Firms in Quadrant II usually follow a differentiation or focus strategy (Hrebiniak & Joyce, 1985). A differentiation strategy is one of differentiating the product or service to the extent of creating something perceived as being unique. A focus strategy narrows its strategic target and serves the targeted segment of the market more effectively than competitors. Both strategies imply limitations on overall market share achievable and mayor may not involve a trade-off with overall cost position (Porter, 1980). A differentiation or focus strategy could create a perception of uniqueness or effectively serve its target market by offering a product at a high price for low price for affordability to the customer Organizations in Quadrant II, because of the condition of high choice relative to the other quadrants, have an abundance of resources, have high flexibility in switching resources and have fairly high autonomy (Lawless & Finch, 1989, p. 354). Although Quadrant II organizations have a wide range of strategic choices, environmentaluncertainty may make choosing between strategies problematic. The next section of the paper discusses how different types of environmentaluncertainty influence organizational administrators’ choices.
that is used to replace the asymmetry information in the study with the variable of environmentaluncertainty and keep using variable of organizational commitment as the moderating variable. Another difference is the place and time of the study, where this research raises the reality of budgetary slack phenomenon that occurs in West Sumatra Provincial Government, while the research conducted was in the Local Government of Dompu Regency. While the similarity lies in the technique of data analysis, which was by using Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.
of the study. First, the perceived environmen- tal uncertainty is a multidimensional construct and should be evaluated separately in order to have meaningful analysis. Instead of using aggregate environmentaluncertainty, the fur- ther study should examine, for example, the moderating role of technological uncertainty or competition uncertainty in the entrepre- neurial orientation and business performance relationship. Second, national culture and other internal factors (firms and entrepreneurs characteristics) should be incorporated in or- der to have a better understanding of the re- lationship. Third, the number of participants in the study was relatively small and focused only on one province. The findings may not be generalised in the Indonesian context, as differences in responses to the interviews between one region to others may exist. Hence, it would be interesting if, in the fu- ture, further study also recruited the partici- pants from provinces where SMEs are a criti- cal sector for the regions. Fourth, the present study employs cross-sectional design which may not allow causal inferences. Therefore, for further studies, the longitudinal approach would provide a better understanding of the nature of these relationships.
Thus we can conclude the quality of accounting information management in large industries inSouth Sumatra Province which is dominated by the content of information was positively affected by the accounting information system of management which is dominated by the management of the management information system of management accounting and environmentaluncertainty perceived dominated by environment external company. However, the partial factor management accounting information system has the most dominant influence on the quality of management accounting information. This analysis resulted in a finding that the quality of management accounting information produced by big industry in South Sumatra province could increase if management manager accounting information system management laid out well and the manager can be perceived
This research has some limitation beside that this is a case study. In a case study such as this paper, general conclusion is hard to be drawn as the data only represent one organization. The number of respondents able to participate is also low due to the nature of this research location and subject. Future development of theories and empirical studies regarding perceived environmentaluncertainty, budgetary participation, and performance of NGOs should include various organization and hetero sample to be closer in withdrawing general conclusion and even a theory.
Organizational action is the result of gathering and interoperating information from environment (Daft and Weick, 1984). Each time organization take action, the environment is change, thus begins the cycle of organization adaptation, information gathering, interpretation, and adaptation. Administrator who are experiencing of high degree of state uncertainty will spent a greater amount of time resources on environmental scanning than will administrator who are more confident in their understanding of the environment (Milliken, 1987; May et. al, 2000) Scanning activity will increase in response to increasing of environmentaluncertainty. Under low uncertainty condition (stable environment) decision making can rely their existing knowledge and experience, so they often expend limited effort on scanning. Scanning activity is linearly related to environmentaluncertainty with the amount of scanning increasing as the environment becomes more dynamic. However, scanning activity decreases at high and low level of uncertainty since useful in formation is either unattainable or already known.
When assessing the applicability of the concept, the distinction between risk and ignorance is rele- vant. The structure of uncertainty in Siebert’s model is the structure of risk. Therefore, the policy recommendation of a risk premium can only be applied in a world of risk and not in a world of ignorance. This conclusion may be re- jected by arguing that the modelling approach does not preclude the applicability of the model in a world of ignorance. The author accepts that this argument may be given some weight. However, if we accept this argument, the next question is the level of pollution a policy-maker should aim for in a world of ignorance. It seems that this ques- tion cannot be answered within the framework of the model. For this reason and for the reason that many people certainly advocate a restriction of environmental policy on risk, it will be assumed that the concept of the risk premium can only be applied in a world of environmental risk. It is important to note that despite its limited scope of applicability, the concept may also have effects on environmental ignorance. As the policy is only targeted at emissions which are dangerous in a world of risk, but not at those which are danger- ous in a world of ignorance, polluters have an incentive to substitute the former emissions by the latter. In other words, a policy which is only targeted at environmental risk may well lead to an increase in environmental ignorance. The other subdivisions of environmentaluncertainty are ir- relevant here. Apart from ignorance, the concept of the risk premium can be applied in all cases. Efficiency in a world of risk depends on the economic instrument applied to achieve the pollu- tion reduction. The assessment is the same as in a world of certainty and extensively discussed in the literature (see e.g. Baumol and Oates, 1988). However, as there is an incentive to substitute regulated emissions by unregulated ones, the as- sessment of efficiency is different when we take ignorance into account. Abatement activities that are efficient in a world of risk may well be ineffi-
Puji syukur penulis panjatkan ke hadirat Tuhan YME yang telah melimpahkan rahmat dan hidayah-Nya, sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan skripsi dengan judul “ PENGARUH ENVIRONMENTAL RISK DAN ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE TERHADAP ENVIRONMENTAL DISCLOSURE Skripsi ini disusun guna memenuhi salah satu syarat dalam menyelesaikan Pendidikan Program Sarjana (S1) pada Fakultas Ekonomika dan bisnis Universitas Diponegoro Semarang.
This study aimed to examine the effect of environmental performance and hard environmental disclosure on stock return. The independent variables in this research are environmental performance, measured based on PROPER ratings, and hard environmental disclosure is scored using an index developed by Clarkson, et al. (2008). The dependent variable in this research is stock return, reflected by cumulative abnormal return. Samples of 19 companies are chosen for each period during the year 2009-2013 to form a total of 95 observations. This research adopts multiple linear regression method using SPSS as an analytical tool.
environmental objectives, policies and responsibilities including regular audit to monitor performance of each of the element of the environmental management system. An ems is regarded as a set transparent and systematic management processes with the ultimate aim to enable an organization to continually reduce its unfavourable impact on the natural environment.
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of environmental performance to the environmental disclosure and hard environmental disclosure. Disclosure is scored using an index developed by Clarkson et al. (2008) and the environmental performance measure is based on PROPER ratings.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penerapan corporate governance terhadap environmental performance dan environmental disclosure oleh perusahaan peserta Program Penilaian Peringkat Kinerja Perusahaan (PROPER), yang direpresentasikan melalui proporsi dewan komisaris independen, proporsi anggota komite audit yang independen, jumlah rapat dewan komisaris, serta jumlah rapat komite audit. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan kualitas environmental disclosure dan environmental performance antara perusahaan yang listing dan non – listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI). Selain itu, penelitian ini diharapkan memberikan gambaran terkini mengenai hubungan antara environmental performance dengan praktik environmnetal disclosure di Indonesia. Berdasarkan uraian tersebut di atas, peneliti akan melakukan penelitian dengan judul ” Corporate Governance , Environmental Performance , dan Environmental Disclosure di Indonesia”.
Hasil ini mendukung temuan peneliti terdahulu seperti Bragdon dan Marlin (1972), Spicer (1978), Feedman dan Jaggi (1992) dan Al-Tuwaijri, et al. (2004) yang menemukan hubungan positif signifikan antara economic performance dengan environmental performance. Sebaliknya, temuan di atas tidak konsisten dengan temuan Rockness, et al. (1986) yang menguji hubungan antara dua variabel limbah beresiko dalam industri bahan kimia dengan 12 indikator keuangan dan gagal mendokumentasi hubungan yang signifikan secara statistik. Temuan penelitian ini tidak memperkuat pernyataan bahwa hubungan antara economic performance dengan environmental performance yang tidak searah adalah konsisten dengan pemikiran ekonomi tradisional yang menggambarkan hubungan ini sebagai trade off antara profitabilitas perusahaan dengan tindakannya pada tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan. Temuan ini juga tidak konsisten dengan Susi (2005) yang menemukan hubungan yang tidak signifikan antara environmental performance dan financial performance perusahaan-perusahaan di Indonesia.
In general, the uncertainty measurement can be evaluated by manual or software programs. However, evaluating uncertainty of measurement by manual is not an easy task. The equations for uncertainty of measurement are complex to be memorized and complicated to be calculated as well. Yet, in this modern world, there is a number of software programs have been implemented to provide the needs of evaluation on measurement uncertainty. “Uncertainty Calculator” by Chris Grachanen is one of the software programs that may download from the website (Agilent Technologies, 2004). However, most of these software programs are uncommon to all users. The users are sometimes required to purchase for the software. Apart from that, users need spend more time to learn and understand the program as well. Also, the programs sometimes need support by other software with the specific programming language.
Uncertainty, on the other hand, takes the form of a range, and, if estimated for an analytical procedure and defined sample type, may apply to all determinations so described. In general, the value of the uncertainty cannot be used to correct a measurement result. The definition of the term uncertainty (of measurement) used in this protocol and taken from the current version adopted for the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology is "A parameter associated with the result of a measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measured". The definition of uncertainty given above focuses on the range of values that the analyst believes could reasonably be attributed to the measured. In general use, the word uncertainty relates to the general concept of doubt . In this guide, the word uncertainty , without adjectives, refers either to a parameter associated with the definition above, or to the limited knowledge about a particular value. Uncertainty of measurement does not imply doubt about the validity of a measurement; on the contrary, knowledge of the uncertainty implies increased confidence in the validity of a measurement result.