In order to answer the first question stated in the firstchapter, the researcher employednaturalistic observation and interviews with the English teacher and a group of students. In a naturalistic observation, the researcher observes the class activities to identify how the lesson had been implemented without altering situation in any way. So, during the teaching-learning activities, the teacher’s and students’ behavior will occur naturally. The interviews were employed in order to find out some information about the implementations of the variation of teaching learning activities that was not seen by the researcher during the observation. In interviewing, the researcher interviewed both the English teacher and the students. The purpose was to find out the real situation of English teaching learning activities variation.
It is started with the introduction which becomes the firstchapter. This chapter provides a clear background to the development of Islamism in post-New Order Indonesia, explaining efforts of the Islamists in replacing Pancasila, the philosophical foundation of the country, with Islam. The chapter also deals with the focus of the study, the main theoretical argument, the conceptual framework, the methodological note and the structure of the book.
But the most interesting and stimulating idea of the author seems to be that of adding a huge quantity of exercises, both in the text (at almost every step) as at the end of each chapter (of the first part). I find the exercises very interesting and useful for a good understanding of the notions and a decent master of these notions. New notions are also introduced during these exercises and these notions could give, to the student, a feeling of new things to be studied and, why not, to leave some room for invention. For example, the firstchapter has 97 supplementary exercises, the second chapter 109 etc. There are comments to the exercises showing the intentions of the author and explaining the subject and the reasons of these exercises. At the end of the book there are solutions of some selected exercises. As for the difficulty of the exercises we find very easy ones but also quite difficult with deep inside and far reaching conclusions.
This chapter serves the conclusion of this thesis answering the statement of the problem in the firstchapter and delivers the suggestions to the lecturers who teach speaking classes especially Speaking C course to help students to perform better in the classroom activity and bring better learning outcomes.
This is the firstchapter in a series of two, which are my personal favorites of this book. Here it brings the godfather of all PC 3D shooters to the Android platform—Wolfenstein 3D. Who would have thought that a PC game like this one could be brought to an Android mobile device with minimal effort? This chapter demonstrates how Java and C can coexist harmoniously and includes topics such as the basic game architecture (showing how the Java and C components fit together), resource handlers for sound, music, key and touch events, how to use JNI to cascade graphics information, video buffers, and sound/music requests back to Java, plus compilation and testing.
While I can't claim to know every technique to creating a proper statechart diagram, I do know at least a few important rules that we should follow. I have already mentioned that it's better to avoid concurrent states if possible because of the extra complexity and a similar idea is to start simple and grow as needed. Statecharts are particularly well suited for capturing the generalized states for the application quickly and then iteratively adding more specific substates later. Therefore, the first version of your statechart may only include a loading, unauthenticated, and authenticated state and you could actually safely code those states in your app using SproutCore right away. Later, you will likely add several substates to the diagram and likewise, these new states will drop into your code without any refactoring. However, if you start with very granular states right off the bat, you may find yourself having to pull them out again later as the code is written.
overheads in recursion. Since local variables of the function are pushed into the stack when the function calls another function, by knowing the address of the variable in repetitive recursive call, you will determine how much information is pushed into the stack. For example, the stack could grow from top to bottom, and the local variable j gets the address 100 in the stack in the first column. Suppose stack overheads are 16 bytes; in the next call j will have the address 84, in the call after that it will get the address 16. That is a difference of 16 bytes. The following program uses the same principle: the difference of the address in consecutive calls is the stack overhead.
This is not all. If you speak to the director of a well-organized factory, he will naively explain to you that it is difficult nowadays to find a skilful, vigorous, and energetic workman, who works with a will. “Should such a man present himself among the twenty or thirty who call every Monday asking us for work, he is sure to be received, even if we are reducing the number of our hands. We recognize him at the first glance, and he is always accepted, even though we have to get rid of an older and less active worker the next day.” And the one who has just received notice to quit, and all those who receive it to-morrow, go to reinforce that immense reserve army of capital — workmen out of work — who are only called to the loom or the bencd whcn there is pressure of work, or to oppose strikers. And those others, the average workers that are the refuse of the better- class factories? They join the equally formidable army of aged and indifferent workers that continually circulates between the second-class factories — those which barely cover their expenses and make their way in the world by trickery and snares laid for the buyer, and especially for the consumer in distant countries. And if you talk to the workmen themselves, you will soon learn that the rule in such factories is — never to do entirely what you are capable of. “Shoddy pay — shoddy work!” this is the advice which the working man receives from his comrades upon entering such a factory.
You’ll now be presented with an extensive list of different locales to choose from (see Figure 1-20). The first two letters in the name specify the language while the second pair of letters specifies a regional difference. For example, en_US would be English customized for US users but en_GB would have settings specific to English speakers in the UK. You should select the language and country pairs that most closely match your needs and choose them by pressing the spacebar. You probably want both the ISO-8859 and the UTF-8 versions. If you decide to hedge your bets and select all locales, be warned that you will be in for quite a wait as the Pi generates all the locale settings for you. In fact, we tried this option and after waiting ages for just two locales to be generated, we got fed up and pulled the plug. After you select the locales you want, press the Tab key once to highlight the OK button and then press Enter to move to the next screen. Here you’ll need to pick the locale you want to use by default (see Figure 1-21). Once you have made your choice, highlight it and press Enter. Once again, we’re back at the main configuration page.
Everything has been explained in the project background including the what the project is all about. Other than that, in this chapter are explaining about objectives, the scope, project significance, problem statements and expected output.
Sonny in the first part of this chapter is characterized as a not brave boy. Sonny in that subchapter actually wants to show that he really scared to face something new, not to show that he really a scared boy who afraid in getting lost in a new place. He is afraid of the something new when he faces new way. He is crying when he gets lost in the street. His crying here wants to show how scared he is when he faces new way. It is same with Naipaul in his adolescent life, he is afraid of the something new. He is afraid that new way will result failure. It is same with the narrator named Sonny in the Miguel Street that he is afraid when he gets lost. He thinks that every place is different, different in every aspect. He says that every place is opened in a new way. What he is afraid is the possibility to failed, or not finding anything, or getting started on the chain of accidents. Naipaul here is not a brave boy when he is adolescent. Although he is a wise boy as it is mentioned before above Naipaul is a kind of a boy who afraid to face unknown. He chooses something certain than something new that he think will result failure, although not a hundred percent. “This gave gambler‟s excitement to every arrival.” ( Finding The Centre, P.12) Naipaul does not want to gamble in his
rationally explained. Having said this, however, there are instances where the Qur’an justifies its rulings with a reference to the benefits that accrue from them, or the objectives which they may serve. Such explanations are often designed to make the Qur’an easier to understand. To give an example in the context of encounters between members of the opposite sex, the believers are enjoined in sura al-Nur (24:30) 'to avert their glances and to guard their private parts'. The text then goes on to provide that in doing so they will attain greater chastity of character and conduct. To give another example, in sura al- Hashr (59:7) the Qur'an regulates the distribution of booty among the needy, the orphans and the wayfarers 'so that wealth does not merely circulate among the wealthy'. In the first ayah, averting the glance is justified as it obstructs the means to promiscuity and zina. The ruling in the second ayah is justified as it prevents the accumulation of wealth in a few hands. Whereas the foregoing are instances in which the text explicitly states the 'illah of the injunctions concerned, on numerous other occasions the jurists have identified the 'illah through reasoning and ijtihad. The identification of 'illah in many of the following for example, is based on speculative reasoning on which the ulema are not unanimous: that arrival of the specified time is the cause (sabab or 'illah) of the prayer, that the month of Ramadan is the cause fasting, that the existence of the Ka'bah is the cause of hajj; that owning property is the cause of zakat, that theft is the cause of amputation of the hand, that traveling is the cause of shortening the prayer and that intentional killing is the cause of retaliation. These and other similar conclusions with regard to the assignment of 'illah have been drawn in the light of supportive evidence in the Qur’an and Sunnah, but even so many of them are disputed by the ulema. These examples will in the meantime serve to show the difference between the literal/logical meaning of "illah' and its juridical usage among the ulema of jurisprudence. [Cf. Ahmad Hasan, 'Rationality', p. 104.]