Ayu Hertika Prapyuningrat. A320120122. CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP STUDENT’S ENGLISHSPEAKINGSKILL: A NATURALISTIC STUDY AT SMP MUHAMMADIYAH 1 SURAKARTA. Research Paper School of Teacher Training and Education Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta 2016.
The writer thinks it is not strong enough to prove the correlation between linguistic intelligence and Englishspeakingskill achievement. Therefore it is better to see the concept of intelligence to know what the most determining the intelligence itself. Intelligence, according to Gardner is Bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are value in a culture. Based on this definition, intelligence is the biological capacity which its development depends on how culture and environment affect on it. It is supported by the Spearman's intelligence theory. Spearman found that human behavior is caused by two factors, that is: (1) general factor (g) and (2) special factor (s). Spearman viewed that general factor is human basic factor (it is similar with biological factor) and special factor is affected by experience (environment and education). One thing that makes the human behavior is different with others is not caused by "g" factor but is caused by "s" factor. This explanation clearly can be illustrated like this: 74
According to the theory of Personality Psychology, the choleric student is an extrovert student; he tends to express idea and opinion in good speaking. In contrast with the melancholic student who is often known as stolid boy and he is introvert. He is estimated having less ability to show his thought orally when he needs to express his idea. Meanwhile, Englishspeakingskill could be practiced through various activities such as discussion, dialog, presentation, drama, role play, and speech. The better competency is achieved by integrated mastery among vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, fluency, and comprehension; all of them are the components of Englishspeakingskill.
This action research aimed to improve students’ Englishspeakingskill of PGSD students in STKIP PGRI Pacitan through communicative activities and to describe the classroom situation when communicative activities are implemented in the speaking class. The research method used in this research is a classroom action research, which conducted in two cycles. In collecting the data, the researcher used questionnaire, observation, interview, document analysis and tests. The researcher conducted the test before research (pre-test) and after implementing communicative activities (post test 1 and 2). The mean scores of each test were compared to know the students improvements in speaking ability. The improvement can be seen from the improvement of the mean score of pre-test (50), post test of cycle 1 (70) and the cycle 2 (77). Besides, the improvement of the classroom situation includes: 1) the class was more alive because the students participate actively; 2) there was an equal participation during the speaking class; 3) the students were motivated to speak English than Indonesian; 4) the students’ interaction improved significantly. Keywords: Speakingskill, communicative activities, classroom action research.
The result of this study is different with the previous study above, because the result of this research is the English teachers in SMP Muhammdiyah 1 Surakarta used various techniques to develop the students’ speakingskill. The classroom technique has each purpose in teaching-learning process. By using the various classroom techniques, it makes the students interested and enjoyed in teaching-learning English language. The students become more active and creative especially in teaching speakingskill. The various techniques to de velop students’ Englishspeakingskill are used such as: question and answer in group, conversation practice, discusssion, role play, playing cards, picture describing, retelling video, and storytelling.
To know exactly how or why your students are motivated will mean finding out how they feel about learning English at the beginning of a course (this would anyway be a good idea since it would give the teacher valuable information about the students). It is unlikely that everyone in the class will have the same motivation, and we have already said that motivation is a mixture of different factors. Nevertheless it is possible to make some general statements about motivational factors for different age groups and different levels. We will look at children, adolescents, adult beginners, adult intermediate, and adult advanced students.
The research is aimed at (1) finding whether and to what extent content-based instruction improved the students’ speakingskill; and (2) describing the teaching and learning situation when content-based instruction was applied in the speaking class. This study applied action research technique to conduct the research to improve students’ speaking ability through Content-based Instruction (CBI). Hopkins mentions that action research is a research which combines as substantive act with a research procedure; it is an action disciplined by enquiry, a personal attempt at understanding while engaged in process of improvement and reform. This research consisted of two cycles, with four meetings in each cycle; while each cycle consists planning, action, observation, and reflection. The research was conducted at CsV&TC, China; the subjects of the research were the students of second grade in the academic year of 2010-2011. In this research, there were two types of data: quantitative data and qualitative data. The quantitative data were collected through test, namely pre-test and post-test. The qualitative data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and interview to the students. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; find out the mean of the scores in the test and the significant improvement of the scores using t-test of non-independent variable. The qualitative data were analyzed using Constant-Comparative Method suggested by Glaser and Strauss consisting of the following steps: (1) comparing incidents applicable to each category; (2) integrating categories and their properties; (3) delimiting the theory; and (4) writing the theory.
Merciful, the Most Beneficent, who blessed the writer so that she can finally accomplish this research paper as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department of UMS. Praise to our greatest Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companions, and his followers. Amien.
This study investigates strategies for developing speakingskill used by students of English Education Department of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. The purpose of this study is to describe the strategies in developing speakingskill. Type of the research conducted by the writer is case study. In this research, the object of the research is strategies for developing speaking skills which are used by 3 students of third semester of English Education Department of UMS. The data of this research are elicited by field note and interview. The data include the students’ attitude in learning Englishspeakingskill, their behaviors toward Englishspeakingskill, and their habits of using the strategies in learning English especially to master speakingskill. The result of this research shows that the students applied almost all of the strategies proposed by O’Malley et al including meta-cognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and socio-affective strategies in mastering their speakingskill. In meta-cognitive strategies, the students use seven to eight strategies, namely: advance organizer, selective attention, self management, functional planning, self monitoring, and self evaluation. In cognitive strategies, the students used twelve to fourteen strategies, namely: repetition, resourcing, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination, imagery, auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration, and inferencing. And in socio-affective strategies, the students used two strategies, namely: cooperation and question for clarification.
The object of the research is strategies for developing speaking skills which are used by 3 students of third semester of English Education Department of UMS. The 3 students of third semester, namely: Miss A, Miss D, and Miss S. The data of this research are field note and the answer of interview. The data including the students’ attitude in learning Englishspeakingskill, their behaviors toward Englishspeakingskill, and their habits of using the strategies in learning English especially to master speakingskill. The secondary sources come from their peers, lecturers and their surrounding where the researcher may get additional information.
Speakingskill is an important requirement in a speech which consists of the use of words even sentences while having conversations in daily life without any misunderstanding. Then it could be understood well, so they can be more confident in speakingEnglish. Speakingskill also has big roles to lead the students to their academic and non-academic success. It means that English is the International standard. Many people use these qualities as part of everyday conversation. The solution is learning how to consciously apply these qualities to a public speech. They need to be learned as skills. Mastery of these skills in a speech delivery will make someone more confident. Then confidence will enable us to better use these qualities. The result will be speech mastery. In truth, this skill plays a part of many influences such as, influence the speech and confidence.
There are some views dealing with the definition of speaking. Brown (2001: 267) in Putra (2015) cites that when someone is be able speak a language which indicates that he or shecan carry on a conversation reasonably competently. They are many elements of speaking that must be mastered by students in order to be a good speaker connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, and negotiation language. In learning speaking students need to know about the types of speaking. As stated by Brown (2003) in Putra (2015), there are several types of speaking. Those are imitative, intensive, responsive, interactive, and extensive. In learning English, speakingskill is defined in different ways. As stated by Azem, M. &Dogar, M. H., (2011) in Rubiati (2010) “Speaking is a productive skill in the oral mode. It is like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at the first and involves more than just pronouncing words.” Speakingskill is divided into three categories such as fluency, accuracy, and clarity.
This research describes types of technique used by the English teacher of SMA N 2 Sukoharjo to develop students’ Englishspeakingskill, the techniques use, classroom procedure, probem faced by teacher, and problem faced by students. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative. Methods used in this research are: observation, interview, and documentation. The result shows that the type of technique used by the English teacher in teaching learning process to develop students’ speakingskill at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Sukoharjo such are Role-play, Discussion, Picture Describing and Brainstorming. Various techniques used by the teacher in teaching learning process make the student more active, more creative and the student more enthusiastic in teaching learning process especially in speaking activity in the classroom. Various techniques also make the student not bored when learning process, the students’ fun, enjoyed and confident when learning speaking process. Based on the observation, the use of technique in teaching learning process is very important to make situation in classroom more interesting and make the student enthusiastic in learning process.
Nobody believes that people nowadays are as honest as they once were. Crime rate has increased. Mutilation, sexual harassment, rapes, violent robberies, vandalism, drug abuse, frauds, bullying by motor-cycle gangsters, human trafficking, traffic and other violations have drastically increased both in quality and in quantity. Moreover, in spite of the fact that there have been tremendous advances in technology, ecological system has been disturbed. Due to people’s carelessness in throwing rubbish carelessly and illegal logging, more and more cities in Indonesia are inundated not only when there is heavy rain but when there is only small rain as well. Traffic jams in greater cities of Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya, to mention but a few, have increasingly disrupted the pollution index and thus worsened the quality of lives of their residents. Jovan claims “the importance of implementing the six pillars of characters in education, namely trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship”. I suggest that teachers should provide those values in designing the topics and materials for certain English subjects which may help both to alleviate or mitigate negative characters and to elevate positive characters and proper behaviour. There should be some sort of indoctrination or even brainrinsing and brainwashing to make the students accustomed to prefer doing positive things to committing to negative things. To find out how it should be carried out, proceed to the following discussion. Choosing Topics For Argumentative Conversation That Contain Added Values
Endah, Jiati, The correlation between Students’ Ability in Listening to the English Songs and Their Vocabulary mastery, e-Journal of English Language Teaching Society(ELTS), Vol 1, No. 1, 2013. Fauzi, Endang, Teaching Of English As A Foreign Language, Surakarta,
for many is particularly conducive for learning. He also states that there is a fundamental difference between knowledge and skill. Both can be understood and memorized, while only a skill can be imitated and practiced. Furthermore he clarifies that there are two basic ways in which something we do can be seen as a skill (1997: 5). The first is motor-perceptive skills that involve perceiving, recalling, and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language. The second is interaction skills that involve making decisions about communication, such as: what to say, how to say it, and whether to develop it, in accordance with one’s intention while maintaining the desired relations with others. The notions of what is right or wrong now depend on such things as what we have decided to say, how successful we have been so far, whether it is useful to continue the point, what our intentions are, and what sorts of relations we intend to establish or maintain with our interlocutors.
Language is used for communication. In a communication, people say things to each other and express their own needs. Currently, speakingEnglish becomes very important, especially using English for communication. Speaking is one of the important and essential skills that people must practice.
4. Drs. Gunarso Susilohadi, M. Ed, TESOL, the second consultant, for his time, support, patience, correction, and suggestions during writing this thesis. 5. Drs. A. Dahlan Rais, M.Hum, the academic consultant, for his guidance. 6. All lecturers in English Education Department for the precious knowledge. 7. The students of class A and B of EED ’11, for their good cooperation during
Teaching and learning English is a process of achieving the target of education curriculum. In achieving the target of English learning with functional language target at junior high school, it is not easy project for English teachers. Fauziati (2009: 131) states that understanding of English is not only understanding about knowledge of language but also the ability how to use it in communication. The mastery of English will face some supporting and some obstacle factors in achieving the target of language learning. As a result, language learning needs some supporting factors in its process.