Foreign language anxiety (FLA) is a phenomenal issue and mainly a negative factor which can hamper foreign language learning (FLL). By knowing the fact that FLA has negative impact on the achievement of FLL, this study was conducted to investigate thelevelof FLA experienced by the first-year ED students, who attended ED, Satya Wacana Christian University in August 2011. This study was also aimed to know what type of FLA which was frequently experienced and how thestudents in each level experienced certain type of FLA. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), proposed by Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986) which was translated to Indonesian, was used in collecting the data. The FLCAS covers three components of FLA, which are communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. The questionnaire was administered to 43 first-year ED students. A descriptive narrative analysis was used to analyze th e participants’ responses. The finding suggested that the existence of FLA was obviously clear. It was found that the participants experienced various levels of FLA, which were at “very relaxed” level (6.98%), “relaxed” level (37.21%), “anxious” level (39.53%), and “mildly anxious” level (16.28%). In addition, test anxiety was found as the type of FLA which was frequently experienced by the first-year ED students, followed by communication apprehension, then fear of negative evaluation. They also experienced FLA in terms of nervousness and confusion in speaking or answering questions in English. Also, they were afraid of being laughed or being less competent than their peers.
Tanveer (2007:1) states in his study that such statements are commonly uttered by foreign language learners and are too familiar to the foreign language teachers. These statements indicate an important problem that the majority ofstudents face in learning and particularly speaking a second or foreign language. Many learners express their inability and sometimes even acknowledge their failure in learning to speak a second/foreign language. These learners may be good at learning other skills, but when it comes to learning to speak another language, they claim to have a “mental block‟ against it (Horwitz et al., 1986: 125). What then, hinders or stops them to succeed in learning a second/foreign language? In many cases, students’ feelings of stress, anxiety or nervousness may hinder their language learning and performance abilities. Theorists and second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have frequently demonstrated that these feelings or anxiety are specifically associated with learning and speaking a second/foreign language, which distinguishes L2/FL learning from learning other skills or subjects. Both teachers and students are aware and generally feel strongly that anxiety is a major factor to be overcome when learning to speak another language.
This qualitative study was designed to investigate the speaking anxiety factors in EFL classes. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) questionnaire adapted and modified from Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986), and Yahya (2013) was used in collecting the data. Sixty five second grade, year 11 senior high students from SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh were asked to fill in the questionnaire to find out what factors lead to speaking anxiety among these EFL students. The findings indicated that communication apprehension factors lead to 71% ofstudents’ speaking anxiety followed by fear of negative evaluations, 53%; then test anxiety, 48%, and the lowest was 39% for anxiety about English classes. English teachers are expected to be able to understand the character of each of their students in the classroom, because theanxietylevel for each student can be different, one from the other.
This research had a purpose to know what the dominant factorofStudents’ Anxiety are. Based on close questionnaire conducted by the researcher, students had many kinds of response to answer FLCAS. There were 54 participants who had different levels ofanxiety. After conducting the study, the researcher found that students mostly used to feel a mildly anxious when speaking in front ofthe class. From five levels ofanxiety, there are only four levels that feels by students. The researcher found that there were about 33 students (61%) or more than a half of participants were in the mildly anxious levelofanxiety based on the calculation. Researcher assumes that some students are just feel little bit anxious. Their level is still normal because most of them are 61% in mildly level. Then, followed by 11 students (20%) who had anxious levelofanxiety. It is found that few students were in relaxed level, there were 9 students (17%) who had relaxed levelofanxiety from all the participant. It means that they were confident enough to speak in front ofthe class. Last, it was only 1 student who had very relaxed levelofanxiety or 2% from all of participants. Only that student had best level to face anxiety in speaking test.
3 during the study will add value to students' education. In the tourism industry supply and demand side must communicate perfectly in order to ensure quality and meet performance standards. In the business tourism, oral practice communication is a bit higher than written communication, but both categories are rated high (Kay and Russette: 2000). Therefore, it is crucial that students be proficient in speaking English so that they can use the language efficiently for academic and practical purposes. Moreover, the use of English as a medium of instruction in the classroom requires thestudents to be proficient in the second language.
Special gratitude I give to my sponsors, Mr Antonius Suratno, Ph.D, and Dra. Cecilia Titiek Murniati,M.A.,Ph.D, for their value support, guidance, and feedback on this research as well as for encouraging me through this process. Both of you have taught me, in and out of class, valuable lessons that have and will continue enrich my life. Thank you for spending your valuable time giving me important suggestions for the betterment of my thesis.
Firms create their vision and mission statements in written form and announce to their employees and external shareholders. However, just getting vision and mission statements on the walls and web sites ofthe company is not sufficient (Benligiray et al., 2013). To have an efficient vision and mission, it is necessary to share them with the employees. Sharing vision and missions mean not to just tell, also make the statements being learning, adopting and exercising by the employees. Leaders are responsible for creating and maintaining vision and mission statements, but it can be achieved through whole employees in an organization. (Stovel and Bontis, 2002). After the employees adopt the vision and mission ofthe firm, they can make over into their own missions to achieve the overall goals ofthe organization. Several works suggest that vision and mission of an organization can impact positively on employee performance providing a high levels of commitment ofthe employees and shaping their behaviors in line with organization’s objectives (Bart et al., 2001; Campbell, 1997; Collins and Poras, 1996; Ireland and Hitt, 1992; Klemm et al., 1991). A vision and mission statement for the organization can serve as powerful vehicles to help achieve shared understanding and support from employees for the firm’s strategic plan road map. Employees want to believe that their efforts are important in supporting the organization to achieve exciting, satisfying and worthy goals (Stokely, 2004).
Less likely to participate in PT are students in large-sized schools and private schools, although under the standardized regimen of formal schooling in South Korea, private and public schools are indistinguishable in terms of student fees, overall school finance, and curriculum. In areas under the EP, students are even randomly assigned between public and private schools. A possible reason as to why private school students participate less in PT may be explained by the key difference between private and public schools in South Korea. That is, public school teachers and principals serve a limited term in one school before rotating to another. This rotation system hinders a sense of belonging and makes it difficult for principals to establish authority. Results reveal that students at large-sized schools are less likely to participate in PT than those at small-sized schools. On the one hand, this suggests the possibility that students in large schools are more polarized, with a group of active participants at one end ofthe continuum and a large group ofstudents who did not participate in PT at the other. On the other hand, it is possible that parents with children at small-sized schools are able to interact and network more with other parents and share their experiences about PT, generating more interest, thereby promoting the probability to participate in PT. Households in Seoul and other metropolitan areas are more likely to purchase PT than those in suburban areas. Parents residing in Seoul are 22% more likely to participate in PT and those in metropolitan areas are 9% more likely to choose PT than those living in suburban areas.
Practically, this study also provides information related to students’ anxiety in order to overcome the problems, particularly in the context where thestudents have to get more exposure to practice oral communication. Professionally, the investigation ofanxiety sources that arise while learning to communicate in the target language will hopefully broaden the insight into the issue of language anxiety and will help language teachers in making the classroom environment less stressful and he/she should try to create a friendly classroom environment in order to make students feel free to speak the language.
Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world. The word "valid" is derived from the Latin validus, meaning strong. The validity of a measurement tool is considered to be the degree to which the tool measures what it claims to measure; in this case, the validity is an equivalent to accuracy. According to Situmorang and Muslich (2014: 86), for a descriptive study that requires data or fact and usually simply uses questionnaires, validity which is often used is a surface validity. If the respondents can understand all the questions in the questionnaire without ambiguity, it is already said to be a valid questionnaires.
As a conclusion, these research findings did not match the hypothesis which elaborated before. At first, it was assumed that if students’ anxieties were high, their reading achievement would be low. Moreover, if students’ anxieties were low, their reading achievement would be high. In contrast, the findings revealed that even if Management Economics students’ reading anxiety was low, their reading achievement was also low. Thus, reading anxiety did not affect students’ achievement. It is assumed that there might be other factors causing thestudents’ low reading achievement.
According to the theory above, the researcher collaborates guessing game with one of activities in cooperative learning that is stand-up hand-up pair-up or SUHUPU. Stand up hand up pair up (SUHUPU) is one of structures in cooperative learning that has function as class building. Class building provides mutual support among all ofthestudents in a class and creates a positive context for learning. In stand up hand up pair up structure, thestudents will interact with their classmate and it means that thestudents must get up from their seats and work with their classmate. Working with the classmate or work in peer has some benefits such as increase the motivation, improve communicative opportunities, and strengthen cross-culture understanding among thestudents. 8 Besides, learning the language with getting up, moving around the classroom and interacting with classmate is usually fun time. 9
Perceptions of upper level accounting students and lower levelstudents on the ethics ofthe preparation of financial statements can be done by implementing the principles of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) are interlinked with each other in order to push the performance ofthe sources ofthe company is working efficiently, generate long-term economic value sustainable for shareholders and surrounding communities as a whole. The basic principles are: earnings management, misstatements of financial statements, incomplete disclosure of sensitive information, the cost benefits, accountability to users of financial statements. The purpose of this study is there a difference between student perceptions of upper level and lower levels of ethical preparation ofthe basic principles of financial reporting. The population in this study is of 200 accounting students. Questionnaires were randomly distributed both students under the semester and students over the semester, with details of 126 accounting students and 74 semesters for students under the semester. This research is a study that is behavioral (behavior and perception) hence the data to be used in this study is the primary
Science and technology was developing today and change all aspects of life, especially education. Indonesian government is developing the curriculum of 2013 based on scientific to resolve thus change. One ofthe aim of Indonesia national education is to develop the potential ofstudents to be creative (Permendikbud number 20 years 2016). Thus curriculum suggests that learning in schools should develop students’ creative potential. This is supported by Warli (2005) which states that learning can be said to be good if the learning not only accepts, gathers, and memorizes some information, but also able to improve the ability to think and act creatively. Such that, it can be realized by improving creative thinking ofstudents in learning.
According to Caswell and Campbell (1935), “curriculum is defined as composed of all the experiences children have under the guidance ofthe teachers.... Thus, curriculum is considered as a field of study represents no strictly limited body of content, but rather a processor procedure (p. 66, 70). The definition is strengthened by Applebee (1974), “experience is the best of all schools.... the ideal curriculum consists of well-selected materials” (p. 119). The English teachers are responsible to handle thestudents using the designed experiences. Therefore, they have the right to create the curriculum to thestudents. The set experiences should be suitable to the needs ofthestudents to achieve the goal of study.
Ace Kids was initially established in Jakarta in 1998 by Dra. Leonny Siswanti Tanama with its slogan “Ace Kids start with the end in mind”. A few years after that, precisely on April 1 st 2002, a branch in Bandung at Jl. Pajajaran 87 was opened. Moreover, on May 1 st 2006 the second branch, which is located in Kopo, was opened. At present, there are 85 students in the class with 8 teachers and 2 receptionists. Ace Kids, as an educational institution, is an English course which teaches the theory of English and the four English skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. During the apprenticeship, I work three days a week based on the working (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday) for a month. My work schedule is as follows:
Pasien paska stroke dapat mengalami berbagai gejala sisa sehingga dibutuhkan perawatan dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Kondisi tersebut dapat menjadi penghambat dan sumber stress bagi pasien paska stroke. Stres dan depresi dapat menjadi penghambat dan memperberat kondisi pasien. Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi kecemasan dan depresi pasien sehingga dapat berbeda-beda di berbagai tempat. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi kecemasan dan depresi di Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin Bandung sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan dasar dalam memberikan asuhan keperawatan yang sesuai dengan kondisi pasien. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif terhadap pasien paska stroke yang kontrol ke poliklinik saraf RS. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Teknik sample yang digunakan adalah konsekutive sampling dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 50 orang. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). HADS memiliki kelebihan yaitu dapat mengukur kecemasan dan depresi dalam waktu yang sama. Data yang terkumpul akan dianalisa dengan distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa 74% pasien paska stroke berada dalam kondisi kecemasan normal, 24% mengalami kecemasan ringan, 2% kecemasan sedang dan tidak ada yang mengalami kecemasan berat. Responden berada pada kondisi depresi ringan 8%, 92 % berada dalam kategori normal dan tidak ada satupun yang mengalami depresi sedang maupun berat. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik sebagian besar responden yang berusia pada tahapan dewasa madya, memiliki status menikah, dan tidak memiliki penyakit penyerta apapun. Kecemasan dan depresi sebagian besar pasien paska stroke berada dalam kondisi normal namun ada beberapa yang mengalami kecemasan dan depresi. Tenaga kesehatan khususnya perawat diharapkan dapat mengkaji dan memberikan intervensi terhadap kecemasan dan depresi sedini mungkin dengan memberikan konseling sebagai program tambahan dalam rehabilitasi.
Dilihat dari hasil penelitian, mengenai trait anxiety yang dialami orangtua menunjukkan hasil bahwa sebagian besar responden tidak memiliki kecemasan bawaan atau kecenderungan untuk merasa cemas yang tinggi atau dapat juga dikatakan sebagian besar responden ini memiliki sifat pencemas yang ringan. Jika individu pada umumnya mudah terstimulus untuk merasa cemas maka dipastikan pada situasi yang menegangkan seperti situasi ketika anak akan dioperasi, hal tersebut akan menyebabkan state anxiety berat. Kemudian individu yang memiliki trait anxiety berat akan cenderung lebih pencemas dibandingkan individu yang memiliki trait anxiety ringan. Jika state anxiety berat dan trait anxiety ringan maka kecemasan tersebut bisa dipengaruhi oleh situasi dan kondisi pada saat itu sehingga dapat menyebabkan state anxiety berat walaupun trait anxiety yang dimiliki seseorang ringan.