, implementation of Electronic