This present study found that most secondarystudents perceived both teacher groups equally, except for cultural knowledge of English-speaking countries. Actually, it can be understood since all of those items naturally belong to native speakers of English or nonnative speakers of English who have lived in one of English-speaking countries for quite a long time. Meanwhile, most NNESTs in “X” English course were not born or do not have the experience in living in an English-speaking country. Regarding NESTs, this research finding proved that students perceived NESTs to be as good as NNESTs in the areas, such as teaching grammar, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, both NESTs and NNESTs were perceived to be not able to understand the students’ special needs since teachers “X” English course handle one level for about twelve meetings only.
Since English became one of the international languages, local contents for high school in Indonesia have made it as one of the compulsory school subjects. However, most of the time, English lesson at school does not seem to completely cater for each student’s capabilities in language. Therefore, a lot of English courses or language schools mushroom. Among them, there is one famous English course, which is one of the most leading English courses in Surabaya. It is the head office of five other branches in the city. This English course under study (hereinafter shall be referred to as the English course) attracts more and more students to learn English since it provides English curriculum and interactive lessons which are more suitable for the student’s language capabilities. Furthermore, it also provides more English input, such as interactive teaching methods, textbooks, multimedia materials, and teachers, so students can experience English more naturally in the hope that their language abilities can be catered and even improved.
3 and to be their children‟s English teachers, because they believe that NESTs are more fun, provide a good linguistic model for their children, and are more able to teach the target language better than NNESTs. Besides, they also feel the prestige of having someone from English-speaking countries to teach their children. However, it is not parents who sit in the class and learn English. Students are the ones who experience learning English from NESTs and NNESTs in the classroom. “X” English course‟s student population consists of various age: kindergarten students (3-5 years old), elementary students (6-11 years old), junior high school students (12-14 years old), high school students (15-17 years old), university students (18-22 years old), and even employees as well as businessmen/women. Nevertheless, secondary (high school) students dominate the whole population and this would be interesting to ascertain what they experience in the class.
During my observation on the instructional process implemented by the lecturer and his fifteen students, I can witness that writing is basically not just about a skill that can be separated from a culture. I mean that writing is so cultural that learning to write is to learn a new culture. In some early meetings, students seemed to be unaccustomed to some aspects of the new culture. Some of them looked surprised, and some others got enthusiastic. For example, when the lecturer introduced the way of scoring called portfolio assessment, the students expressed their astonishment upon multiple drafting with some feedback from peers or lecturers plus self-reflection from the writer. Such a surprise shows that they have not realized the importance of other‟s comments and self- reflection in the process of writing. Some students demonstrated their enthusiasm when they began to realize that portfolio approach is different from the traditional one. When they were told to be more independent and were more cooperative one another in producing a piece of writing in the course, they appeared to come to be glad and motivated. The students‟ surprise and enthusiasm is an important fact that combines pessimism and enthusiasm in facing a new situation, or, in this case, a new culture, that is writing culture with new demands of rituality, property, attitude, and social interactions among students and the lecturer [June 25, 2011].
The development of non-interactive technologies such as radio, television, compact-disk players, and stand alone software packages have been gradually replaced by the interactive ones. Internet is mostly used to communicate by people all over the world since it connects them quickly and facilitates long distance access. Interactive communication via internet has reformed human daily communicative practices. Email, mailing list, and social networking have been possibly and potentially used in several aspects of education. Over the past decade, pedagogical practices in higher education (HE) have undergone a significant move toward students- centered and community-based modes of learning (Rovai & Jordan, 2004). At the same time, the development of Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment), an instance of Course Management System (CMS) (www.moodle.org) has facilitated both the instructors and students to have condusive community learning enviroment supporting them to access teaching learning activities not only in the classroom but also from outside the class. Such a learning environment also enables them to interact with each other and thus the activities can be centered towards the students and be geared towards their needs, interests, learning pace, etc.
Johnson, G M., & Broadley, T. (2012). Web-based Active Learning and Frequent Feedback: Engaging First-Year University Students, in Herrington, A. and Schrape, J. and Singh, K. (ed), Engaging Students with Learning Technologies, pp. 77-96. Perth, Western Australia: Curtin University.
The study is important, especially for teachers, to provide clear view of what strategies likely appropriate and proper in teaching speaking, alongside the anticipation towards the emerging problems related to speaking skill so that the implemented strategies are delivered efficiently to students. Besides, this research enables teachers to selectively employ appropriate and proper teaching strategies for students in a classroom. As for other researcher, it gives benefitable information on teaching strategies in speaking implemented in the classroom in order that they conduct further investigation in the future.
On the example 3, the staff used indirect refusal. ‘Umm..I am not sure you can dear’. Based on Beebe et al. (1990) the staff used avoidance with adjunct filler ‘umm’, and continued by using indirect refusal ‘I am not sure you can dear. In the last, the staff also used empathy ‘I know you are need it’ and indicated reluctant ‘but that’s the rule’. In the following example, Indonesian EFL learner used positive agreement to refuse a staff invitation to join an English club.
Since this study employed qualitative approach, multiple data collections are considered needed (Fraenkel., Wallen., & Hyun, 2012). The data collection techniques of this study were observation, questionnaire, interview, and an analysis of students’ written notes. Observation was conducted in classroom activities. It was used to observe students’ self -regulated learning strategies in English classroom activity. Questionnaire was delivered to explore students’ self -regulated learning strategies in EFL whether in classroom or outside classroom contexts. Interview was used to understand students’ self -regulated learning strategies in EFL deeply and strengthen the result of questionnaire. Furthermore, students’ written notes were examined as one of evidences of their self-regulated learning in learning English.
This study is a quantitative study that investigates Indonesian EFLstudents attitudes toward various accents, which are British English (BE), American English (AE), Malaysian English (ME), Indian English (IE), and Japanese English (JE). Particularly, the study explains three concerns about: Indonesian EFLstudents attitude toward various English accents; opinions about the importance of using native accent(s); opinions about own accent. Questionnaires written in Bahasa Indonesia were distributed to 100 students of English Department Satya Wacana Christian University Salatiga. The results show that native accents receive more positive attitudes, and non-native accents receive more negative attitudes; nevertheless; more than half participants state that using native accent(s) is not important; and; most of participants claimed their accent is non native, but they have positive opinions toward their accent, and positive feelings when they use their accent.
One of the kinds of metafunction based on Halliday’s theory on systemic functional grammar is experiential function (clause as representation) realized by transitivity system in which to describe experience. There are three major aspects discussed in the transitivity system, namely participant, process, and circumstance. Additionally, Gerot and Wignell (1994) state that there are thirteen types of academic genre viz. spoof, recounts, reports, exposition, news item, anecdote, narrative, procedure, description, commentary, explanation, discussion, and reviews. Thus, this study is limited to types of process, circumstance, and participant in EFLstudents’ recount text in Medan.
This study attempts to investigate the experiential function as proposed by Halliday and Matthiessen (2014) in EFLstudents’ recount text in Medan. This study is aimed to discover and to explain the process types, the participant types and functions, and circumstantial element which characterize EFLStudents’ recount text in Medan. Qualitative content analysis proposed by Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007) is employed in this study. The data are clauses taken from 60 recount texts. The trustworthiness of the data is gained by using credibility and dependability. Based on the data analysis, it is found that there are 2833 occurrences of process types, 3876 occurrences of participant functions, 3876 occurrences of participant type, and 1989 occurrences of circumstantial type in EFLStudents’ Recount Text in Medan. In terms of process type, on the whole, there are seven process types that occur in the data and material process characterizes the recount text with 51.80% from the total of occurrences. Then, there are 18 types of participant function occurred in the data in which the most dominant participant function is actor with the total percentage 26.71%, and the dominant participant type is non-human participant (NH) with 52.86%. Furthermore, there are 17 circumstantial elements found in the data and the dominant circumstantial element which characterizes the texts is circumstantial locative with the total occurrences 711 occurrences or 35.75%. In conclusion, the realization of dominant material process, actor, non-human participant, and circumstantial locative place characterize EFLstudents’ recount text in Medan. It means that the students tend to write what practically happens and what they do and how they do it out there because the topic given is about going to somewhere to describe what happens or what is done. Then, in terms of participant type, non- human participant realizes as the dominant one because the students use it to describe the place or the location that they have visited. Then, the actor as the participant function characterizes EFLstudents’ recount text in Medan because the actor is the participant involved in material process or the doer of the deed. The realization of circumstantial locative place as the dominant circumstantial element in the text happens because the topic discussed is about going to somewhere and it must be stated the place they have visited or the location where the action happened.
Relational process is then followed by mental process. This process has 4 types namely perceptive, cognitive, desiderative, and emotive (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2014). Those processes appeared in the analysis totaling to 351 occurrences or 12.39% of all process occurrences (perceptive has 108 occurrences or 3.81%, desiderative 104 occurrences or 3.67%, cognitive 86 occurrences or 3.03% and emotive 53 occurrences 1.87%). It means that students use mental process to construe a quantum of change in the flow of events taking place in their own consciousness. For example they use the mental process to share what they feel, think, or wish. The next tables present the example of each type of material process appeared in EFLstudents’ recount text in Medan.
Levin and Topping. 2015. Perfect presentation. In Al-Nouh et al (ed), EFL college students’ perceptions of the difficulties in oral presentation as a form of assessement (hlm 136). Kuwait: College of Education, Kuwait University. McMillan, James H. 2008. Educational Research: Fundamental for The
Students as learners of English undoubtedly face various problems in their learning paths. Teachers will surely try to help them as much as they can. One way is by creating a conducive learning environment and boosting their confidence and enhancing positive self-image. The aim of this study is to find out how learning environment contributes to students‟ self -image and confidence. Learning environment in this context consists of the teacher, classmates, and the surrounding classroom conditions and situations. The participants of this study were 23 Academic Writing students, Semester I/ 2011-2012. Data were mainly collected through journals, in-class observation, and on-line interviews. This interview was conducted after the data were collected, the purpose was to get clarification of the participants‟ opinions. From the study, I found that students had different criteria for what was called “conducive” and the factors that contributed to that kind of situation varied according to the students‟ perspectives. The findings further showed that for responsive students, in a classroom with conducive learning atmosphere -with supportive teacher and peers- students were likely to have better self-image and greater confidence. In turn, they could learn more comfortably and positively. There were some students, however, who did not care about the environment – teacher and peers. They tended to be passive learners with no interest, enthusiasm, as well as confidence in learning. The classroom environment, thus, did not affect their confidence or self-image as language learners.
The main tool of this study is DCT. The scenarios of DCT consist of the situations and different social levels. The DCTs will take from 15 Indonesia EFLstudents and 15 Thailand EFLStudents. The select refusal was classified into two categories there are refusal to request and refusal to suggestion. The DCTs can be seen as follow: