Gari flour is the product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) which is processed into powder form through a process of fermentation. Gari flour when used as a bread maker will produce bread with a longer shelf life than bread from wheat flour.This study aims to see the effect of substitution of gari flour in bread making. Substitution was done in five levels of sustitutions, ie 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 % of the total weight of the flour. Each treatment was repeated five times. Observation and analysis of gari flour includes moisture content, pH and total acids.While the bread product was observed in eight characteristics namely levels of development, porosity, specific volume, softness index, pH, total acid, moisture content and the shelf life, and also organoleptic tests of skin color, flesh color, texture, aroma and taste using a hedonic test. Gari floursubstitution decreases physical and organoleptic properties of the obtained bread. Substitution up to the level of 10 % does not give a real difference to the pH, taste and aroma.Substitution of 20 % does not give a real difference to the density, specific volume, expansion rate and porosity.Gari floursubstitution of 40 % gives a longer shelf life, but the bread has the properties that no longer meet the quality requirements.
Increased concentrations of purple sweet potato floursubstitution will increase the hardness and reduce the springiness of steamed bread. Purple sweet potato floursubstitution will lower the gluten content of the dough. Gluten is a component that has viscoelastic properties when mixed with water and make the product texture becomes not hard (Wang et al., 2007).
Gelatinization behavior of breadfruit flour in an aqueous system was studied in the presence or absence of various concentrations of guar gum and konjac glucomannan in order to clarify the difference in function of each non-starch polysaccharides to starch/flour. Pasting curves of breadfruit flour in non-starch polysaccharides solution were produced with a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Non-starch polysaccharides produced a variety effects on viscosities of flour during starch pasting. An increase in peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosity were detected for breadfruit flour in the presence of non-starch polysaccharides. Higher concentration of non-starch polysaccharides gave higher viscosity, while guar gum gave higher viscosity compared to konjac glucomannan. This pasting behavior was also related to other gelatinization characteristics such as swelling volume and solubility of starch. It was found that swelling volume has a positive correlation with viscosity of starch solution.
Banana flour is one of the outcomes of alternative raw material for making steamed bread. In this study steamed bread making is focused on the application of steam frozen bread manufacture. Frozen steam bread is the best alternative for making steamed bread to be more easily distributed. This is because the seller or the consumer can steamed easily if consumed. But the steam frozen bread has a weakness in the end product results, so necessary to study methods of making frozen dough with steaming time and the addition of guar gum concentration before freezing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of banana floursubstitution, guar gum addition, and freezing storage by physical and sensory characteristics on steamed bread products, in order to obtain the best formulation. The preliminary test measurements of texture, volume expansion, and the color to know the best of guar gum concentration, also the porosity images to determine the steaming time before freezing. The concentration of guar gum used was 0,5% and 1%, and the steaming time used was 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes on steamed breads with 30% banana floursubstitution. Then the main test of steamed banana bread be tested by physically, and sensory measurements. Physical testing are tested about texture measurement by texture analyzer, color measurement steamed bread with chromameter, seed displacement method for steamed bread volume, and quality of porosity using a scanner. Sensory testing are tested with hedonic ranking test to get the best steamed bread formulation acceptable to consumers. Based on this research, it is known that an increase in banana floursubstitution will increase the hardness, but will reduce the springiness and volume of steamed bread. Banana floursubstitution will also increase and decrease the red color and the brightness of the yellow color of steamed bread products. The addition of 0.5% guar gum will reduce hardness, but tends to increase the springiness before the freezing and degraded after the freezing process. Steamed breads panelist is the most preferred substitution steamed bread with banana flour by 15% with the addition of guar gum.
Figure 1. Tensile strength of wet noodles substituted with fennel flour. In Figure 1, there is a difference in the value of tensile strength in wet noodles substituted 2.5% fennel flour, while fennel floursubstitution 0%, 5%, and 7.5% are not significantly different. This is related to the decreasing proportion of gluten in wet noodles. Gluten is a protein in wheat flour which is used to form polymers that affect the quality of product (Rauf, 2015). Mirsaeedghazi et al. (2008) suggested that the tensile strength is associated with the presence of gluten proteins present in wheat flour. The protein matrix is formed from non-covalent crosslinks and the disulphide-bond then provides resistance to tensile forces.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the substitution of local whole-wheat flour (variety of DWR-162) on the nutrition value, the starch digestibility, amylose, resistant starch, and glycemic index of biscuit. All these parameters were analysed by Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisted of 6 treatments, which were the levels of whole-wheat floursubstitution 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%, and 4 replications. The significant differences among means of each treatment were analysed using Honest Significant Difference test (HSDt) with a level of significance of 5%. The nutrition value, including the contents of moisture (gravimetric method), ash (gravimetric method), total fat (gravimetric method using Soxhlet), crude fiber (AOAC), total carbohydrate (spectrophotometric method using Anthrone reagent), and soluble protein (spectrophotometric method using Biuret reagent), was compared to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 01-2973-1992 about quality of and how to test the quality of biscuit. The starch digestibility and resistant starch content were enzymatically determined, and the amylose content was determined by spectrophotometric method using iod reagent. While the determination of glycemic index of the most liked biscuit based on the organoleptic test was done by using incremental area under the blood glucose responses curve (IAUC).
Analisis pengetahuan tentang “Flour” terkait pengertian tepung terigu, jenis-jenis tepung terigu, fungsi tepung terigu, dan cara penyimpanan tepung terigu untuk kesiapan praktek pastry berada pada kriteria cukup, akan tetapi masih ada beberapa pengetahuan yang berada pada kriteria kurang dan sangat kurang. Pengetahuan yang kurang dan sangat kurang tersebut terkait materi-materi tentang karakteristik warna tepung terigu, sifat hard flour dalam pembuatan produk pastry, alasan pemberian banyak air untuk membentuk adonan kalis pada hard flour, alasan medium flour disebut sebagai all-purpose flour, persentase kandungan protein pada soft flour, sifat soft flour dalam pembuatan produk pastry, pengertian gluten, fungsi tepung terigu pada produk pastry, kandungan tepung terigu yang berfungsi membentuk kerangka roti, dan kandungan tepung terigu yang berfungsi membentuk corak remah (crumb) cake.
“Cohesion and Coherence in the Descriptive and Narrative Writing of Hearing- Impaired Students”. She found out the quality of either its text or its sentences. In other words, she wanted to know whether descriptive and narrative writing produced by 26 hearing-impaired students are cohesive and coherence or not. In this study, she applied the theory of cohesion by M.A.K. Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan. Its divide two main parts, grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. In terms of grammatical cohesion, it is divided into reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction, while in terms of lexical cohesion; its divided into reiteration and collocation. The result of her research about the grammatical cohesive devices was very rarely used in both kinds of writing, except reference. Meanwhile, the use of lexical cohesive devices, repetition-including the repetition of names and noun-was used very frequently in both types of writing.
Koreksi pemerintah dalam pengelolaan pengadaan tepung terigu nasional kali dilakukan melalui penerapan kebijakan persaingan usaha. Dimana pemerintah menghapus monopoli Bulog dalam pengadaan gandum dan tepung terigu. Deregulasi sektor pangan ditetapkan melalui Keppres RI No. 19 Tahun 1998. Selama rezim Orde Baru berkuasa, pasokan tepung terigu domonopoli oleh Bogasari Flour Mills, dengan Bulog sebagai importer tunggalnya. Sementara di era reformasi semua pihak boleh mengimpor gandum dan tepung terigu secara bebas, tanpa harus meminta izin ke Bulog.
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of substitution glutinous rice flour with Bogor tuber taroflour towards the best substitution improving the quality of end products which included physical quality (texture) and chemical qualities (fat, total sugar and reducing sugar) of milk sweetpastry. The materials used were fresh milk as the main ingredient, sugar, glutinous rice flour and Bogor tuber taroflour. The research method used was laboratory experiment with completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications. Substitution treatment in the form of glutinous rice flour with Bogor tuber taroflour given on milk sweet pastry products covering P0 (100% glutinous rice flour and without Bogor tuber taroflour); P1 (75% glutinous rice flour and 25% Bogor tuber taro flour); P2 (50% glutinous rice flour and 50% Bogor tuber taro flour); P3 (25% glutinous rice flour and 75% Bogor taro tuber flour); P4 (without glutinous rice flour and 100% Bogor taro tuber flour). The results showed that there was highly significant difference effect (p<0.01) the substitution of glutinous rice flour with Bogor tuber taroflour to sugar reduction dodol taro milk with reduced sugar lows on P2 (16.66%), and significantly difference effect (p<0.05) dodol fat content milk with a fat content highs around 13.77% (P4), but did not significantly difference effect the total sugar and texture of milk sweet pastry. Substitution Bogor tuber taro flour 100% produced best quality of milk sweet pastry with texture value 10.12 N, fat content 3.44%, 44.71% total sugar and reducing sugar 5.64%.
Preparation of mocaf consists of three main processes of raw material preparation, fermentation, and flouring. As a raw material, 500 g of cassava was cleaned and shredded, then mixed with 15 mL of inoculum and 500 ml of water. The fermentation process was carried out for 48 hours and pH 4 at 28 °C. Flouring process was performed after the fermented cassava pulp was dried, and then ground into flour passes through 80 mesh sieve. The mocaf was characterized and compared with wheat flour, cassava flour, and tapioca flour, in terms of amylose and amylopectin contents, and mass reduction using TGA measurement.
Based on the result of the research, the substitution of s/z sound to be əs sound in pronouncing third singular verbs and plural nouns between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates are balance. There are two words which are pronounced by substitute s/z sound for both Thai and Indonesian undergraduates. Pronunciation of third singular verbs and plural nouns show that English allows consonant cluster. This type of consonant cluster is difficult to produce for both Thai and Indonesian undergraduates.
60%, 70%, 80%, and 100%. People choose cookies with banana flour concentration 70% by sensory evaluation paired preference test. The quality evaluation consists of texture analysis and color measurement, the hardest are cookies with banana flour concentration 60% and the lowest is cookies with banana flour concentration 100%. The result of color measurement the highest lightness (*L) is cookies with banana flour concentration 60% and the lowest is 100%; highest redness (*a) is cookies with banana flour 100% and the lowest is 60%, and highest