Although persons withdisabilities have limited physical and psychic abilities, they are expected to organize themselves to execute the functions of daily life. This capability is ideal formed from childhood and takes the role of parents (family) and school. Education of childrenwithdisabilities is the responsibility of the school and takes the role of parents or family. Poorly of family functioning will have an impact on the incidence of academic, personal, and social relations. The purpose of this study is to identify family functioning in familieswithdisabilitieschildren. Participants are taken from around 31 parents of childrenwithdisabilities in YPAC Malang. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. Results of descriptive statistics showed that most of the family functioning in average category (61.3%) and low category (38.7%). Families can fulfill their role as parents (83.9%), can solve existing problems in the family (35.5%) and communicating with family members (51.6%). Aspects of family functioning particularly affective responsiveness, affective involvement, behavior control, and general functioning are in the low category. Theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. Keywords: Family functioning, familieswithdisabilitieschildren
In my own discussions with two groups of siblings (with eight siblings in each group, carried out to compare group responses with individual ones), the views expressed by Sarah, aged 12, were fairly typical. She explained that when she was out with her family and her brother, Matthew aged 8, he would sometimes shout and sit on the pavement and not move; Sarah would move away and pretend she was not with him, waiting for him to calm down. Sarah helped clarify the issue by saying that when she went shopping with her family, including Matthew, other people would stare, as if in disbelief, at his odd behaviour. This had the effect of making the family feel they were somehow irresponsible for allowing their son to behave in a socially unacceptable way. The reality is that Matthew’s behaviour is acceptable to the family and Matthew would not understand that his behaviour is other than ordinary. Embarrassment seemed to be a reaction to events out of the ordinary, as when another child recalled, ‘my brother ran into my class at school in just his underwear’. Perhaps the sense of embarrassment is simply related to unpredictable behaviour, whether by the sibling themselves, or on the part of the public. It seems that a socially conditioned response by the family would be to stop going out, and that would exclude any opportunity for a ‘normal’ family life through self-imposed isolation: it should not be a choice anyone should have to make, although it will take a major re-education of the public to gain a greater acceptance of familieswith disabled children.
Having child with disability is a major event that negatively affects families, and force families to re-evaluate its plans, goals, and relationships in light of restrictions and limitations associated with child’s disability, and resultant stresses in parents, and their efficiency in coping with these stresses. During re-evaluation process, families tend to utilize available support resources, or look for alternative ones, as an attempt to adopt strategies to regain equilibrium between family’s resources and disability demands to cope with stresses associated with the child’s disability (Woodman, & Hauser, 2013). Knowing nature and levels of stresses faced by families of childrenwithdisabilities and efficiency of coping strategies they use, are crucial issues in family counseling programs, and should be main pillar in training programs for those parents, as they are more likely to face the developmental deficiencies and challenges in child with disability, (Glidden, 2012, pp 314).
Culture has a very strong impact upon people’s understanding of disabilities and the usage of outside support. The term for disability in Chinese is ts’anchang or ts’anfei which means disabled, with obstacle or useless. A person with disability normally will be associated with helplessness or hopelessness. The birth of a child with physical or intellectual disability is perceived as evidence of a parent’s bad karma from the past, or a curse from ancestors. Traditional Chinese mothers who gave birth to a child with disability have been reported to blame themselves for violating cultural taboo, for examples using sharp instruments, visiting cemetery, or eating the wrong kind of food (Ow, Tan, & Goh, 2004). Families often kept it a family secret as a way of coping withdisabilities of their children. Therefore, they may have avoided seeking help outside the family. Similarly, Tsao (1999) stated that in the Chinese tradition a disability was believed to be a punishment for the disabled person’s parental or past life sins.
At this point in time, a paucity of research related to family environment means that there are many more questions than answers. Thus, the aims of the current exploratory study were three-fold. First, we set out to examine mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their family environment in our sample of families of childrenwith various developmental disabilities, relative to families in the normative samples (both typical and distressed). Second, we examined the family environment profiles (using the 10 subscales of the FES) of mothers and fathers within our sample, in relation to the child's age, severity of DD, and specific type of DD (across five groups). Third, we explored the concept of "family harmony" and the degree to which the parent's gender, age of the child, severity of DD, and specific type of DD would impact on parental perception of family harmony. We anticipated that families in our sample would resemble healthy families more than distressed families and that mothers and fathers would not differ substantially. In addition, we expected that greater family harmony would be reported by parents of younger children and childrenwith milder disorders. Given that ambiguity is stressful and that family harmony is negatively correlated with parental distress, we hypothesized that lower levels of family harmony would be reported by parents whose children have developmental disabilitieswith a more ambiguous etiology.
The majority of deaf children learn and apply hand signal at school. School is an agent of education besides the family that helps children define the environment around them. Children who did not attend general school continued to live in unchanging and relatively unstimulating environments (Tomlinson-Keasey, 1985). Sometimes parents feel ashamed when they have deaf children and force their children to attend school with hearing children. This causes the deaf children to use different hand signal because they have acquired more spoken language. Deaf children who are educated in inclusive schools learn hand signals and pictures for visualization, but they are educated also in spoken language (Hattyar, 2008). Some schools emphasize the use of spoken language for deaf students to facilitate communication with hearing people.
Design analytical research using cross sectional approach to the entire population of toddlers aged 1-3 years in as many as 93 villages Kedungrejo toddlers. The total sample of 74 respondents, non-probability sampling technique sampling with purposive sampling. Data processing using editing, coding, scoring and tabulating and analyzing the test of independent sample t test.
The CRC strongly emphasizes the primacy and importance of the role, authority and responsibility of the child’s family. It affirms the child’s right not only to the language and culture of the family, but also to have that language and culture respected. The Convention also encourages the state to support families are not able to provide an adequate standard of living for their children. The CRC defines a child as anyone below the age of eighteen and affirms the child as fully possessed of human rights. It contains 54 articles of children’s rights that can be divided into three general categories, sometimes known as the ‘three Ps’ (Provision, Protection, and Participation). The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is an internationally recognized agreement between nations which establishes a comprehensive set of goals for individual nations to achieve on behalf of their children. In general, the Convention calls for: (1) freedom from violence, abuse, hazardous employment, exploitation, abduction or sale, (2) Adequate nutrition, (3) free compulsory primary education, (4) adequate health care, (5) equal treatment regardless of gender, race, or cultural background, (6) the right to express opinions and freedom of though in matters affecting them, and (7) safe
out how family life there has altered in the past 40 years and how such change varies between different social and ethnic groups. Key findings• Fewer people marry or cohabit now compared with 1960, fewer have children and more remain unpartnered. As a result, the proportion of their lives spent by people in nuclear family households has declined.• The classic extended family consisting of three generations living under the same roof, already rare in 1960, is now all but extinct. Almost the only group where such households remain is amongst the ethnic minority population, particularly Bengalis, the largest ethnic minority in the city. • As in 1960, the extended family continues to exist in a dispersed form. Contact between households and generations remains high with contact between mothers and daughters being the highest. This relationship remains crucial for the functioning of family groups despite the fact that women’s employment has increased and the time available for domestic tasks has decreased. • In the case of brothers and sisters, however, there has been a marked decline both in living nearby and in contact. This, of course, affects potential extended family groupings and weakens the sense of people in an area being ‘kith and kin’. • Support and contact are key to who is counted as ‘family’. Kin can lose the status of family members if they do not provide support and there is little contact. Bythe same token, friends can become ‘family’ and distant relatives become ‘close’ if they are seen often and help each other out. • And heterosexual partnerships are no longer necessarily based on a male breadwinner - in 30 per cent of cases, women’s work status is higher than their partners’. Variation in family forms • In the relatively affluent, middle-class area, families were usually a heterosexual couple where the man was the main provider and the woman the main carer.
As stated in the introduction to the research, there are different and sometimes controversial views on the impact of preschool experience. In general, the results of this study are consistent with the idea of Alcaniand et al. (1991, cited by Lerrancius, 1996), which should not detract from children and only because the pre-school experience has a positive effect on their growth. These centers sent. However, the results of a research can not be questioned by the preschool educational system, but it is necessary to draw conclusions based on detailed research (which is of a scientific methodology and, more importantly, to come out of a definite theory). Then, on the basis of the repetition of these studies, he developed appropriate guidelines or revised educational content.
Of the 40 children referred for the study, two were unable to complete testing due to anticipation anxiety related to the laboratory protocol. Thus, the sample size was 38, with 11 AS and 27 HFA participants. Demographic characteristics of the participants’ socioeconomic status (SES; defined as mother’s education) indicated > 80% were Caucasian and > 70% had a high school degree. The average participant age was 8.8 for HFA and 9.5 for AS. Both samples had a majority of males (93 and 73%, respectively). Demographic comparisons of HFA and AS groups were calculated with t-tests and chi square statistics. Differences were not significant on any demographic variable except non-verbal intelligence quotient, where the AS group was significantly higher (mean AS = 117, HFA = 93). Seventeen participants were on one or more medications, i.e., seven on two medications, one on three medications. The most common medications were: Ritalin (4) and Zoloft (5). Other medications taken by the 17 participants in the medication group included: Celexa, Clonidine, Depakote, Rispirdone, Concerta, Prozac, Adderall, Tegretol, Luvox, Tenex and Effexor.
Awareness of responsibility for the social environment will be arisen when a person has a good understanding of current conditions. A good understanding of the condition of other people, environment, society, and of the nation was formed and enhanced by information received either directly or indirectly. The information that is able to set a proper understanding is the kind of information that is complete and verifiable truth. Obtained information directly shapes individual's understanding. This is because when a person directly contacts or engages with the source of information, he will obtain a complete data and can feel the direct and real situation that is happening. To process the information that has been received into a deep understanding require media called education, this is as Martin Luther King Jr. says, "The function of education is to teach one to think intensely and to think critically." Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true education"
We’ve just started a new reading activity called Word Family Cards. There are thirty-seven word cards. Each card has words from a different word family. Children have to practice reading the word cards at school. When they are ready to read the words without errors, they read to the teacher. If they read the words successfully, they are checked off on that word family. When children read these Word Family Cards they are reading over five hundred words! Reading word families helps children to read and spell successfully.
Somayeh G., Mirshah S.Y., Mostafa., SY., & Azizollah,A. (2013)., Investigating the Effect of Positive Discipline on the Learning Process and its Achieving Strategies with Focusing on the Students' Abilities. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences May 2013, Vol. 3, No. 5 ISSN: 2222-6990
From Figure 11 can be explained that the RTM sources of information about the importance of education is the most important of Teachers (50%). Second, is from TV (22%). Third, is from the Village officials (16%). Fourth, is from Religious Leaders (Kyai) (11%). The last is from the radio or other public media. For RTM, seemingly dependence on the teacher as an information center of education is still very strong. This is reasonable because the poor are generally less educated, so that trust in the teacher as an educational center is very large. Thus, if a common thread drawn from backwardness condition RTM level of education for children is because of limited information about higher education and the ineffectiveness of local financial institutions in social to motivate them to understand the importance of higher education.