5. Establishing Local Credit Security In order to make BPD willing to allocate credit and avoid of being worried of credit loss, monetary authority and regional govern- ment naturally should think of establishing local credit security institution (LPKL). Credit security is a supplement of a credit system and could be functioned as pawn substitute, although cassie is still creditor task. It is expected that LPKL could maintain financing sustainability from regional banking sector to real sector in the local region. Particularly the presence of LPKL will help BPD to facilitate in accessing credit for small and medium enterprises (UKM) come out to have good business prospect in line with bank evaluation on banking credit but not bankable (having problem of pawn which do not meet the requirements).
We evaluated the financialsystemstability index to capture an episode of global financial crisis year 2007-2008 that began with high-risk subprime loans. The impact of the banking sector implied the broader meaning is more than just a systemic crisis. To estimate the effect of external and internal shock toward the financialsystemstability we use the GARCH regression method (1.1) in equation (7). Here, the index of the stability of the financialsystem is used as the dependent variable. Generally the results were taken from three regression models. External factors such as US economic growth (GDPUS) and economic growth of ASEAN countries (GDPSE) except Indonesia had a positive effect of 0.79. Thus, both indicators simultaneously as external independent variables can cause
This study aims to investigate the integration of capital market of Indonesia and America as a result of the global financial crisis. Indonesian capital market is represented by the Composite Stock Price Index, while the American stock market is represented by the S & P500. In addition to the influence of foreign capital market condition (S & P500) as the external factor of country’s economy, the Indonesian capital market is influenced by economic conditions in the country, including the exchange rate and foreign transaction (net foreign flow). External and internal factors can affect the stability of the financialsystem of a country. To find the integration of world capital markets and Indonesian financialsystemstability due to the global financial crisis, this study was conducted in two periods, they are the period of global financial crisis (July 2007-December 2010) and the period after global financial crisis (January 2011- December 2013).
2. The need to establish new institutional arrangement, including clear responsibilities within FinancialSystemStability Coordination Forum (FKSSK), an enhanced coordination in normal and crisis period among related parties, and establishing a division on islamic macro and micro prudential
Dalam menjelaskan stabilitas keuangan di negara Ceko, Geršl dan Heřmánek menggunakan indikator yang berkaitan dengan kesehatan perbankan karena stabilitas keuangan erat hubungannya dengan perbankan. Maka digunakan FSI ( Financial Soundness Indicator ) yang diprakarsai oleh IMF agar tingkat kesehatan perbankan tersebut mempunyai standarisasi dan dapat dibandingkan antar negara. Indeks FSI ini dibagi menjadi 2 grup yang terdiri dari 39 indikator, grup pertama terdiri dari indikator utama ( core ) yang berhubungan pada sektor perbankan (12 indikator). Sisa 27 indikator lainnya termasuk ke dalam grup ke 2 yang terdiri dari beberapa indikator perbankan, institusi keuangan, non-keuangan, rumah tangga, pasar finansial,dan harga aset (appendix 1). Indikator - indikator keuangan dan non-keuangan dalam FSI juga merefleksikan hubungan antara industri keuangan dan riil.
In a period of four decades, various methods have been applied to design the PSS in order to improve performance of the overall system. Most of the PSS is used in the electric power system was developed based on the classical linear control theory . Linear control theory refers to a linear model of the power system configuration is fixed. In other words, PSS with fixed parameters are often called conventional PSS able to function at its optimum for a particular operating condition and are not effective for the operating conditions change drastically . PSS is widely used conventional power companies because simple in structure, flexibility, and easy to implement. However performance of PSS can decrease with changes in the operating conditions of electrical power systems. Because the electric power system is highly nonlinear, conventional PSS with fixed parameters could not cope with the changes to the operating conditions of electrical power systems. To overcome this there are two main approaches to stabilize the power system over a range of operating conditions, i.e. adaptive control approach and robust . Adaptive control is based on the idea that it is continually renew the controlling parameter corresponding current measurement. However, adaptive control usually performance bad experience during the learning process, unless obtained really fit. Successful operation of adaptive controllers requires a reliable measurement and lasted continuously to get the desired results, if not then the control parameter settings will fail . Sturdy controller will provide an effective approach despite the electrical system operating conditions vary greatly. Performance perfect on sturdy controllers will be able to overcome uncertainty obtained when control parameters. However, in order to achieve the necessary conditions and relatively high cost .
membentuk empat sub-indeks. Ada dua puluh indikator ekonomi yang digunakan dalam membangun indeks agregat yang terlebih dahulu dikelompokan ke dalam masing-masing sun-indeks. Sub-indeks yang pertama adalah Financial Development Index (FDI) yang berfungsi untuk mengamati perkembangan keuangan. Sub-indeks selanjutnya adalah Financial Vulnerability Index (FVI) yang berfungsi untuk memberikan gambaran seberapa rentan kondisi sebuah sistem keuangan. Kemudian sub-indeks berikutnya adalah Financial Soundness Index (FSI) yang menggambarkan kondisi kesehatan kelembagaan dalam sistem keuangan dalam hal ini sektor perbankan. Sub-indeks yang terakhir adalah World Economic Climate Index (WECI) yang berfungsi untuk memberikan gambaran iklim perekonomian global. Keempat sub-indeks tersebut kemudian diagregasi untuk membentuk sebuah indeks agregat yaitu Aggregate FinancialStability Index (AFSI) yang berfungsi memberikan gambaran kondisi stabilitas sistem keuangan. Validasi indeks dilakukan dengan analisis ekonometrika mengunakan model koreksi kesalahan (Error Correction Model = ECM) dengan meregresikan AFSI terhadap beberapa indikator makroekonomi yang bertujuan untuk menguji seberapa baik indeks tersebut dapat menjelaskan kondisi satablitas sistem keuangan dan melihat pengaruh beberapa indikator makroekonomi terhadap stabilitas sistem keuangan. Indeks agregat tersebut diharapkan mampu memberikan gambaran dalam menganalisis perkembangan kondisi stabilitas sistem keuangan dan ancaman krisis finansial serta menganalisis mana indikator ekonomi yang paling berpengaruh terhadapa stabilitas sistem keuangan, dengan demikian dapat dilakukan tindakan pencegahan terhadap krisis dan stabilitas sistem keuangan dapat terjaga.
Financial literacy level and financial inclusion in cities are certainly better and higher than in rural areas. However, inequality in cities is high. It is a proof that strengthened the arguments of research result which there was a positive relationship between financial inclusion and income inequality although the income inequality had negative influence and significant on its inequality. it means that financial inclusion program can be used to decrease inequality but it has not been able to be state success when this research conducted. In other words, financial inclusion program can encourage economic growth in various sectors especially in service and manufacturing industires. However, economic growth is not qualified and only supported by few individual or groups, so it has not succeeded in reducing discrepancy. Altough there is a downward trend, it is still high.
A survey by KPMG Malaysia, that fraudsters in 2013 increased to 50% previously 34%, the largest number of fraudsters came from employees These employees were found to be among people who were not included in the company system. The second category of fraudsters were the customer, followed by management, each category representing 18%, the other fraudsters identified were service providers (8%) and suppliers (6%). Furthermore, the report also highlights that the theft of outbound funds was the highest reported fraud category by 67% in 2013 compared to a 57% survey in 2009. Second place, theft of physical assets by 58%, followed by the theft of incoming funds by 34%. In individuals, the most common types of fraud were cash theft and cash receipts (26%), followed by fake invoices (16%) and inventory thefts (13%) (KPMG Malaysia, 2013).
Many types of advanced brake had been created in 20 th century. As the developing in automotive and trucking industries, brake systems improved. Early automobiles had band brake which were then followed by drum brakes, both were applied mechanically through linkage. In the 1920’s – 1940’s, hydraulic systems were a major improvement and the hydraulic system is work when the force is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using fluid that unable being compress. The Figure 1.3 illustrated the simple structure of hydraulic brake system.
Financial intermediaries play the basic role of transforming financial assets that are less desirable for a large part of the public into other financial assets – their own liabilities – which are more widely preferred by the public. This transformation involves at least one of four economic functions:
Pujaselera is a kind of restaurant which is located in front of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. It is a kind of restaurant which is based on multi stand system. This restaurant contains some stands which sell some different foods. In maintaining the restaurant, the manager of Pujaselera Resrtaurant still uses paper-based system. One of the main problems of this system occurs at chashier and calculate the income which will be devided. If it uses paper-based, so that it will take long time. Finance system is intended to facilitate and to solve in increasing the serving to the customer and the seller. It is also intended to make the report of Pujaselera restaurant becoming more clearly. The program of finance system is done by using application Lazarus and data base that is used MySql.while Fortes Report is used to make a report. In this research, it has been built a system of finance management in Pujaselera restaurant which makes the process of entering the sale data by using desktop application becoming more accurately .
Tekanan eksternal (External Pressure) merupakan tekanan yang berlebihan bagi manajemen untuk memenuhi persyaratan atau harapan dari pihak ketiga. Tekanan eksternal diproksi dengan menggunakan leverage ratio, yaitu rasio antara total hutang dan total aset. Dimana kondisi financial leverage suatu perusahaan menjadi tekanan bagi pihak manajemen, ketika perusahaan memiliki rasio leverage yang besar maka direksi dan manajemen perusahaan akan memilih untuk menggunakan metode akuntansi yang akan mengecilkan rasio leverage perusahaan dengan cara menggeser laba periode mendatang ke periode saat ini (Watts dan Zimmerman, 1986) dalam Ansar (2011). Beberapa studi yang dilakukan oleh Fimanaya dan Syafruddin (2014), Rachmawati dan Marsono (2014), Martantya dan Daljono (2013), dan Ansar (2011) menyimpulkan bahwa tekanan eksternal tidak berpengaruh terhadap kecurangan pelaporan keuangan. Sedangkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Sihombing dan Rahardjo (2014), dan Kurniawati dan Raharja (2012) menyatakan pendapat sebaliknya bahwa tekanan eksternal dalam proksi leverage ratio berpengaruh terhadap kecurangan laporan keuangan. Dari uraian diatas, maka dirumuskan hipotesis:
The control system of conventional helicopter is complex as compared to the proposed Quadcopter control system. In the proposed design every rotor plays a role in direction control and balance of the Quadcopter as well as lift, unlike the traditional single rotor helicopter designs in which each rotor has a specific task - lift or directional control - but never both .
telkomsigma here to provide solutions branchless banking. Telkomsigma branchless bank- ing applications only require an agent who lived next to the targeted unbanked people. All complex procedure usually applied in bank branch is replaced with an agent system that is very safe. KYC process can obtain and there is no way to keep customer’s document locally. This application is also able to process large transactions, safe and easy to maintain.
The Design and Supervision Consultant (DSC) will be responsible for design of WP-2 and WP-3 civil works and supervision of all civil works. They will have the role of ‘Engineer’ under a FIDIC-type contract. The tasks include the preparation and maintenance of a quality assurance plan, validation and updating of designs, supervision of all civil works, environmental and social monitoring and management, and support for financial and progress monitoring and reporting. The DSC will also be responsible for quality assurance of materials and workmanship, certifying whether or not contractors have achieved the required results, as well as documentation and reporting based on the financial management plan. They will prepare a Quality Assurance system covering all subprojects, and continuously monitor the effectiveness of their supervision procedures. The team will be contracted and managed by DGH through the Bina Marga Regional Office (Balai II), and will be based in Padang, West Sumatera.
Thus, we propose a macro-prudential early warning system, comprising the CNFSI and four leading indicators (Price, Credit, Asset or Investment, and Money) with their thresholds, to monitor the instability of China’s financialsystem. In this early warning system, following Borio and Lowe (2002a), when the deviations of any two of the four indicators from their long run trends exceed their respective thresholds (4% for deposits-to-loans ratio, 6% for growth rates of aggregate loans, 4% for CPI inflation, 5% for housing price index or 4% for real estate property index, and 4% for growth rates of M2), the policymakers and regulators should pay attention to a possible financial stress within 12 months, and if the CNFCI also meet the identification standard of a systemic risk, the relevant alarm signal should be issued and the macro-prudential policy would be implemented to avoid possible financial distress.
In the multi-machine system, a system is said to be dynamically stable if after disturbance (load change) the difference in the angle of the rotor head at a certain finite value. If there is a difference between the generator rotor angles progressively enlarged then the system is unstable. Due to changes in the load on dynamic stability studies are relatively small, the electric power system model used in this study is a model of linear or non-linear models were linearized. Small changes in load on the power system is a matter that could not be avoided and it is always the case. Therefore, it is necessary to design a controller that can maintain the power system remains stable, commonly called Power System Stabilizer (PSS).
Out of the total generation of power, a large part of it is being met by the conventional power sources like thermal, hydro, and nuclear. However, due to some inherent disadvantages like increased environmental impact, decreased water availability and radiation hazards of the conventional power sources more emphasis is being given to tap the non-conventional resources like solar, tidal, geothermal and wind energy in the present time. However, the utilization of these resources which are usually dispersed in nature make the operation of the power system very complex. Therefore, studies like optimal power flow, unit commitment, steady state stability and transient stability of such a complex system need to be addressed and studied. The transient stability being very crucial for the operation of the system has to be studied for a wind interconnected power system. Transient stability entails the evaluation of a power system’s ability to withstand large disturbances and to survive the transition to another operating condition. These disturbances may be faults such as a short circuit on a transmission line, loss of a generator, loss of a load, gain of load or loss of a portion of transmission network .